Browsing by Subject "Norway"

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  • Nyyssönen, Aarne (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1963)
  • Tigerstedt, Christoffer; Agahi, Neda; Bye, Elin; Ekholm, Ola; Härkönen, Janne; Jensen, Heidi Rosendahl; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Mäkelä, Pia; Moan, Inger Synnove; Parikka, Suvi; Raninen, Jonas; Vilkko, Anni; Bloomfield, Kim (2020)
    Aim: The present article summarises status and trends in the 21st century in older people's (60-79 years) drinking behaviour in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden and concludes this thematic issue. Each country provided a detailed report analysing four indicators of alcohol use: the prevalence of alcohol consumers, the prevalence of frequent use, typical amounts of use, and the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking (HED). The specific aim of this article is to compare the results of the country reports. Findings: Older people's drinking became more common first in Denmark in the 1970s and then in the other countries by the 1980s. Since 2000 the picture is mixed. Denmark showed decreases in drinking frequency, typically consumed amounts and HED, while in Sweden upward trends were dominant regarding prevalence of consumers and frequency of drinking as well as HED. Finland and Norway displayed both stable indicators except for drinking frequency and proportion of women consumers where trends increased. In all four countries, the gender gap diminished with regard to prevalence and frequency of drinking, but remained stable in regard to consuming large amounts. In Norway the share of alcohol consumers among women aged 60-69 years exceeded the share among men. During the late 2010s, Denmark had the highest prevalence of alcohol consumers as well as the highest proportion drinking at a higher frequency. Next in ranking was Finland, followed by Sweden and Norway. This overall rank ordering was observed for both men and women. Conclusion: As the populations aged 60 years and older in the Nordic countries continue to grow, explanations for the drivers and consequences of changes in older people's drinking will become an increasingly relevant topic for future research. Importantly, people aged 80 years and older should also be included as an integral part of that research.
  • Lepola, P.; Wang, Siri; Tötterman, A.M.; Gullberg, Ninna; Harboe, Kristine Moll; Kimland, Elin E. (2020)
    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the marketing status of the new paediatric medicinal products listed in the 10-year report as initially authorised between 2007 and 2016, reflecting the product availability in four Nordic countries. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Setting Analysis of the national medicine agency's databases in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Data source New medicinal products with paediatric indications and new paediatric formulations listed in the Annex of European Medicines Agency's EU Paediatric Regulation 10-year report. Data analysis The products were classified according to national marketing status between January 2019 and March 2019, whether a product was authorised and whether the product was marketed. Main outcome measures The percentages of the new medicinal products with paediatric indications and new paediatric formulations having a valid marketing authorisation and being marketed, both in terms of the sums of all countries and separately for each country. Results Across the four countries, 21%-32% (16/76-24/76) of the new medicinal products were not marketed. Of the new formulations relevant to children, 29%-50% (16/56-28/56) were not marketed, and a significant proportion of these products had never been marketed. Conclusions This study reflects the reality of the implementation of the Paediatric Regulation. The results show that several new paediatric medicines and new formulations are not marketed. This affects the product availability. Similar data from other countries are needed to evaluate the overall European status to find remedies to current situation and increase the availability of the medicines for children. ©
  • Brittain, John E.; Heino, Jani; Friberg, Nikolai; Aroviita, Jukka; Kahlert, Maria; Karjalainen, Satu‐Maaria; Keck, François; Lento, Jennifer; Liljaniemi, Petri; Mykrä, Heikki; Schneider, Susanne C.; Ylikörkkö, Jukka (Blackwell Scientific, 2022)
    Freshwater Biology
    1. Arctic freshwaters support biota adapted to the harsh conditions at these latitudes, but the climate is changing rapidly and so are the underlying environmental filters. Currently, we have limited understanding of broad-scale patterns of Arctic riverine biodiversity and the correlates of α- and β-diversity. 2. Using information from a database set up within the scope of the Arctic Council's Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Plan, we analysed patterns and correlates of α- and β-diversity in benthic diatom and macroinvertebrate communities across northern Norway, Sweden, and Finland. We analysed variation in total β-diversity and its replacement and richness difference components in relation to location of the river reach and its drainage basin (Baltic Sea in the south, the Barents Sea in the east and the north, and the Norwegian Sea in the west), in addition to climate and environmental variables. 3. In both macroinvertebrates and diatoms, the replacement and richness difference components showed wide variation. For macroinvertebrates, the richness difference component was the more important, whereas for diatoms, the replacement component was the more important in contributing to variation in β-diversity. There was no significant difference in β-diversity between the three main drainage basins, but species composition differed among the drainage basins. 4. Based on the richness difference component of β-diversity, climate variables were most strongly associated with community variation in macroinvertebrates. In diatoms, both environmental and climate variables were strongly correlated with community compositional variation. In both groups, there were also significant differences in α-diversity among the three main drainage basins, and several taxa were significant indicators of one of these drainage basins. Alpha diversity was greater in areas with a continental climate, while the oceanic areas in the west harboured greatly reduced flora and fauna. 5. The correlates of biodiversity were relatively similar in macroinvertebrates and diatoms. Climate variables, in particular temperature, were the most strongly associated with biodiversity patterns in the Arctic rivers of Fennoscandia. Sedimentary geology may be associated with increased productivity and, to a lesser extent, with sensitivity to acidification. There was considerable variation in community composition across Arctic Fennoscandia, indicating the necessity of protecting several stream reaches or even whole catchments within each region to conserve total riverine biodiversity. Furthermore, it is likely that the predicted changes in temperature in Arctic areas will influence riverine diversity patterns across Fennoscandia.
  • Serafimova, Silviya (Publishing House Avangard Prima, 2017)
    The aim of this monograph is to reveal the complex development of 20th-century Norwegian environmental philosophies from a comparative perspective by outlining not only the role of the similar philosophical premises they derive from, but also how the differences in the chosen strategies affected the changes in the Norwegian environmental politics. That is why one of the main objectives is to analyze the origin and the elaboration of some concepts and ideas which contribute to clarifying the multi-sidedness of the topic by going beyond the well-known theory of the founder of deep ecology, namely, the one of the Norwegian philosopher, mountaineer and environmental activist Arne Næss.
  • Juvonen, Sanna-Kaisa; Kuhmonen, Anna (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2013)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 37/2013
    In this report, results of a regional evaluation on protected areas in the Barents Region are presented. The evaluation was made using the Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) of the Convention on Biological Diversity as a framework. The Convention on Biological Diversity aims to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2020. The work was done as a part of the Barents Protected Area Network (BPAN) project by national and regional authorities, scientific institutes and nature conservation nongovernmental organisations from Norway, Sweden, Finland and northwest Russia. The aim of the project is to promote the establishment of a representative protected area network in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region to conserve biodiversity of boreal and arctic nature, particularly forests and wetlands. The PoWPA national reporting framework was modified and simplified to make it more suitable to be used as a tool for analysis of the protected area network in the Barents Region. It was used especially to see in which PoWPA goals and targets the Barents Region as a whole had made progress, and in which there was need for further work, and thus make recommendations for future actions in the Region. This enabled also the individual regions to assess in which goals and targets their region had made progress and in which there was need for further development. The reporting framework also provided a common language for interregional discussions and comparisons. A network of existing and planned protected areas is under development in the Barents Region. New protected areas have been established in recent years. However, strong efforts are still needed for strengthening the network of protected areas in order to reach the internationally agreed Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
  • Düren, Petra; Laitinen, Markku Antero; Landøy, Ane; Repanovici, Angela (2021)
    There is a growing need for libraries to use reliable and accessible data in order to show how good they are and perform in comparison to other libraries, since there is a constant reduction and closing down of libraries all over the world. One resource for assessment are national statistics. However while doing research in five countries, comparing 22 public and academic libraries, researchers had difficulties in finding key performance indicators they could use in national statistics. Therefore, another research project started which compared selected indicators from these five national statistics, describing the indicators, contrasting their quality and analysing which indicators were missing in some countries. Some other aspects are analysed as well, such as: which questions cannot be answered by national statistics, although they should, and what does it mean that not all libraries are participating and delivering their data for their national statistics. As the importance of comparing data of libraries grows, it will also be realized a short exploration of IFLA's Library Map of the World.
  • Kangasluoma, Sohvi (2021)
    The role of emotions within extractive industries has been acknowledged and embraced in recent years, though security studies research on it remains limited. This article argues that to better understand narratives of everyday security, the role of emotions should be acknowledged. I focus on an Arctic locality in northern Norway, and on local experiences and emotions surrounding everyday securities and insecurities of having an oil and gas production site nearby. The Arctic oil and gas industry is important economically for local communities; however, it also accelerates global climate change. The article scrutinizes interviews collected from local people and concludes that security narratives are complex and conflicted, portraying various stories about having the petroleum industry in one's neighbourhood. The narratives express concern and worry for the environment while expressing gratitude to the economic benefits of the industry. The Arctic communities have been tied to the global oil and gas market while being forced to find new means to cope with the change. Contributing to the wider discussion on the local security impacts of extractivist projects, as well as further developing the concept of human security, I argue that the role of emotions cannot be ignored.
  • Jokelainen, Pikka; Moroni, Barbara; Hoberg, Eric; Oksanen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli (2019)
    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) host numerous parasites. Although there is a general knowledge about parasite diversity in reindeer, detailed baseline information about parasitic infections is limited. Detailed knowledge of parasite prevalence and diversity provide a pathway for more targeted parasite control, an increasing need expected in the future. The main aim of our cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in semidomesticated reindeer calves. The 480 reindeer calves included in our study were aged 6–7 months, originated from 9 reindeer herding cooperatives in Finland and 1 in Norway, and were slaughtered during September–November 2015 in 10 reindeer slaughterhouses. All the reindeer calves passed meat inspection, and the detected parasitic infections were subclinical. As the reindeer included in this study were young animals intended for slaughter, they had never been administrated any antiparasitic treatment. Assessments of gastrointestinal parasitism among these reindeer calves were based on fecal examination and morphological identification of coccidian oocysts or helminth eggs. Individual fecal samples collected from the rectum of each of the reindeer were examined using a modified McMaster method. Most (78.3%) of the reindeer calves had eggs or oocysts of at least one parasite species in their feces, and more than half (53.5%) had a mixed infection. Strongylid eggs were detected in 75.6%, Eimeria sp. oocysts in 50.6%, Moniezia sp. eggs in 28.1%, Nematodirus sp. eggs in 22.1%, Capillaria sp. eggs in 9.4%, and Trichuris sp. eggs in 0.6% of the samples. The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was similar or higher relative to previous estimates from the region; the proportion of reindeer calves shedding strongylid eggs and the proportion of reindeer calves shedding Moniezia sp. eggs had increased. Prevalence varied by geographical region, which may reflect different herding practices or environmental parameters. Higher reindeer density was a risk factor for testing positive for Eimeria sp. oocysts, and the odds of testing positive for Nematodirus sp. eggs were higher if a peroral route was used for antiparasitic treatment in the reindeer herding cooperative. The mean proportion of reindeer estimated to receive antiparasitic treatment in Finland was 86% in 2004–2005 and 91% in 2014–2015. During the historical time frames of current management practices, this routine annual antiparasitic treatment of breeding reindeer has not decreased the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in reindeer calves, which can be seen as sentinels or indicators of the infection pressure.
  • Karlson, Bengt; Andersen, Per; Arneborg, Lars; Cembella, Allan; Eikrem, Wenche; John, Uwe; West, Jennifer Joy; Klemm, Kerstin; Kobos, Justyna; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Lundholm, Nina; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Naustvoll, Lars; Poelman, Marnix; Provoost, Pieter; De Rijcke, Maarten; Suikkanen, Sanna (Elsevier, 2021)
    Harmful Algae 102 (2021), 101989
    Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are recurrent phenomena in northern Europe along the coasts of the Baltic Sea, Kattegat-Skagerrak, eastern North Sea, Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. These HABs have caused occasional massive losses for the aquaculture industry and have chronically affected socioeconomic interests in several ways. This status review gives an overview of historical HAB events and summarises reports to the Harmful Algae Event Database from 1986 to the end of year 2019 and observations made in long term monitoring programmes of potentially harmful phytoplankton and of phycotoxins in bivalve shellfish. Major HAB taxa causing fish mortalities in the region include blooms of the prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina leadbeateri in northern Norway in 1991 and 2019, resulting in huge economic losses for fish farmers. A bloom of the prymesiophyte Prymnesium polylepis (syn. Chrysochromulina polylepis) in the Kattegat-Skagerrak in 1988 was ecosystem disruptive. Blooms of the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis spp. have caused accumulations of foam on beaches in the southwestern North Sea and Wadden Sea coasts and shellfish mortality has been linked to their occurrence. Mortality of shellfish linked to HAB events has been observed in estuarine waters associated with influx of water from the southern North Sea. The first bloom of the dictyochophyte genus Pseudochattonella was observed in 1998, and since then such blooms have been observed in high cell densities in spring causing fish mortalities some years. Dinoflagellates, primarily Dinophysis spp., intermittently yield concentrations of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins (DST) in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, above regulatory limits along the coasts of Norway, Denmark and the Swedish west coast. On average, DST levels in shellfish have decreased along the Swedish and Norwegian Skagerrak coasts since approximately 2006, coinciding with a decrease in the cell abundance of D. acuta. Among dinoflagellates, Alexandrium species are the major source of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST) in the region. PST concentrations above regulatory levels were rare in the Skagerrak-Kattegat during the three decadal review period, but frequent and often abundant findings of Alexandrium resting cysts in surface sediments indicate a high potential risk for blooms. PST levels often above regulatory limits along the west coast of Norway are associated with A. catenella (ribotype Group 1) as the main toxin producer. Other Alexandrium species, such as A. ostenfeldii and A. minutum, are capable of producing PST among some populations but are usually not associated with PSP events in the region. The cell abundance of A. pseudogonyaulax, a producer of the ichthyotoxin goniodomin (GD), has increased in the Skagerrak-Kattegat since 2010, and may constitute an emerging threat. The dinoflagellate Azadinium spp. have been unequivocally linked to the presence of azaspiracid toxins (AZT) responsible for Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning (AZP) in northern Europe. These toxins were detected in bivalve shellfish at concentrations above regulatory limits for the first time in Norway in blue mussels in 2005 and in Sweden in blue mussels and oysters (Ostrea edulis and Crassostrea gigas) in 2018. Certain members of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia produce the neurotoxin domoic acid and analogs known as Amnesic Shellfish Toxins (AST). Blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia were common in the North Sea and the Skagerrak-Kattegat, but levels of AST in bivalve shellfish were rarely above regulatory limits during the review period. Summer cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea are a concern mainly for tourism by causing massive fouling of bathing water and beaches. Some of the cyanobacteria produce toxins, e.g. Nodularia spumigena, producer of nodularin, which may be a human health problem and cause occasional dog mortalities. Coastal and shelf sea regions in northern Europe provide a key supply of seafood, socioeconomic well-being and ecosystem services. Increasing anthropogenic influence and climate change create environmental stressors causing shifts in the biogeography and intensity of HABs. Continued monitoring of HAB and phycotoxins and the operation of historical databases such as HAEDAT provide not only an ongoing status report but also provide a way to interpret causes and mechanisms of HABs.
  • Menberu, Meseret Walle; Marttila, Hannu; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Haghighi, Ali Torabi; Kløve, Bjørn (American Geophysical Union, 2021)
    Water Resources Research 57, e2020WR028624
    Undisturbed peatlands are effective carbon sinks and provide a variety of ecosystem services. However, anthropogenic disturbances, especially land drainage, strongly alter peat soil properties and jeopardize the benefits of peatlands. The effects of disturbances should therefore be assessed and predicted. To support accurate modeling, this study determined the physical and hydraulic properties of intact and disturbed peat samples collected from 59 sites (in total 3,073 samples) in Finland and Norway. The bulk density (BD), porosity, and specific yield (Sy) values obtained indicated that the top layer (0–30 cm depth) at agricultural and peat extraction sites was most affected by land use change. The BD in the top layer at agricultural, peat extraction, and forestry sites was 441%, 140%, and 92% higher, respectively, than that of intact peatlands. Porosity decreased with increased BD, but not linearly. Agricultural and peat extraction sites had the lowest saturated hydraulic conductivity, Sy, and porosity, and the highest BD of the land use options studied. The van Genuchten-Mualem (vGM) soil water retention curve (SWRC) and hydraulic conductivity (K) models proved to be applicable for the peat soils tested, providing values of SWRC, K, and vGM-parameters (α and n) for peat layers (top, middle and bottom) under different land uses. A decrease in peat soil water content of ≥10% reduced the unsaturated K values by two orders of magnitude. This unique data set can be used to improve hydrological modeling in peat-dominated catchments and for fuller integration of peat soils into large-scale hydrological models.
  • Whitaker, Caitlin (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This thesis attempts to explore Erwin Panofsky’s (1892 -1968) methodology from his publication Studies in Iconology: Humanistic Themes in the Art of the Renaissance, published 1939, in regards to decorative sculpture found on capitals within wooden Norwegian stave churches. This will hopefully confirm and produce new iconographical interpretations for the imagery. The stave church capitals are from the Romanesque period in Norway dated c. 1090-1210 C.E.The thesis contains; an overview of stave churches, a description of Panofsky’s methodology, and a background of the Norwegian Romanesque. This is then followed by an analysis of the capitals. The thesis is supported by providing basic information about the Viking art styles from Scandinavia c. late 9th-11th century, and Romanesque outside Scandinavia dated c. 1000-1200. though neither are the main focus. The last section is focused on issues that arose with during the analysis, before ending with a conclusion.
  • Braaten, Hans Fredrik Veiteberg; Akerblom, Staffan; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Rask, Martti; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Mannio, Jaakko; Malinen, Tommi; Lydersen, Espen; Poste, Amanda E.; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Kashulin, Nicholas; Kashulina, Tatiana; Terentyev, Petr; Christensen, Guttorm; de Wit, Heleen A. (American Chemical Society, 2019)
    Environmental Science & Technology 2019 53 (4), 1834-1843
    Temporally (1965–2015) and spatially (55°–70°N) extensive records of total mercury (Hg) in freshwater fish showed consistent declines in boreal and subarctic Fennoscandia. The database contains 54 560 fish entries (n: pike > perch ≫ brown trout > roach ≈ Arctic charr) from 3132 lakes across Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Russian Murmansk area. 74% of the lakes did not meet the 0.5 ppm limit to protect human health. However, after 2000 only 25% of the lakes exceeded this level, indicating improved environmental status. In lakes where local pollution sources were identified, pike and perch Hg concentrations were significantly higher between 1965 and 1990 compared to values after 1995, likely an effect of implemented reduction measures. In lakes where Hg originated from long-range transboundary air pollution (LRTAP), consistent Hg declines (3–7‰ per year) were found for perch and pike in both boreal and subarctic Fennoscandia, suggesting common environmental controls. Hg in perch and pike in LRTAP lakes showed minimal declines with latitude, suggesting that drivers affected by temperature, such as growth dilution, counteracted Hg loading and food web exposure. We recommend that future fish Hg monitoring sampling design should include repeated sampling and collection of pollution history, water chemistry, fish age, and stable isotopes to enable evaluation of emission reduction policies.
  • Pataricza, Dóra; Muir, Simo; Bak, Sofie Lene; Foelner, Bjarke; Kieding Banik, Vibeke; Rudberg, Pontus (2021)
    This article aims to give an overview of Jewish archives and archival sources in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Besides describing significant existing collections, the article looks into ongoing archival projects, digitizing and infrastructure programs, and maps out future challenges.
  • Heino, Jani; Alahuhta, Janne (Royal Entomological Society / Wiley & Sons, 2019)
    Ecological Entomology 44: 413-424
    1. Ecogeographical rules refer to recurring patterns in nature, including the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), Rapoport's rule and Bergmann's rule, amongst others. In the present study, the existence of these rules was examined for diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), a family of aquatic predatory beetles. 2. Assemblage-level data were analysed for diving beetles, focusing on species richness, local contribution to beta diversity (LCBD), mean range size and mean body size across the biogeographical provinces of Northern Europe. First, each of these variables was correlated with latitude, and then variation in each variable was modelled using actual environmental variables in boosted regression tree analysis. 3. Species richness was found to decrease with latitude, LCBD increased with latitude, mean range size did not show a significant relationship with latitude, and mean body size decreased with latitude. The latter finding was in contrast to Bergmann's rule. The actual environmental variables best predicting variation in these four response variables varied among the models, although they generally included temperature-related and land use variables as the most influential ones. 4. The results obtained in the present study suggest that diving beetles conformed to the LDG, did not follow Rapoport's rule, and showed a reversed latitudinal gradient in the context of Bergmann's rule. In addition, species-poor provinces harboured ecologically most unique faunas, suggesting that species richness and LCBD are complementary measures of biodiversity. 5. Even though general support was not found for most of the ecogeographical rules examined, the findings of the present study are interesting because they suggest that aquatic ectothermic invertebrates may show patterns different from those originally described for terrestrial endothermic vertebrates.
  • de Wit, Heleen A.; Lepistö, Ahti; Marttila, Hannu; Wenng, Hannah; Bechmann, Marianne; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Eklöf, Karin; Futter, Martyn N.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Kronvang, Brian; Kyllmar, Katarina; Rakovic, Jelena (Wiley, 2020)
    Hydrological Processes 34, 25 (2020)
    Agricultural, forestry-impacted and natural catchments are all vectors of nutrient loading in the Nordic countries. Here, we present concentrations and fluxes of total nitrogen (totN) and phosphorus (totP) from 69 Nordic headwater catchments (Denmark: 12, Finland:18, Norway:17, Sweden:22) between 2000 and 2018. Catchments span the range of Nordic climatic and environmental conditions and include natural sites and sites impacted by agricultural and forest management. Concentrations and fluxes of totN and totP were highest in agricultural catchments, intermediate in forestry-impacted and lowest in natural catchments, and were positively related %agricultural land cover and summer temperature. Summer temperature may be a proxy for terrestrial productivity, while %agricultural land cover might be a proxy for catchment nutrient inputs. A regional trend analysis showed significant declines in N concentrations and export across agricultural (−15 μg totN L−1 year−1) and natural (−0.4 μg NO3-N L−1 year−1) catchments, but individual sites displayed few long-term trends in concentrations (totN: 22%, totP: 25%) or export (totN: 6%, totP: 9%). Forestry-impacted sites had a significant decline in totP (−0.1 μg P L−1 year−1). A small but significant increase in totP fluxes (+0.4 kg P km−2 year−1) from agricultural catchments was found, and countries showed contrasting patterns. Trends in annual concentrations and fluxes of totP and totN could not be explained in a straightforward way by changes in runoff or climate. Explanations for the totN decline include national mitigation measures in agriculture international policy to reduced air pollution and, possibly, large-scale increases in forest growth. Mitigation to reduce phosphorus appears to be more challenging than for nitrogen. If the green shift entails intensification of agricultural and forest production, new challenges for protection of water quality will emerge possible exacerbated by climate change. Further analysis of headwater totN and totP export should include seasonal trends, aquatic nutrient species and a focus on catchment nutrient inputs.
  • Arajärvi, Niklas (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The objective of this master’s thesis is to assess the sufficiency of mining compensation payable to the landowner according to Finland’s Mining Act and compare mineral royalties in selected developed countries. The study aims to answer how the Finnish Mining Act secures the landowner’s economic interests from both land use and mineral extraction, how the state benefits from mining and what are it’s costs and how Finland is placed in an international comparison of mineral royalties. The study familiarizes the reader with the economic theory of non-renewable resources and royalties, the different royalty types and their ability to serve varying objectives, the economic problems related to the rule of capture and the potential negative effects to a country’s economy from non-renewable resources. The study also takes a look at the Finnish mining industry and it’s working environment. The sufficiency of mining compensation from land use was assessed by comparing the discounted area based compensation to the bare land value of forests in different heat summation zones. The production based mining compensation was assessed by comparing the current level to the level of the previous mining act derived from different sources. The benefits from mining to the state were assessed from the employment objectives of the mining act and from overviewing the costs of promoting the mining industry. The countries selected to the international comparison were ones that had placed well in the Fraser Institute Survey of Mining Companies. The royalty practices of each country were sought from their mining legislation and applied to two differently performing Finnish mines according to their public records. According to the findings, the area based mining compensation is sufficient in northern Finland, but not without fail in central and southern Finland. Nevertheless, there has been improvement from the previous mining act regarding both area based and production based mining compensation. The state’s benefits from the employment perspective seem to be asserted, but impermanently. Findings from the international comparison imply that mining compensations in Finland are equivocally from the smaller side of the comparison.
  • Handal, Marte; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Mahic, Milada; Øhman, Inger; Wikner, Birgitta Norstedt; Tjagvad, Christian; Kieler, Helle; Halmesmäki, Erja; Lund, Ingunn Olea (2020)
    Background: WHO guidelines emphasise the need for descriptions of clinical practice and observational studies on risk and benefits of pharmacotherapies in pregnancy. The aims of the present study were to: (1) Describe opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) in the Scandinavian countries in general, and specifically for pregnant women, (2) Describe a project which utilises a new approach using registry-linkage data to examine associations between prenatal exposure to OMT and child outcomes: a Scandinavian cohort study of pregnant women in OMT during pregnancy (ScopeOMT). Data: Guidelines describing the treatment of persons with opioid use disorders in general, and specifically for pregnant women. Scandinavian registry-linkage data from ScopeOMT. Results: Registry data show that approximately 800 pregnant women received OMT during pregnancy in the period of the ScopeOMT study. Similarities across the Scandinavian countries include access to free healthcare and treatment; multidisciplinary teams trained to support pregnant women in OMT; buprenorphine as the recommended drug when initiating therapy; and a holistic focus on the patients' lives. An important difference is that Norwegian women who use illegal substances that may harm the foetus may be admitted - voluntarily, or against their will - for parts of, or the remainder of the pregnancy to inpatient treatment at specialised clinics. Conclusion: Many similarities in the treatment provided to opioid-dependent persons in the Scandinavian countries place this area in an excellent position to combine the efforts and carry out observational studies concerning the safety of OMT during pregnancy.
  • Forma, Leena Päivikki; Aaltonen, Mari; Raitanen, Jani; Anthun, Kjartan Sarheim; Kalseth, Jorid (2020)
    Aims: This study aimed to find out how place of death varied between countries with different health and social service systems. This was done by investigating typical groups (concerning age, sex and end-of-life trajectory) of older people dying in different places in Finland and Norway. Methods: The data were derived from national registers. All those who died in Finland or Norway at the age of ⩾70 years in 2011 were included. Place of death was analysed by age, sex, end-of-life trajectory and degree of urbanisation of the municipality of residence. Two-proportion z-tests were performed to test the differences between the countries. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed separately for both countries to find the factors associated with place of death. Results: The data consisted of 68,433 individuals. Deaths occurred most commonly in health centres in Finland and in nursing homes in Norway. Deaths in hospital were more common in Norway than they were in Finland. In both countries, deaths in hospital were more common among younger people and men. Deaths in nursing homes were commonest among frail older people, while most of those who had a terminal illness died in health centres in Finland and in nursing homes in Norway. Conclusions: Both Finland and Norway have a relatively low share of hospital deaths among older people. Both countries have developed alternatives to end-of-life care in hospital, allowing for spending the last days or weeks of life closer to home. In Finland, health centres play a key role in end-of-life care, while in Norway nursing homes serve this role.
  • Andreassen, Trude; Hansen, Bo T.; Engesaeter, Birgit; Hashim, Dana; Stoer, Nathalie C.; Trope, Ameli; Moen, Kare; Ursin, Giske; Weiderpass, Elisabete (2019)
    From 2015, Norway has implemented high-risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) testing in primary screening for cervical cancer. Women aged 34-69 years, living in four counties, have been pseudo-randomly assigned (1:1 randomization) to either hrHPV testing every 5 years (followed by cytology if hrHPV is positive), or cytology testing every 3 years (followed by hrHPV testing if low-grade cytology is detected). We compared anxiety and depression scores among participants by screening arm and results. In total, 1,008 women answered a structured questionnaire that included the validated Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4). The Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) of mild vs. normal anxiety and depression scores, and moderate/severe vs. normal anxiety and depression scores, were estimated by multinomial logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Compared to women who were screened with cytology, women randomized to hrHPV testing were not more likely to have mild anxiety and depression scores (RRR 0.96, CI 0.70-1.31) nor more likely to have moderate/severe anxiety and depression scores (RRR 1.14, CI 0.65-2.02). Women with five different combinations of abnormal screening test results were not more likely to have mild or moderate/severe vs. normal anxiety and depression scores than women with normal screening results. The likelihood of having abnormal long-term (4-24 months after the screening) anxiety or depression scores among women 34 years and older was not affected by screening method or screening results. The results of our study suggest that a change to hrHPV testing in primary screening would not increase psychological distress among participants.