Browsing by Subject "OLIVINE"

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  • Kohout, T.; Petrova, E.; Yakovlev, G. A.; Grokhovsky, V.; Penttilä, A.; Maturilli, A.; Moreau, J-G; Berzin, S.; Wasiljeff, J.; Danilenko, I. A.; Zamyatin, D. A.; Muftakhetdinova, R. F.; Heikkilä, M. (2020)
    Context. Shock-induced changes in ordinary chondrite meteorites related to impacts or planetary collisions are known to be capable of altering their optical properties. Thus, one can hypothesize that a significant portion of the ordinary chondrite material may be hidden within the observed dark C/X asteroid population. Aims. The exact pressure-temperature conditions of the shock-induced darkening are not well constrained. Thus, we experimentally investigate the gradual changes in the chondrite material optical properties as a function of the shock pressure. Methods. A spherical shock experiment with Chelyabinsk LL5 was performed in order to study the changes in its optical properties. The spherical shock experiment geometry allows for a gradual increase of shock pressure from similar to 15 GPa at a rim toward hundreds of gigapascals in the center. Results. Four distinct zones were observed with an increasing shock load. The optical changes are minimal up to similar to 50 GPa. In the region of similar to 50-60 GPa, shock darkening occurs due to the troilite melt infusion into silicates. This process abruptly ceases at pressures of similar to 60 GPa due to an onset of silicate melting. At pressures higher than similar to 150 GPa, recrystallization occurs and is associated with a second-stage shock darkening due to fine troilite-metal eutectic grains. The shock darkening affects the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared region while changes to the MIR spectrum are minimal. Conclusions. Shock darkening is caused by two distinct mechanisms with characteristic pressure regions, which are separated by an interval where the darkening ceases. This implies a reduced amount of shock-darkened material produced during the asteroid collisions.
  • Turunen, Sanni T.; Luttinen, Arto V.; Heinonen, Jussi S.; Jamal, Daúd L. (2019)
    We present geochemical and isotopic (Nd, Sr) data for a picrite lava suite from the Luenha River and adjacent areas in Mozambique. The Luenha picrites represent a previously unknown type of picrites related to the Karoo large igneous province (LIP) and are distinguished by their notably low TiO2 contents (0.3-1.0 wt%) and coupling of high Nb/Y with low Zr/Y and Sm/Yb. Relatively high CaO and low Zn/Fe point to a peridotitic mantle source. Contamination-sensitive incompatible element ratios show that one lava flow is likely to be uncontaminated by the crust and its composition suggests a mantle source with primitive mantle-like incompatible element ratios and mildly depleted isotopic ratios (initial Sr-87/Sr-86 = 0.7041 and epsilon(Nd) = +1.4 at 180 Ma). The primary melts of the Luenha picrites had MgO contents in the range of 13-21 wt%. Our preferred estimate for a primary melt composition (MgO = 18 wt%) resembles experimental melts of fertile mantle peridotite at 3-4 GPa and indicates liquidus temperature of 1445-1582 degrees C. Geochemical similarities suggest the Luenha picrites were generated from the same overall primitive mantle-like reservoir that produced the main volume of Karoo flood basalts in the Karoo, Kalahari, and Zambezi basins, whereas the previously identified enriched and depleted (upper) mantle sources of Karoo picrite suites (Mwenezi, Antarctica) were subordinate sources for flood basalts. We propose that the Luenha picrites record melting of a hot, chemically primitive mantle plume source that may have been rooted in the sub-African large low shear velocity province boundary and that such a source might have been the most significant magma source in the Karoo LIP. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Escobar-Cerezo, J.; Penttilä, Antti; Kohout, T.; Munoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Muinonen, K. (2018)
    Lunar soil spectra differ from pulverized lunar rocks spectra by reddening and darkening effects, and shallower absorption bands. These effects have been described in the past as a consequence of space weathering. In this work, we focus on the effects of nanophase iron (npFe(0)) inclusions on the experimental reflectance spectra of lunar regolith particles. The reflectance spectra are computed using SIRIS3, a code that combines ray optics with radiative-transfer modeling to simulate light scattering by different types of scatterers. The imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength of immature lunar soil is derived by comparison with the measured spectra of the corresponding material. Furthermore, the effect of adding nanophase iron inclusions on the reflectance spectra is studied. The computed spectra qualitatively reproduce the observed effects of space weathered lunar regolith.
  • Chrbolková, Kateřina; Halodová, Patricie; Kohout, Tomáš; Ďurech, Josef; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Malý, Petr; Dědič, Václav; Penttilä, Antti; Trojánek, František; Jarugula, Rajesh (2022)
    Context. Airless planetary bodies are studied mainly by remote sensing methods. Reflectance spectroscopy is often used to derive their compositions. One of the main complications for the interpretation of reflectance spectra is surface alteration by space weathering caused by irradiation by solar wind and micrometeoroid particles. Aims. We aim to evaluate the damage to the samples from H+ and laser irradiation and relate it to the observed alteration in the spectra. Methods. We used olivine (OL) and pyroxene (OPX) pellets irradiated by 5 keV H+ ions and individual femtosecond laser pulses and measured their visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra. We observed the pellets with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We studied structural, mineralogical, and chemical modifications in the samples. Finally, we connected the material observations to changes in the reflectance spectra. Results. In both minerals, H+ irradiation induces partially amorphous sub-surface layers containing small vesicles. In OL pellets, these vesicles are more tightly packed than in OPX ones. Any related spectral change is mainly in the VIS spectral slope. Changes due to laser irradiation are mostly dependent on the material's melting temperature. Of all the samples, only the laser-irradiated OL contains nanophase Fe particles, which induce detectable spectral slope change throughout the measured spectral range. Our results suggest that spectral changes at VIS-NIR wavelengths are mainly dependent on the thickness of (partially) amorphous sub-surface layers. Furthermore, amorphisation smooths micro-roughness, increasing the contribution of volume scattering and absorption over surface scattering. Conclusions. Soon after exposure to the space environment, the appearance of partially amorphous sub-surface layers results in rapid changes in the VIS spectral slope. In later stages (onset of micrometeoroid bombardment), we expect an emergence of nanoparticles to also mildly affect the NIR spectral slope. An increase in the dimensions of amorphous layers and vesicles in the more space-weathered material will only cause band-depth variation and darkening.