Browsing by Subject "OLDER MEN"

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  • Dudel, Christian; Myrskylä, Mikko (2020)
    Objectives: Little is known about the length of working life, even though it is a key indicator for policy-makers. In this paper, we study how the length of working life at age 50 has developed in the United States from a cohort perspective. Methods: We use a large longitudinal sample of U.S. Social Security register data that covers close to 1.7 million individuals of the cohorts born from 1920 to 1965. For all of these cohorts, we study the employment trajectories and working life expectancy (WLE) at age 50 by gender and nativity (native-born/foreign-born). For the cohorts with employment trajectories that are only incompletely observed, we borrow information from older cohorts to predict their WLE. Results: The length of working life has been increasing for the native-born males and females, and the younger cohorts worked longer than the older cohorts. However, WLE might soon peak, and then stall. The gap in WLE between the nativeborn and the foreign-born has increased over time, although latter group might be able to catch up in the coming years. Discussion: Our findings show that studying employment from a cohort perspective reveals crucial information about patterns of working life. The future development of the length of working life should be a major concern for policy-makers.
  • Pesonen, Jori S.; Cartwright, Rufus; Vernooij, Robin W. M.; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Agarwal, Arnav; Mangera, Altaf; Markland, Alayne D.; Tsui, Johnson F.; Santti, Henrikki; Griebling, Tomas L.; Pryalukhin, Alexey E.; Riikonen, Jarno; Tähtinen, Riikka M.; Vaughan, Camille P.; Johnson, Theodore M.; Auvinen, Anssi; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Tikkinen, Kari A. O. (2020)
    Purpose: Nocturia (waking from sleep at night to void) is a common cause of sleep disruption associated with increased comorbidity and impaired quality of life. However, its impact on mortality remains unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association of nocturia with mortality as a prognostic factor and a causal risk factor. Materials and Methods: We searched PubMed (R), Scopus (R), CINAHL (R) (Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature) and major conference abstracts up to December 31, 2018. Random effects meta-analyses were done to address the adjusted RR of mortality in people with nocturia. Metaregression was performed to explore potential determinants of heterogeneity, including the risk of bias. We applied the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) framework to rate the quality of evidence for nocturia as a prognostic risk factor for mortality and separately as a cause of mortality. Results: Of the 5,230 identified reports 11 observational studies proved eligible for inclusion. To assess nocturia 10 studies used symptom questionnaires and 1 used frequency-volume charts. Nocturia was defined as 2 or more episodes per night in 6 studies (55%) and as 3 or more episodes per night in 5 (45%). Pooled estimates demonstrated a RR of 1.27 (95% CI 1.16-1.40, I-2=48%) with an absolute 1.6% and 4.0% 5-year mortality difference in individuals 60 and 75 years old, respectively. The pooled estimates of relative risk did not differ significantly across varying age, gender, followup, nocturia case definition, risk of bias or study region. We rated the quality of evidence for nocturia as a prognostic factor as moderate and as a cause of mortality as very low. Conclusions: Nocturia is probably associated with an approximately 1.3-fold increased risk of death.
  • Agarwal, Arnav; Eryuzlu, Leyla N.; Cartwright, Rufus; Thorlund, Kristian; Tammela, Teuvo L. J.; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Auvinen, Anssi; Tikkinen, Kari A. O. (2014)
  • Dudel, Christian; Myrskylae, Mikko (2017)
    A key concern about population aging is the decline in the size of the economically active population. Working longer is a potential remedy. However, little is known about the length of working life and how it relates to macroeconomic conditions. We use the U.S. Health and Retirement Study for 1992-2011 and multistate life tables to analyze working life expectancy at age 50 and study the impact of the Great Recession in 2007-2009. Despite declines of one to two years following the recession, in 2008-2011, American men aged 50 still spent 13 years, or two-fifths of their remaining life, working; American women of the same age spent 11 years, or one-third of their remaining life, in employment. Although educational differences in working life expectancy have been stable since the mid-1990s, racial differences started changing after the onset of the Great Recession. Our results show that although Americans generally work longer than people in other countries, considerable subpopulation heterogeneity exists. We also find that the time trends are fluctuating, which may prove troublesome as the population ages. Policies targeting the weakest performing groups may be needed to increase the total population trends.