Browsing by Subject "OCEANIC-CRUST"

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  • Luttinen, Arto V. (2018)
    In the Karoo large igneous province, the geochemical assessment of mantle source variability and structure is hampered by probable crustal contamination overprinting of compositionally diverse flood basalts. Mantle source characteristics have been defined only for exceptional, primitive rock types. Here I use a compiled dataset for over 800 samples to demonstrate that the abundance of Nb relative to Zr, Ti, and Y provides a useful geochemical tracer of mantle sources for variably contaminated rock types of the Karoo province. Variations in the relative abundance of Nb reveal emplacement of distinctive, Nb-undepleted and Nb-depleted magmas in the North Karoo and South Karoo sub-provinces, respectively, and clarify correlation between flood basalts and previously proposed mantle source components. Judging from plate tectonic reconstructions and the compositions of plausible mantle source components, the geochemical bilateral asymmetry in Karoo may reflect tapping of contrasting plume and upper mantle reservoirs in the two sub-provinces.
  • Willig, Michael; Stracke, Andreas; Beier, Christoph; Salters, Vincent J.M. (2020)
    Mantle evolution is governed by continuous depletion by partial melting and replenishment by recycling oceanic and continental crust. Several important unknowns remain, however, such as the extent of compositional variability of the residual depleted mantle, the timescale, mass flux and composition of recycled oceanic and continental crust. Here, we investigate the Ce-Nd-Hf isotope systematics in a globally representative spectrum of mid ocean ridge and ocean island basalts. Using a Monte Carlo approach for reproducing the observed Ce-Nd-Hf isotope variation shows that the type and age of depleted mantle and recycled crust have the dominant influence on the slope, scatter, and extent of the modeled Ce-Nd-Hf isotope array. The model results suggest a relatively young (
  • Romer, Rene H. W.; Beier, C.; Haase, Karsten M.; Eberts, A.; Hübscher, Christian (2021)
    The Dom Joao de Castro seamount in the Hirondelle Basin (Azores) is a central volcano on the ultraslow diverging Terceira Rift axis. The combination of structural and geochemical data provides insights into the evolution of central volcanoes in oceanic rift systems above the Azores melting anomaly. The orientation of fault scarps and volcanic structures at D. Joao de Castro and the adjacent Castro fissure zone indicate that the regional SW-NE extending stress field dominates the morphology of the NW Hirondelle Basin. The regional tectonic stress field controls the crustal melt pathways and leads to dike emplacement along fissure zones and the prevalent eruption of mafic lavas. The occurrence of mafic to felsic lavas at D. Joao de Castro gives evidence for both a deep and a shallow crustal melt reservoir generating a subordinate local stress field at the seamount. New Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data along with incompatible trace element ratios indicate that D. Joao de Castro and the Castro Ridges originated from similarly heterogeneous mantle source but did not form simultaneously. Our new model implies that central volcanoes along the Terceira Rift form by the growth of volcanic ridges and transitioned into circular edifices after magmatic systems generate local changes in the regional lithospheric stress field. The geometry of D. Joao de Castro and other magmatic systems along the Terceira Rift combined with the alkaline nature of the erupted lavas, and the large lithosphere thickness indicates that young oceanic rifts are more similar to continental rifts rather than mid-ocean ridges.