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  • Javanainen, Mervi Hannele; Scheinin, Tom; Mustonen, Harri; Leivonen , Marja (2017)
    The current understanding of prophylaxis of pulmonary complications in bariatric surgery is weak. Purpose: The aim of this study was to observe how changes in perioperative and postoperative treatments affect the incidence of pulmonary complications in bariatric patients. Materials: This is a retrospective clinical study of 400 consecutive bariatric patients. The patients, who either underwent a sleeve gastrectomy or a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, were divided consecutively into four subgroups with different approaches to perioperative treatment. Methods: The first group (patients 0-100) was recovered in the intensive care unit with minimal mobilization (ICU). They had a urinary catheter and a drain. The second group (patients 101-200) was similar to the first group, but the patients used a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device intermittently (ICU-CPAP). The third group (patients 201-300) was recovered on a normal ward without a urinary catheter or a drain and used a CPAP device (ward-slow). The fourth group (patients 301-400) walked to the operating theater and was mobilized in the recovery room during the first 2 h after the operation (ward-fast). CPAP was also used. Primary endpoints were pulmonary complications, pneumonia, and infection, non-ultra descriptus (NUD). Results: The number of pulmonary complications among the groups was significantly different. A long operation time increased the risk for infection (p <0.001 95 % CI from 2.02 to 6.59 %). Conclusions: Operation time increases the risk for pulmonary complications. Changes in perioperative care toward the ERAS protocol may have a positive effect on the number of pulmonary complications.
  • Kalevo, Laura; Miettinen, Tomi; Leino, Akseli; Kainulainen, Samu; Korkalainen, Henri; Myllymaa, Katja; Töyräs, Juha; Leppänen, Timo; Laitinen, Tiina; Myllymaa, Sami (2020)
    In response to the growing clinico-economic need for comprehensive home-based sleep testing, we recently developed a self-applicable facial electrode set with screen-printed Ag/AgCl electrodes. Our previous studies revealed that nocturnal sweating is a common problem, causing low-frequency artifacts in the measured electroencephalography (EEG) signals. As the electrode set is designed to be used without skin abrasion, not surprisingly this leads to relatively high electrode-skin impedances, significant impedance changes due to sweating and an increased risk of sweat artifacts. However, our recent electrochemical in vitro investigations revealed that the sweat artifact tolerance of an EEG electrode can be improved by utilizing an appropriate Ag/AgCl ink. Here we have investigated in vivo electrode-skin impedances and the quality of EEG signals and interference due to sweating in the population of 11 healthy volunteers. Commercial Ag and Ag/AgCl inks (Engineered Conductive Materials ECM LLC and PPG Industries Inc.) were used to test electrode sets with differently constructed ink layers. Electrode-skin impedances and EEG signals were recorded before and after exercise-induced sweating. There was extensive variation in the electrode-skin impedances between the volunteers and the electrode positions: 14.6 & x2013;200 (PPG electrodes) and 7.7 & x2013;200 (ECM electrodes). Sweating significantly decreased the impedances in most cases. The EEG signal quality was assessed by comparing average band powers from 0.5 to 2 Hz before and after sweating. Only slight differences existed between the ECM and PPG electrodes; however, the lowest band power ratio (i.e. the smallest increase in the band power due to sweating) was achieved with ECM electrodes.
  • Laaka, Atte; Hollmen, Maria; Bachour, Adel (2021)
    Background Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) mask renewal policies vary inside and between countries. There are no independent studies on the optimal mask renewal frequency. We aimed to evaluate CPAP mask function over time in a real-life clinical setting, and to compare the results against current renewal policies. Methods Daily performance data of 1846 CPAP masks (65% nasal, 22% nasal pillows, 12% oronasal) were recorded from 450 participants (68% male, mean age 59 years) with obstructive sleep apnoea. The unintentional leak, Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index (CPAP-AHI) and usage data were exported from the CPAP device. Results Of 656 324 nights of CPAP usage, the mean renewal time was 497 days (SD 327), mean leak 5.7 L/min (SD 8.1) and CPAP-AHI 3.8 events/h (SD 3.6). The difference in mean leak between one (5.2 L/min, SD 7.5), 12 (6.0 L/min, SD 10.2) and 24 months (5.8 L/min, SD 7.5) was minimal (p=0.59). Mean CPAP-AHI remained normal and unchanged in nasal masks and pillows up to 30 months, and was highest in oronasal masks. Different mask manufacturers performed similarly. Masks' daily or total usage did not affect the results. Shifting the mask renewal policy to 24 months could reduce the mask-related cost up to 50%-88%. Conclusions Nasal masks and pillows could be used at least 2 years without significant changes in unintentional leak and CPAP-AHI. We suggest updating the mask renewal policies of nasal masks and pillows; results on oronasal masks and other manufacturers CPAP devices need further verification.
  • Bernardi, Luciano; Bianchi, Lucio (2016)
    Autonomic dysfunction is a frequent and relevant complication of diabetes mellitus, as it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In addition, it is today considered as predictive of the most severe diabetic complications, like nephropathy and retinopathy. The classical methods of screening are the cardiovascular reflex tests and were originally interpreted as evidence of nerve damage. A more modern approach, based on the integrated control of cardiovascular and respiratory function, reveals that these abnormalities are to a great extent functional, at least in the early stage of the disease, thus suggesting new potential interventions. Therefore, this review aims to go further investigating how the imbalance of the autonomic nervous system is altered and can be influenced in many chronic pathologies through a global view of cardio-respiratory and metabolic interactions and how the same mechanisms are applicable to diabetes.
  • Bianchi, L.; Porta, C.; Rinaldi, A.; Gazzaruso, C.; Fratino, P.; DeCata, P.; Protti, P.; Paltro, R.; Bernardi, L. (2017)
    Background: Cardiovascular (baroreflex) and respiratory (chemoreflex) control mechanisms were studied separately in diabetes, but their reciprocal interaction (well known for diseases like heart failure) had never been comprehensively assessed. We hypothesized that prevalent autonomic neuropathy would depress both reflexes, whereas prevalent autonomic imbalance through sympathetic activation would depress the baroreflex but enhance the chemoreflexes. Methods: In 46 type-1 diabetic subjects (7.0 +/- 0.9 year duration) and 103 age-matched controls we measured the baroreflex (average of 7 methods), and the chemoreflexes, (hypercapnic: ventilation/carbon dioxide slope during hyperoxic progressive hypercapnia; hypoxic: ventilation/oxygen saturation slope during normocapnic progressive hypoxia). Autonomic dysfunction was evaluated by cardiovascular reflex tests. Results: Resting oxygen saturation and baroreflex sensitivity were reduced in the diabetic group, whereas the hypercapnic chemoreflex was significantly increased in the entire diabetic group. Despite lower oxygen saturation the hypoxic chemoreflex showed a trend toward a depression in the diabetic group. Conclusion: Cardio-respiratory control imbalance is a common finding in early type 1 diabetes. A reduced sensitivity to hypoxia seems a primary factor leading to reflex sympathetic activation (enhanced hypercapnic chemoreflex and baroreflex depression), hence suggesting a functional origin of cardio-respiratory control imbalance in initial diabetes. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Nikolakaros, Georgios; Kurki, Timo; Paju, Janina; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G.; Vataja, Risto; Ilonen, Tuula (2018)
    Background : Non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome are greatly underdiagnosed. There are very few reported cases of neuropsychologically documented non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data are scarce. Methods : We report clinical characteristics and neuropsychological as well as radiological findings from three psychiatric patients (one woman and two men) with a history of probable undiagnosed non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and subsequent chronic memory problems. Results : All patients had abnormal neuropsychological test results, predominantly in memory. Thus, the neuropsychological findings were compatible with Korsakoff syndrome. However, the neuropsychological findings were not uniform. The impairment of delayed verbal memory of the first patient was evident only when the results of the memory tests were compared to her general cognitive level. In addition, the logical memory test and the verbal working memory test were abnormal, but the word list memory test was normal. The second patient had impaired attention and psychomotor speed in addition to impaired memory. In the third patient, the word list memory test was abnormal, but the logical memory test was normal. All patients had intrusions in the neuropsychological examination. Executive functions were preserved, except for planning and foresight, which were impaired in two patients. Conventional MRI examination was normal. DTI showed reduced fractional anisotropy values in the uncinate fasciculus in two patients, and in the corpus callosum and in the subgenual cingulum in one patient. Conclusions: Non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome can have diverse neuropsychological findings. This may partly explain its marked underdiagnosis. Therefore, a strong index of suspicion is needed. The presence of intrusions in the neuropsychological examination supports the diagnosis. Damage in frontotemporal white matter tracts, particularly in the uncinate fasciculus, may be a feature of non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome in psychiatric patients.
  • Porsbjerg, Celeste; Ulrik, Charlotte; Skjold, Tina; Backer, Vibeke; Laerum, Birger; Lehman, Sverre; Janson, Crister; Sandstrom, Thomas; Bjermer, Leif; Dahlen, Barbro; Lundback, Bo; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Bjornsdottir, Unnur; Altraja, Alan; Lehtimaki, Lauri; Kauppi, Paula; Karjalainen, Jussi; Kankaanranta, Hannu (2018)
    Although a minority of asthma patients suffer from severe asthma, they represent a major clinical challenge in terms of poor symptom control despite high-dose treatment, risk of exacerbations, and side effects. Novel biological treatments may benefit patients with severe asthma, but are expensive, and are only effective in appropriately targeted patients. In some patients, symptoms are driven by other factors than asthma, and all patients with suspected severe asthma ('difficult asthma') should undergo systematic assessment, in order to differentiate between true severe asthma, and 'difficult-to-treat' patients, in whom poor control is related to factors such as poor adherence or co-morbidities. The Nordic Consensus Statement on severe asthma was developed by the Nordic Severe Asthma Network, consisting of members from Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland and Estonia, including representatives from the respective national respiratory scientific societies with the aim to provide an overview and recommendations regarding the diagnosis, systematic assessment and management of severe asthma. Furthermore, the Consensus Statement proposes recommendations for the organization of severe asthma management in primary, secondary, and tertiary care.
  • Alligier, Maud; Barres, Romain; Blaak, Ellen E.; Boirie, Yves; Bouwman, Jildau; Brunault, Paul; Campbell, Kristina; Clement, Karine; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J.; Fruhbeck, Gema; Goossens, Gijs H.; Hager, Jorg; Halford, Jason C. G.; Hauner, Hans; Jacobi, David; Julia, Chantal; Langin, Dominique; Natali, Andrea; Neovius, Martin; Oppert, Jean Michel; Pagotto, Uberto; Palmeira, Antonio L.; Roche, Helen; Ryden, Mikael; Scheen, Andre J.; Simon, Chantal; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Tappy, Luc; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Ziegler, Olivier; Laville, Martine (2020)
    Heterogeneity of interindividual and intraindividual responses to interventions is often observed in randomized, controlled trials for obesity. To address the global epidemic of obesity and move toward more personalized treatment regimens, the global research community must come together to identify factors that may drive these heterogeneous responses to interventions. This project, called OBEDIS (OBEsity Diverse Interventions Sharing - focusing on dietary and other interventions), provides a set of European guidelines for a minimal set of variables to include in future clinical trials on obesity, regardless of the specific endpoints. Broad adoption of these guidelines will enable researchers to harmonize and merge data from multiple intervention studies, allowing stratification of patients according to precise phenotyping criteria which are measured using standardized methods. In this way, studies across Europe may be pooled for better prediction of individuals' responses to an intervention for obesity - ultimately leading to better patient care and improved obesity outcomes.
  • Bachour, Adel; Vitikainen, Pirjo; Maasilta, Paula (2016)
    Recently, we noticed a considerable development in alleviating problems related to positive airway pressure (PAP) masks. In this study, we report on the initial PAP mask acceptance rates and the effects of mask switching on mask-related symptoms. We prospectively collected all cases of mask switching in our sleep unit for a period of 14 months. At the time of the study, we used ResMed (TM) CPAP devices and masks. Mask switching was defined as replacing a mask used for at least 1 day with another type of mask. Changing to a different size but keeping the same type of mask did not count as mask switching. Switching outcomes were considered failed if the initial problem persisted or reappeared during the year that followed switching. Our patient pool was 2768. We recorded 343 cases of mask switching among 267 patients. Of the 566 patients who began new PAP therapy, 108 (39 women) had switched masks, yielding an initial mask acceptance rate of 81 %. The reason for switching was poor-fit/uncomfortable mask in 39 %, leak-related in 30 %, outdated model in 25 %, and nasal stuffiness in 6 % of cases; mask switching resolved these problems in 61 %. Mask switching occurred significantly (p = 0.037) more often in women and in new PAP users. The odds ratio for abandoning PAP therapy within 1 year after mask switching was 7.2 times higher (interval 4.7-11.1) than not switching masks. The initial PAP mask acceptance rate was high. Patients who switched their masks are at greater risk for abandoning PAP therapy.
  • Haula, Tuuli-Maria; Puustinen, Juha; Takala, Mari; Holm, Anu (2020)
    Objectives Presence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) affects negatively recovery from stroke. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationships between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and outcome measures in Finnish stroke unit cohort: mRS, need of rehabilitation and hospitalization time. Material and Methods An observational longitudinal study consisted of 95 patients referred to the Stroke Unit of Satakunta Hospital District over a period of November 2013 to March 2016. Patients were tested for SDB within 72 hr from the hospital admission because of ischemic stroke or TIA. The patients underwent polysomnography with NOX T3 wireless recorder. Results There are 37% (n = 35) non-OSA patients, 20% (n = 19) of patients have mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 39% (n = 37) have moderate/severe OSA and 4% (n = 4) have CSA. Patients with OSA have higher proportion of disability scores of mRS 3-5 (38%) compared to non-OSA (11%) and mild OSA (5%) patients on registration day (mRS0), and the same trend is seen at hospital discharge 35% versus 9% and 5%. (p = .009). Proportion of patients with OSA who needed rehabilitation is 65% (n = 19) versus non-OSA patients 17.5% (n = 4) and mild OSA patients 17.5% (n = 4;p = .039). We observed longer duration of hospitalization (5-15 days) in 29% of OSA patients compared to mild OSA patients 47% and OSA patients 54%. (p = .045). Conclusion Ischemic stroke patients with OSA have higher disability, higher need of rehabilitation, and longer hospitalization length. Prescreening tools for recognizing these stroke patients in acute phase could be valuable. That could result in earlier initiation of treatment and might prevent worse recovery from stroke.