Browsing by Subject "Nitrogen use efficiency"

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  • Guo, Qingxue; Liu, Jiantong; Yu, Lei; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2021)
    Plant-soil microbe interactions are determined by plant characters. Sexual dimorphism in root development, nitrogen (N) assimilation and resource allocation have been studied in different environments. However, how dioecious plants affect soil microbial communities in natural forests, particularly in low precipitation regions, is still poorly known. In this study, natural Populus euphratica forests were investigated in three arid regions. We hypothesized that males and females impose sex-specific impacts on physiochemical traits of soil, microbial communities and N-cycling processes. We discovered only little sex effect on most physiochemical traits, and bacterial and fungal communities in top soil (0-20 cm) in the three studied forests. However, the sex effect was greater in deep soil. Compared with fungi, the structure and composition of bacterial communities were affected more by plant sex in the rhizosphere and bulk soil. Sex indirectly affected N-cycling processes through a negative impact on the soil water content. Expressions of AOA, AOB, nifH, nirS and nirK in the rhizosphere soil were significantly affected by sex, forest site and their interactions. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes in the rhizosphere and bulk soils of P. euphratica males showed more significant effects on ammoxidation, N fixation, denitrification and protease activities when compared to females. The results suggest that sexual differences in shaping bacterial communities and affecting N-cycling processes are greater when the soil becomes drier. Thus, low precipitation causes intense sex differences in the nitrogen uptake and use efficiency. Our study highlights the importance of sexual effects on shaping specific microbial communities and N-cycling processes.
  • Kuoppala, K.; Jaakkola, S.; Garry, B.; Ahvenjarvi, S.; Rinne, M. (2021)
    There is increasing interest in using locally produced protein supplements in dairy cow feeding. The objective of this experiment was to compare rapeseed meal (RSM), faba beans (FBs) and blue lupin seeds (BL) at isonitrogenous amounts as supplements of grass silage and cereal based diets. A control diet (CON) without protein supplement was included in the experiment. Four lactating Nordic Red cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design with four 21 d periods. The milk production increased with protein supplementation but when expressed as energy corrected milk, the response disappeared due to substantially higher milk fat concentration with CON compared to protein supplemented diets. Milk protein output increased by 8.5, 4.4 and 2.7% when RSM, FB and BL were compared to CON. The main changes in rumen fermentation were the higher propionate and lower butyrate proportion of total rumen volatile fatty acids when the protein supplemented diets were compared to CON. Protein supplementation also clearly increased the ruminal ammonia N concentration. Protein supplementation improved diet organic matter and NDF digestibility but efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per kg organic matter truly digested was not affected. Flow of microbial N was greater when FB compared to BL was fed. All protein supplements decreased the efficiency of nitrogen use in milk production. The marginal efficiency (amount of additional feed protein captured in milk protein) was 0.110, 0.062 and 0.045 for RSM, FB and BL, respectively. The current study supports the evidence that RSM is a good protein supplement for dairy cows, and this effect was at least partly mediated by the lower rumen degradability of RSM protein compared to FB and BL. The relatively small production responses to protein supplementation with simultaneous decrease in nitrogen use efficiency in milk production suggest that economic and environmental consequences of protein feeding need to be carefully considered. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Animal Consortium. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Chen, Juan; Liu, Quan; Yu, Lei; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ulo; Li, Chunyang (2021)
    It remains unclear how global climate change affects dioecious plants that may be especially vulnerable to climate drivers, because they often exhibit skewed sex ratios and eco-physiological specialization in certain microhabitats. In this study, female and male saplings of Populus cathayana were employed to explore sex-specific responses and the effects of sexual competition under elevated temperature (ET), elevated CO2 (EC) and combination of elevated temperature and CO2 (ETC). The results demonstrated that elevated temperature and CO2 interactively modulated sexual competition and responses of P. cathayana. Moreover, competition patterns affected the eco-physiological responses of P. cathayana to climate change treatments. Under both intra- and inter-sexual competition, biomass components, photosynthetic parameters and carbon-related metabolites of females were most strongly affected by ET, while males exhibited a higher photosynthesis and resource use efficiency, and a better biomass accumulation and carbon balance mechanism when compared to females when experiencing intra-sexual competition under EC. The competitive pressure of females on males in inter-sexual competition was intensified by ET, while it was alleviated by ETC. We conclude that climate change drivers and competition patterns differently regulate the sex-specific responses and competitive intensity of males and females, which may have a crucial effect on sex ratios, spatial sexual segregation, biomass production and carbon sequestration in dioecious species in the future.