Browsing by Subject "Northern Baltic Sea"

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  • Wood, Steffaney M.; Kremp, Anke; Savela, Henna; Akter, Sultana; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka; Saarni, Saija; Suikkanen, Sanna (Frontiers in Microbiology, 2021)
    Frontiers in Microbiology 12
    Cyanobacteria of the order Nostocales, including Baltic Sea bloom-forming taxa Nodularia spumigena, Aphanizomenon flosaquae, and Dolichospermum spp., produce resting stages, known as akinetes, under unfavorable conditions. These akinetes can persist in the sediment and germinate if favorable conditions return, simultaneously representing past blooms and possibly contributing to future bloom formation. The present study characterized cyanobacterial akinete survival, germination, and potential cyanotoxin production in brackish water sediment archives from coastal and open Gulf of Finland in order to understand recent bloom expansion, akinete persistence, and cyanobacteria life cycles in the northern Baltic Sea. Results showed that cyanobacterial akinetes can persist in and germinate from Northern Baltic Sea sediment up to >40 and >400 years old, at coastal and open-sea locations, respectively. Akinete abundance and viability decreased with age and depth of vertical sediment layers. The detection of potential microcystin and nodularin production from akinetes was minimal and restricted to the surface sediment layers. Phylogenetic analysis of culturable cyanobacteria from the coastal sediment core indicated that most strains likely belonged to the benthic genus Anabaena. Potentially planktonic species of Dolichospermum could only be revived from the near-surface layers of the sediment, corresponding to an estimated age of 1–3 years. Results of germination experiments supported the notion that akinetes do not play an equally significant role in the life cycles of all bloom-forming cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea. Overall, there was minimal congruence between akinete abundance, cyanotoxin concentration, and the presence of cyanotoxin biosynthetic genes in either sediment core. Further research is recommended to accurately detect and quantify akinetes and cyanotoxin genes from brackish water sediment samples in order to further describe species-specific benthic archives of cyanobacteria.
  • Hellemann, Dana; Tallberg, Petra Astrid Sofia; Bartl, Ines; Voss, Maren; Hietanen, Siru Susanna (2017)
    Estuaries are often seen as natural filters of riverine nitrate, but knowledge of this nitrogen sink in oligotrophic systems is limited. We measured spring and summer dinitrogen production (denitrification, anammox) in muddy and non-permeable sandy sediments of an oligotrophic estuary in the northern Baltic Sea, to estimate its function in mitigating the riverine nitrate load. Both sediment types had similar denitrification rates, and no anammox was detected. In spring at high nitrate loading, denitrification was limited by likely low availability of labile organic carbon. In summer, the average denitrification rate was similar to 138 mu mol N m(-2) d(-1). The corresponding estuarine nitrogen removal for August was similar to 1.2 t, of which similar to 93% was removed by coupled nitrification-denitrification. Particulate matter in the estuary was mainly phytoplankton derived (> 70% in surface waters) and likely based on the riverine nitrate which was not removed by direct denitrification due to water column stratification. Subsequently settling particles served as a link be tween the otherwise uncoupled nitrate in surface waters and benthic nitrogen removal. We suggest that the riverine nitrate brought into the oligotrophic estuary during the spring flood is gradually, and with a time delay, removed by benthic denitrification after being temporarily ` trapped' in phytoplankton particulate matter. The oligotrophic system is not likely to face eutrophication from increasing nitrogen loading due to phosphorus limitation. In response, coupled nitrification-denitrification rates are likely to stay constant, which might increase the future export of nitrate to the open sea and decrease the estuary's function as a nitrogen sink relative to the load.
  • Andersson, A.; Brugel, S.; Paczkowska, J.; Rowe, O.F.; Figueroa, D.; Kratzer, S.; Legrand, C. (2018)
    Phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria are key groups at the base of aquatic food webs. In estuaries receiving riverine water with a high content of coloured allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM), phytoplankton primary production may be reduced, while bacterial production is favoured. We tested this hypothesis by performing a field study in a northerly estuary receiving nutrient-poor, ADOM-rich riverine water, and analyzing results using multivariate statistics. Throughout the productive season, and especially during the spring river flush, the production and growth rate of heterotrophic bacteria were stimulated by the riverine inflow of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, primary production and photosynthetic efficiency (i.e. phytoplankton growth rate) were negatively affected by DOC. Primary production related positively to phosphorus, which is the limiting nutrient in the area. In the upper estuary where DOC concentrations were the highest, the heterotrophic bacterial production constituted almost 100% of the basal production (sum of primary and bacterial production) during spring, while during summer the primary and bacterial production were approximately equal. Our study shows that riverine DOC had a strong negative influence on coastal phytoplankton production, likely due to light attenuation. On the other hand DOC showed a positive influence on bacterial production since it represents a supplementary food source. Thus, in boreal regions where climate change will cause increased river inflow to coastal waters, the balance between phytoplankton and bacterial production is likely to be changed, favouring bacteria. The pelagic food web structure and overall productivity will in turn be altered. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.