Browsing by Subject "OF-FUNCTION MUTATIONS"

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  • Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Hovatta, Outi; La Marca, Antonio; Livera, Gabriel; Monniaux, Danielle; Persani, Luca; Heddar, Abdelkader; Jarzabek, Katarzyna; Laisk-Podar, Triin; Salumets, Andres; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Veitia, Reiner A.; Visser, Jenny A.; Wieacker, Peter; Wolczynski, Slawomir; Misrahi, Micheline (2018)
    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) affects similar to 1% of women before 40 years of age. The recent leap in genetic knowledge obtained by next generation sequencing (NGS) together with animal models has further elucidated its molecular pathogenesis, identifying novel genes/pathways. Mutations of > 60 genes emphasize high genetic heterogeneity. Genome-wide association studies have revealed a shared genetic background between POI and reproductive aging. NGS will provide a genetic diagnosis leading to genetic/therapeutic counseling: first, defects in meiosis or DNA repair genes may predispose to tumors; and second, specific gene defects may predict the risk of rapid loss of a persistent ovarian reserve, an important determinant in fertility preservation. Indeed, a recent innovative treatment of POI by in vitro activation of dormant follicles proved to be successful.
  • Björnson, E.; Packard, C. J.; Adiels, M.; Andersson, L.; Matikainen, N.; Söderlund, S.; Kahri, J.; Hakkarainen, A.; Lundbom, N.; Lundbom, J.; Sihlbom, C.; Thorsell, A.; Zhou, H.; Taskinen, M. -R.; Boren, J. (2020)
    Background Renewed interest in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as causative agents in cardiovascular disease mandates further exploration of the integrated metabolism of chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Methods Novel tracer techniques and an integrated multi-compartmental model were used to determine the kinetics of apoB48- and apoB100-containing particles in the chylomicron and VLDL density intervals in 15 subjects with a wide range of plasma triglyceride levels. Results Following a fat-rich meal, apoB48 appeared in the chylomicron, VLDL1 and VLDL2 fractions in all subjects. Chylomicrons cleared rapidly from the circulation but apoB48-containing VLDL accumulated, and over the day were 3-fold higher in those with high versus low plasma triglyceride. ApoB48-containing particles were secreted directly into both the chylomicron and VLDL fractions at rates that were similar across the plasma triglyceride range studied. During fat absorption, whilst most triglyceride entered the circulation in chylomicrons, the majority of apoB48 particles were secreted into the VLDL density range. Conclusion The intestine secretes apoB48-containing particles not only as chylomicrons but also directly into the VLDL1 and VLDL2 density ranges both in the basal state and during dietary lipid absorption. Over the day, apoB48-containing particles appear to comprise about 20-25% of circulating VLDL and, especially in those with elevated triglycerides, form part of a slowly cleared 'remnant' particle population, thereby potentially increasing CHD risk. These findings provide a metabolic understanding of the potential consequences for increased CHD risk when slowed lipolysis leads to the accumulation of remnants, especially in individuals with hypertriglyceridemia.
  • Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Packard, Chris J.; Boren, Jan (2019)
    Purpose of ReviewApolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is known to inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and function as an important regulator of triglyceride metabolism. In addition, apoC-III has also more recently been identified as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which apoC-III induces hypertriglyceridemia and promotes atherogenesis, as well as the findings from recent clinical trials using novel strategies for lowering apoC-III.Recent FindingsGenetic studies have identified subjects with heterozygote loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in APOC3, the gene coding for apoC-III. Clinical characterization of these individuals shows that the LOF variants associate with a low-risk lipoprotein profile, in particular reduced plasma triglycerides. Recent results also show that complete deficiency of apoC-III is not a lethal mutation and is associated with very rapid lipolysis of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). Ongoing trials based on emerging gene-silencing technologies show that intervention markedly lowers apoC-III levels and, consequently, plasma triglyceride. Unexpectedly, the evidence points to apoC-III not only inhibiting LPL activity but also suppressing removal of TRLs by LPL-independent pathways.SummaryAvailable data clearly show that apoC-III is an important cardiovascular risk factor and that lifelong deficiency of apoC-III is cardioprotective. Novel therapies have been developed, and results from recent clinical trials indicate that effective reduction of plasma triglycerides by inhibition of apoC-III might be a promising strategy in management of severe hypertriglyceridemia and, more generally, a novel approach to CHD prevention in those with elevated plasma triglyceride.
  • Ding, Xiaolei; Willenborg, Sebastian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Wickström, Sara A.; Wagle, Prerana; Brodesser, Susanne; Roers, Axel; Jais, Alexander; Bruening, Jens C.; Hall, Michael N.; Rueegg, Markus A.; Eming, Sabine A. (2020)
    Background: Perturbation of epidermal barrier formation will profoundly compromise overall skin function, leading to a dry and scaly, ichthyosis-like skin phenotype that is the hallmark of a broad range of skin diseases, including ichthyosis, atopic dermatitis, and a multitude of clinical eczema variants. An overarching molecular mechanism that orchestrates the multitude of factors controlling epidermal barrier formation and homeostasis remains to be elucidated. Objective: Here we highlight a specific role of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling in epidermal barrier formation. Methods: Epidermal mTORC2 signaling was specifically disrupted by deleting rapamycin-insensitive companion of target of rapamycin (Rictor), encoding an essential subunit of mTORC2 in mouse epidermis (epidermis-specific homozygous Rictor deletion [Ric(EKO)] mice). Epidermal structure and barrier function were investigated through a combination of gene expression, biochemical, morphological and functional analysis in Ric(EKO) and control mice. Results: Ric(EKO) newborns displayed an ichthyosis-like phenotype characterized by dysregulated epidermal de novo lipid synthesis, altered lipid lamellae structure, and aberrant filaggrin (FLG) processing. Despite a compensatory transcriptional epidermal repair response, the protective epidermal function was impaired in Ric(EKO) mice, as revealed by increased transepidermal water loss, enhanced corneocyte fragility, decreased dendritic epidermal T cells, and an exaggerated percutaneous immune response. Restoration of Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation in mTORC2-deficient keratinocytes through expression of constitutive Akt rescued FLG processing. Conclusion: Our findings reveal a critical metabolic signaling relay of barrier formation in which epidermal mTORC2 activity controls FLG processing and de novo epidermal lipid synthesis during cornification. Our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into epidermal barrier formation and could open up new therapeutic opportunities to restore defective epidermal barrier conditions.
  • Witkos, Tomasz M.; Chan, Wing Lee; Joensuu, Merja; Rhiel, Manuel; Pallister, Ed; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Mould, A. Paul; Mironov, Alex A.; Biot, Christophe; Guerardel, Yann; Morelle, Willy; Ungar, Daniel; Wieland, Felix T.; Jokitalo, Eija; Tassabehji, May; Kornak, Uwe; Lowe, Martin (2019)
    COPI is a key mediator of protein trafficking within the secretory pathway. COPI is recruited to the membrane primarily through binding to Arf GTPases, upon which it undergoes assembly to form coated transport intermediates responsible for trafficking numerous proteins, including Golgi-resident enzymes. Here, we identify GORAB, the protein mutated in the skin and bone disorder gerodermia osteodysplastica, as a component of the COPI machinery. GORAB forms stable domains at the trans-Golgi that, via interactions with the COPI-binding protein Scyl1, promote COPI recruitment to these domains. Pathogenic GORAB mutations perturb Scyl1 binding or GORAB assembly into domains, indicating the importance of these interactions. Loss of GORAB causes impairment of COPI-mediated retrieval of trans-Golgi enzymes, resulting in a deficit in glycosylation of secretory cargo proteins. Our results therefore identify GORAB as a COPI scaffolding factor, and support the view that defective protein glycosylation is a major disease mechanism in gerodermia osteodysplastica.
  • Jackson, Matilda R.; Loring, Karagh E.; Homan, Claire C.; Thai, Monica H. N.; Maattanen, Laura; Arvio, Maria; Järvelä, Irma; Shaw, Marie; Gardner, Alison; Gecz, Jozef; Shoubridge, Cheryl (2019)
    Clinical presentations of mutations in the IQSEC2 gene on the X-chromosome initially implicated to cause non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID) in males have expanded to include early onset seizures in males as well as in females. The molecular pathogenesis is not well understood, nor the mechanisms driving disease expression in heterozygous females. Using a CRISPR/Cas9-edited Iqsec2 KO mouse model, we confirm the loss of Iqsec2 mRNA expression and lack of Iqsec2 protein within the brain of both founder and progeny mice. Both male (52%) and female (46%) Iqsec2 KO mice present with frequent and recurrent seizures. Focusing on Iqsec2 KO heterozygous female mice, we demonstrate increased hyperactivity, altered anxiety and fear responses, decreased social interactions, delayed learning capacity and decreased memory retention/novel recognition, recapitulating psychiatric issues, autistic-like features, and cognitive deficits present in female patients with loss-of-function IQSEC2 variants. Despite Iqsec2 normally acting to activate Arf6 substrate, we demonstrate that mice modelling the loss of Iqsec2 function present with increased levels of activated Arf6. We contend that loss of Iqsec2 function leads to altered regulation of activated Arf6-mediated responses to synaptic signalling and immature synaptic networks. We highlight the importance of IQSEC2 function for females by reporting a novel nonsense variant c.566C > A, p.(S189*) in an elderly female patient with profound intellectual disability, generalised seizures, and behavioural disturbances. Our human and mouse data reaffirm IQSEC2 as another disease gene with an unexpected X-chromosome heterozygous female phenotype. Our Iqsec2 mouse model recapitulates the phenotypes observed in human patients despite the differences in the IQSEC2/Iqsec2 gene X-chromosome inactivation between the species.
  • Laitinen, Eeva-Maria; Vaaralahti, Kirsi; Tommiska, Johanna; Eklund, Elina; Tervaniemi, Mari; Valanne, Leena; Raivio, Taneli (2011)
  • Björnson, E.; Packard, C. J.; Adiels, M.; Andersson, L.; Matikainen, Niina; Söderlund, S.; Kahri, J.; Sihlbom, C.; Thorsell, A.; Zhou, H.; Taskinen, M.-R.; Borén, J. (2019)
    Background Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants have emerged as major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. New experimental approaches are required that permit simultaneous investigation of the dynamics of chylomicrons (CM) and apoB48 metabolism and of apoB100 in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Methods Mass spectrometric techniques were used to determine the masses and tracer enrichments of apoB48 in the CM, VLDL1 and VLDL2 density intervals. An integrated non-steady-state multicompartmental model was constructed to describe the metabolism of apoB48- and apoB100-containing lipoproteins following a fat-rich meal, as well as during prolonged fasting. Results The kinetic model described the metabolism of apoB48 in CM, VLDL1 and VLDL2. It predicted a low level of basal apoB48 secretion and, during fat absorption, an increment in apoB48 release into not only CM but also directly into VLDL1 and VLDL2. ApoB48 particles with a long residence time were present in VLDL, and in subjects with high plasma triglycerides, these lipoproteins contributed to apoB48 measured during fasting conditions. Basal apoB48 secretion was about 50 mg day?1, and the increment during absorption was about 230 mg day?1. The fractional catabolic rates for apoB48 in VLDL1 and VLDL2 were substantially lower than for apoB48 in CM. Discussion This novel non-steady-state model integrates the metabolic properties of both apoB100 and apoB48 and the kinetics of triglyceride. The model is physiologically relevant and provides insight not only into apoB48 release in the basal and postabsorptive states but also into the contribution of the intestine to VLDL pool size and kinetics.
  • Kuure, Satu; Sariola, Hannu (SPRINGER-VERLAG SINGAPORE PTE LTD, 2020)
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
  • Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Sinisalo, Juha; Jauhiainen, Matti (2018)
    Remarkably good results have been achieved in the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by using statin, ezetimibe, antihypertensive, antithrombotic, and PCSK9 inhibitor therapies and their proper combinations. However, despite this success, the remaining CVD risk is still high. To target this residual risk and to treat patients who are statin-intolerant or have an exceptionally high CVD risk for instance due to familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), new therapies are intensively sought. One pathway of drug development is targeting the circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) and their lipolytic remnants, which, according to the current view, confer a major CVD risk. Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) and apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) are at present the central molecular targets for therapies designed to reduce TRL, and there are new drugs emerging that suppress their expression or inhibit the function of these two key proteins. The medications targeting these components are biological, either human monoclonal antibodies or antisense oligonucleotides. In this article, we briefly review the mechanisms of action of ANGPTL3 and apoC-III, the reasons why they have been considered promising targets of novel therapies for CVD, as well as the current status and the most important results of their clinical trials. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • EuroEPINOMICS-RES Consortium; Tang, Shan; Addis, Laura; Smith, Anna; Pal, Deb K.; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina (2020)
    Objective We aimed to describe the extent of neurodevelopmental impairments and identify the genetic etiologies in a large cohort of patients with epilepsy with myoclonic atonic seizures (MAE). Methods We deeply phenotyped MAE patients for epilepsy features, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using standardized neuropsychological instruments. We performed exome analysis (whole exome sequencing) filtered on epilepsy and neuropsychiatric gene sets to identify genetic etiologies. Results We analyzed 101 patients with MAE (70% male). The median age of seizure onset was 34 months (range = 6-72 months). The main seizure types were myoclonic atonic or atonic in 100%, generalized tonic-clonic in 72%, myoclonic in 69%, absence in 60%, and tonic seizures in 19% of patients. We observed intellectual disability in 62% of patients, with extremely low adaptive behavioral scores in 69%. In addition, 24% exhibited symptoms of autism and 37% exhibited attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms. We discovered pathogenic variants in 12 (14%) of 85 patients, including five previously published patients. These were pathogenic genetic variants in SYNGAP1 (n = 3), KIAA2022 (n = 2), and SLC6A1 (n = 2), as well as KCNA2, SCN2A, STX1B, KCNB1, and MECP2 (n = 1 each). We also identified three new candidate genes, ASH1L, CHD4, and SMARCA2 in one patient each. Significance MAE is associated with significant neurodevelopmental impairment. MAE is genetically heterogeneous, and we identified a pathogenic genetic etiology in 14% of this cohort by exome analysis. These findings suggest that MAE is a manifestation of several etiologies rather than a discrete syndromic entity.
  • Tanigawa, Yosuke; Wainberg, Michael; Karjalainen, Juha; Kiiskinen, Tuomo; Venkataraman, Guhan; Lemmelä, Susanna; Turunen, Joni A.; Graham, Robert R.; Havulinna, Aki S.; Perola, Markus; Palotie, Aarno; Project, FinnGen; Daly, Mark J.; Rivas, Manuel A. (2020)
    Protein-altering variants that are protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets. Here we use genotyping data from UK Biobank (n = 337,151 unrelated White British individuals) and FinnGen (n = 176,899) to conduct a search for protein-altering variants conferring lower intraocular pressure (IOP) and protection against glaucoma. Through rare protein-altering variant association analysis, we find a missense variant in ANGPTL7 in UK Biobank (rs28991009, p.Gln175His, MAF = 0.8%, genotyped in 82,253 individuals with measured IOP and an independent set of 4,238 glaucoma patients and 250,660 controls) that significantly lowers IOP (beta = -0.53 and -0.67 mmHg for heterozygotes, -3.40 and -2.37 mmHg for homozygotes, P = 5.96 x 10(-9) and 1.07 x 10(-13) for corneal compensated and Goldman-correlated IOP, respectively) and is associated with 34% reduced risk of glaucoma (P = 0.0062). In FinnGen, we identify an ANGPTL7 missense variant at a greater than 50-fold increased frequency in Finland compared with other populations (rs147660927, p.Arg220Cys, MAF Finland = 4.3%), which was genotyped in 6,537 glaucoma patients and 170,362 controls and is associated with a 29% lower glaucoma risk (P = 1.9 x 10(-12) for all glaucoma types and also protection against its subtypes including exfoliation, primary open-angle, and primary angle-closure). We further find three rarer variants in UK Biobank, including a protein-truncating variant, which confer a strong composite lowering of IOP (P = 0.0012 and 0.24 for Goldman-correlated and corneal compensated IOP, respectively), suggesting the protective mechanism likely resides in the loss of interaction or function. Our results support inhibition or down-regulation of ANGPTL7 as a therapeutic strategy for glaucoma. Author summary Glaucoma is a common eye disease that damages the optic nerve. Using intraocular pressure, which is a known modifiable risk factor and predictive measure for glaucoma, genome-wide association studies have identified dozens of genetic variants likely affecting disease risk. However, the identification of potential therapeutic targets from those discoveries has been challenging because the functional consequences and the causal variants of the suggested common variant associations are typically unclear. Here, we present a strategy to scan for rare protein-altering variants, which provides direct insights into the functional consequence and the therapeutic effects, using more than 514,000 individuals with European ancestries in two population cohorts in the UK and Finland. We discover an allelic series of multiple rare ANGPTL7 missense and nonsense variants in UK Biobank that lower intraocular pressure and reduces the risk of glaucoma. We further identify an ANGPTL7 missense variant in FinnGen cohort with more than 50-fold enrichment in the Finnish population that provides protection against glaucoma and its subtypes. Our results highlight the benefits of multi-cohort analysis for the discovery of rare protein-altering variants in common diseases and indicate ANGPTL7 as a therapeutic target for glaucoma.
  • Adiels, Martin; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Björnson, Elias; Andersson, Linda; Matikainen, Niina; Söderlund, Sanni; Kahri, Juhani; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Sihlbom, Carina; Thorsell, Annika; Zhou, Haihong; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Packard, Chris; Boren, Jan (2019)
    Aims To investigate how apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) metabolism is altered in subjects with type 2 diabetes, whether the perturbed plasma triglyceride concentrations in this condition are determined primarily by the secretion rate or the removal rate of apoC-III, and whether improvement of glycaemic control using the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue liraglutide for 16 weeks modifies apoC-III dynamics. Materials and Methods Postprandial apoC-III kinetics were assessed after a bolus injection of [5,5,5-H-2(3)]leucine using ultrasensitive mass spectrometry techniques. We compared apoC-III kinetics in two situations: in subjects with type 2 diabetes before and after liraglutide therapy, and in type 2 diabetic subjects with matched body mass index (BMI) non-diabetic subjects. Liver fat content, subcutaneous abdominal and intra-abdominal fat were determined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results Improved glycaemic control by liraglutide therapy for 16 weeks significantly reduced apoC-III secretion rate (561 +/- 198 vs. 652 +/- 196 mg/d, P = 0.03) and apoC-III levels (10.0 +/- 3.8 vs. 11.7 +/- 4.3 mg/dL, P = 0.035) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Change in apoC-III secretion rate was significantly associated with the improvement in indices of glucose control (r = 0.67; P = 0.009) and change in triglyceride area under the curve (r = 0.59; P = 0.025). In line with this, the apoC-III secretion rate was higher in subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with BMI-matched non-diabetic subjects (676 +/- 208 vs. 505 +/- 174 mg/d, P = 0.042). Conclusions The results reveal that the secretion rate of apoC-III is associated with elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in subjects with type 2 diabetes, potentially through the influence of glucose homeostasis on the production of apoC-III.
  • Boren, Jan; Packard, Chris J.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta (2020)
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally. It is well-established based on evidence accrued during the last three decades that high plasma concentrations of cholesterol-rich atherogenic lipoproteins are causatively linked to CVD, and that lowering these reduces atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in humans (1-9). Historically, most attention has been on low-density lipoproteins (LDL) since these are the most abundant atherogenic lipoproteins in the circulation, and thus the main carrier of cholesterol into the artery wall. However, with the rise of obesity and insulin resistance in many populations, there is increasing interest in the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and their metabolic remnants, with accumulating evidence showing they too are causatively linked to CVD. Plasma triglyceride, measured either in the fasting or non-fasting state, is a useful index of the abundance of TRLs and recent research into the biology and genetics of triglyceride heritability has provided new insight into the causal relationship of TRLs with CVD. Of the genetic factors known to influence plasma triglyceride levels variation inAPOC3- the gene for apolipoprotein (apo) C-III - has emerged as being particularly important as a regulator of triglyceride transport and a novel therapeutic target to reduce dyslipidaemia and CVD risk (10).
  • Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Santos, Raul D.; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Aikawa, Masanori; Al Rasadi, Khalid; Amarenco, Pierre; Barter, Philip J.; Ceska, Richard; Corsini, Alberto; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Duriez, Patrick; Eckel, Robert H.; Ezhov, Marat V.; Farnier, Michel; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Hermans, Michel P.; Ishibashi, Shun; Karpe, Fredrik; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Koenig, Wolfgang; Krempf, Michel; Lim, Soo; Lorenzatti, Alberto J.; McPherson, Ruth; Millan Nunez-Cortes, Jesus; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Ogawa, Hisao; Packard, Chris J.; Plutzky, Jorge; Ponte-Negretti, Carlos I.; Pradhan, Aruna; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Ridker, Paul M.; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Sadikot, Shaukat; Shimano, Hitoshi; Sritara, Piyamitr; Stock, Jane K.; Su, Ta-Chen; Susekov, Andrey V.; Tartar, Andre; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tenenbaum, Alexander; Tokgozoglu, Lale S.; Tomlinson, Brian; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Valensi, Paul; Vrablik, Michal; Wahli, Walter; Watts, Gerald F.; Yamashita, Shizuya; Yokote, Koutaro; Zambon, Alberto; Libby, Peter (2019)
    In the era of precision medicine, treatments that target specific modifiable characteristics of high-risk patients have the potential to lower further the residual risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Correction of atherogenic dyslipidemia, however, remains a major unmet clinical need. Elevated plasma triglycerides, with or without low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), offer a key modifiable component of this common dyslipidemia, especially in insulin resistant conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. The development of selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha modulators (SPPARM) offers an approach to address this treatment gap. This Joint Consensus Panel appraised evidence for the first SPPARM agonist and concluded that this agent represents a novel therapeutic class, distinct from fibrates, based on pharmacological activity, and, importantly, a safe hepatic and renal profile. The ongoing PROMINENT cardiovascular outcomes trial is testing in 10,000 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, elevated triglycerides, and low levels of HDL-C whether treatment with this SPPARM agonist safely reduces residual cardiovascular risk.
  • UK10K Consortium; UCLEB Consortium (2015)
    The contribution of rare and low-frequency variants to human traits is largely unexplored. Here we describe insights from sequencing whole genomes (low read depth, 7x) or exomes (high read depth, 80x) of nearly 10,000 individuals from population-based and disease collections. In extensively phenotyped cohorts we characterize over 24 million novel sequence variants, generate a highly accurate imputation reference panel and identify novel alleles associated with levels of triglycerides (APOB), adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLR and RGAG1) from single-marker and rare variant aggregation tests. We describe population structure and functional annotation of rare and low-frequency variants, use the data to estimate the benefits of sequencing for association studies, and summarize lessons from disease-specific collections. Finally, we make available an extensive resource, including individual-level genetic and phenotypic data and web-based tools to facilitate the exploration of association results.
  • Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Boren, Jan (2016)
    ApoC-III was discovered almost 50 years ago, but for many years, it did not attract much attention. However, as epidemiological and Mendelian randomization studies have associated apoC-III with low levels of triglycerides and decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), it has emerged as a novel and potentially powerful therapeutic approach to managing dyslipidemia and CVD risk. The atherogenicity of apoC-III has been attributed to both direct lipoprotein lipase-mediated mechanisms and indirect mechanisms, such as promoting secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), provoking proinflammatory responses in vascular cells and impairing LPL-independent hepatic clearance of TRL remnants. Encouraging results from clinical trials using antisense oligonucleotide, which selectively inhibits apoC-III, indicate that modulating apoC-III may be a potent therapeutic approach to managing dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease risk.