Browsing by Subject "OF-THE-ART"

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  • Alhilal, Ahmad Yousef; Braud, Tristan; Hui, Pan (2021)
    In recent years, the number of space exploration missions has multiplied. Such an increase raises the question of effective communication between the multitude of human-made objects spread across our solar system. An efficient and scalable communication architecture presents multiple challenges, including the distance between planetary entities, their motion and potential obstruction, the limited available payload on satellites, and the high mission cost. This paper brings together recent relevant specifications, standards, mission demonstrations, and the most recent proposals to develop a unified architecture for deep-space internetworked communication. After characterizing the transmission medium and its unique challenges, we explore the available communication technologies and frameworks to establish a reliable communication architecture across the solar system. We then draw an evolutive roadmap for establishing a scalable communication architecture. This roadmap builds upon the mission-centric communication architectures in the upcoming years towards a fully interconnected network or InterPlanetary Internet (IPN). We finally discuss the tools available to develop such an architecture in the short, medium, and long terms. The resulting architecture cross-supports space agencies on the solar system-scale while significantly decreasing space communication costs. Through this analysis, we derive the critical research questions remaining for creating the IPN regarding the considerable challenges of space communication.
  • Meier, H. E. Markus; Edman, Moa; Eilola, Kari; Placke, Manja; Neumann, Thomas; Andersson, Helén C.; Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther; Dieterich, Christian; Frauen, Claudia; Friedland, René; Gröger, Matthias; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Gustafsson, Erik; Isaev, Alexey; Kniebusch, Madline; Kuznetsov, Ivan; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Naumann, Michael; Omstedt, Anders; Ryabchenko, Vladimir; Saraiva, Sofia; Savchuk, Oleg P. (2019)
    Following earlier regional assessment studies, such as the Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin and the North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment, knowledge acquired from available literature about future scenario simulations of biogeochemical cycles in the Baltic Sea and their uncertainties is assessed. The identification and reduction of uncertainties of scenario simulations are issues for marine management. For instance, it is important to know whether nutrient load abatement will meet its objectives of restored water quality status in future climate or whether additional measures are required. However, uncertainties are large and their sources need to be understood to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of measures. The assessment of sources of uncertainties in projections of biogeochemical cycles based on authors' own expert judgment suggests that the biggest uncertainties are caused by (1) unknown current and future bioavailable nutrient loads from land and atmosphere, (2) the experimental setup (including the spin up strategy), (3) differences between the projections of global and regional climate models, in particular, with respect to the global mean sea level rise and regional water cycle, (4) differing model-specific responses of the simulated biogeochemical cycles to long-term changes in external nutrient loads and climate of the Baltic Sea region, and (5) unknown future greenhouse gas emissions. Regular assessments of the models' skill (or quality compared to observations) for the Baltic Sea region and the spread in scenario simulations (differences among projected changes) as well as improvement of dynamical downscaling methods are recommended.
  • Vergallo, Cristian; Hafeez, Muhammad Nadeem; Iannotta, Dalila; Santos, Helder A.; D'Avanzo, Nicola; Dini, Luciana; Cilurzo, Felisa; Fresta, Massimo; Di Marzio, Luisa; Christian, Celia (Springer International Publishing AG, 2021)
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
    Clinical responses and tolerability of conventional nano-carriers (NCs) are sometimes different from those expected in anticancer therapy. Thus, new smart drug delivery systems (DDSs) with stimuli-responsive properties and novel materials have been developed. Several clinical trials demonstrated that these DDSs have better clinical therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of many cancers than free drugs. Composition of DDSs and their surface properties increase the specific targeting of therapeutics versus cancer cells, without affecting healthy tissues, and thus limiting their toxicity versus unspecific tissues. Herein, an extensive revision of literature on NCs used as DDSs for cancer applications has been performed using the available bibliographic databases.
  • Tian, Xianglin; Minunno, Francesco; Cao, Tianjian; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Mäkelä, Annikki (2020)
    Abstract Applications of ecosystem flux models on large geographical scales are often limited by model complexity and data availability. Here, we calibrated and evaluated a semi-empirical ecosystem flux model, PRELES, for various forest types and climate conditions, based on eddy covariance data from 55 sites. A Bayesian approach was adopted for model calibration and uncertainty quantification. We applied the site-specific calibrations and multisite calibrations to nine plant functional types (PFTs) to obtain the site-specific and PFT specific parameter vectors for PRELES. A systematically designed cross-validation was implemented to evaluate calibration strategies and the risks in extrapolation. The combination of plant physiological traits and climate patterns generated significant variation in vegetation responses and model parameters across but not within PFTs, implying that applying the model without PFT-specific parameters is risky. But within PFT, the multisite calibrations performed as accurately as the site-specific calibrations in predicting gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Moreover, the variations among sites within one PFT could be effectively simulated by simply adjusting the parameter of potential light-use efficiency (LUE), implying significant convergence of simulated vegetation processes within PFT. The hierarchical modelling of PRELES provides a compromise between satellite-driven LUE and physiologically oriented approaches for extrapolating the geographical variation of ecosystem productivity. Although measurement errors of eddy covariance and remotely sensed data propagated a substantial proportion of uncertainty or potential biases, the results illustrated that PRELES could reliably capture daily variations of GPP and ET for contrasting forest types on large geographical scales if PFT-specific parameterizations were applied.
  • Kepczynski, Mariusz; Rog, Tomasz (2016)
    Synthetic lipids and surfactants that do not exist in biological systems have been used for the last few decades in both basic and applied science. The most notable applications for synthetic lipids and surfactants are drug delivery, gene transfection, as reporting molecules, and as support for structural lipid biology. In this review, we describe the potential of the synergistic combination of computational and experimental methodologies to study the behavior of synthetic lipids and surfactants embedded in lipid membranes and liposomes. We focused on select cases in which molecular dynamics simulations were used to complement experimental studies aiming to understand the structure and properties of new compounds at the atomistic level. We also describe cases in which molecular dynamics simulations were used to design new synthetic lipids and surfactants, as well as emerging fields for the application of these compounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Rog. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Lan, Hangzhen; Salmi, Leo D.; Rönkkö, Tuukka; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Jussila, Matti; Hartonen, Kari; Kemell, Marianna; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2018)
    New chemical vapor reaction (CVR) and atomic layer deposition (ALD)-conversion methods were utilized for preparation of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) coatings of solid phase microextraction (SPME) Arrow for the first time. With simple, easy and convenient one-step reaction or conversion, four MOF coatings were made by suspend ALD iron oxide (Fe2O3) film or aluminum oxide (Al2O3) film above terephthalic acid (H2BDC) or trimesic acid (H3BTC) vapor. UIO-66 coating was made by zirconium (Zr)-BDC film in acetic acid vapor. As the first documented instance of all-gas phase synthesis of SPME Arrow coatings, preparation parameters including CVR/conversion time and temperature, acetic acid volume, and metal oxide film/metal-ligand films thickness were investigated. The optimal coatings exhibited crystalline structures, excellent uniformity, satisfactory thickness (2-7.5 μm), and high robustness (>80 times usage). To study the practical usefulness of the coatings for the extraction, several analytes with different chemical properties were tested. The Fe-BDC coating was found to be the most selective and sensitive for the determination of benzene ring contained compounds due to its highly hydrophobic surface and unsaturated metal site. UIO-66 coating was best for small polar, aromatic, and long chain polar compounds owing to its high porosity. The usefulness of new coatings were evaluated for gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) determination of several analytes, present in wastewater samples at three levels of concentration, and satisfactory results were achieved.
  • Omstedt, A.; Elken, J.; Lehmann, A.; Lepparanta, M.; Meier, H. E. M.; Myrberg, K.; Rutgersson, A. (2014)
    We review progress in Baltic Sea physical oceanography (including sea ice and atmosphere-land interactions) and Baltic Sea modelling, focusing on research related to BALTEX Phase II and other relevant work during the 2003-2014 period. The major advances achieved in this period are: Meteorological databases are now available to the research community, partly as station data, with a growing number of freely available gridded datasets on decadal and centennial time scales. The free availability of meteorological datasets supports the development of more accurate forcing functions for Baltic Sea models. In the last decade, oceanographic data have become much more accessible and new important measurement platforms, such as FerryBoxes and satellites, have provided better temporally and spatially resolved observations. Our understanding of how large-scale atmospheric circulation affects the Baltic Sea climate, particularly in winter, has improved. Internal variability is strong illustrating the dominant stochastic behaviour of the atmosphere. The heat and water cycles of the Baltic Sea are better understood. The importance of surface waves in air-sea interaction is better understood, and Stokes drift and Langmuir circulation have been identified as likely playing an important role in surface water mixing in sea water. We better understand sea ice dynamics and thermodynamics in the coastal zone where sea ice interaction between land and sea is crucial. The Baltic Sea's various straits and sills are of increasing interest in seeking to understand water exchange and mixing. There has been increased research into the Baltic Sea coastal zone, particularly into upwelling, in the past decade. Modelling of the Baltic Sea-North Sea system, including the development of coupled land-sea-atmosphere models, has improved. Despite marked progress in Baltic Sea research over the last decade, several gaps remain in our knowledge and understanding. The current understanding of salinity changes is limited, and future projections of salinity evolution are uncertain. In addition, modelling of the hydrological cycle in atmospheric climate models is severely biased. More detailed investigations of regional precipitation and evaporation patterns (including runoff), atmospheric variability, highly saline water inflows, exchange between sub-basins, circulation, and especially turbulent mixing are still needed. Furthermore, more highly resolved oceanographic models are necessary. In addition, models that incorporate more advanced carbon cycle and ecosystem descriptions and improved description of water-sediment interactions are needed. There is also a need for new climate projections and simulations with improved atmospheric and oceanographic coupled model systems. These and other research challenges are addressed by the recently formed Baltic Earth research programme, the successor of the BALTEX programme, which ended in 2013. Baltic Earth will treat anthropogenic changes and impacts together with their natural drivers. Baltic Earth will serve as a network for earth system sciences in the region, following in the BALTEX tradition but in a wider context. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.