Browsing by Subject "ONLINE"

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  • Granholm, Camilla (2016)
    This article presents a qualitative study of ICT use among Finnish young people attending training programmes for youth outside employment and education. The data come from six focus group interviews and three individual interviews, as well as a single focus group interview with involved supervisors. The data was analyzed using McQuail's (1983) theory regarding the motives for individual media use. The results show that the young people use ICT primarily for entertainment, but their use is diverse. Young people choose the tools and dimensions for interaction that best fulfill their needs, blending together ingredients from both online and offline sources. Unlike previous research, young people in this study stated that they prefer talking to someone face-to-face about severe (health-related or emotional) problems. If social and youth services want to meet young people on their own terms, both online and offline services are needed.
  • Salonen, Anne H.; Kontto, Jukka; Perhoniemi, Riku; Alho, Hannu; Castren, Sari (2018)
    Background: Excessive expenditure and financial harms are core features of problem gambling. There are various forms of gambling and their nature varies. The aim was to measure gambling expenditure by game type while controlling for demographics and other gambling participation factors. A further aim was to find out how each game type was associated with gambling expenditure when the number of game types played is adjusted for. Methods: Using data from the 2015 Finnish Gambling survey on adult gamblers (n = 3555), multiple log-linear regression was used to examine the effects of demographics, gambling participation, and engaging in different game types on weekly gambling expenditure (WGE) and relative gambling expenditure (RGE). Background: Excessive expenditure and financial harms are core features of problem gambling. There are various forms of gambling and their nature varies. The aim was to measure gambling expenditure by game type while controlling for demographics and other gambling participation factors. A further aim was to find out how each game type was associated with gambling expenditure when the number of game types played is adjusted for. Conclusions: It seems that overall gambling frequency is the strongest indicator of high gambling expenditure. Our results showed that different game types had different effect sizes on gambling expenditure. Weekly gambling on horse races and non-monopoly games had the greatest increasing effect on expenditure. However, different game types also varied based on their popularity. The extent of potential harms caused by high expenditure therefore also varies on the population level. Based on our results, future prevention and harm minimization efforts should be tailored to different game types for greater effectiveness.
  • Yeung, Dennis; Guerra, Irene Mendez; Barner-Rasmussen, Ian; Siponen, Emilia; Farina, Dario; Vujaklija, Ivan (2022)
    Objective: In this work, we present a myoelectric interface that extracts natural motor synergies from multi-muscle signals and adapts in real-time with new user inputs. With this unsupervised adaptive myocontrol (UAM) system, optimal synergies for control are continuously co-adapted with changes in user motor control, or as a function of perturbed conditions via online non-negative matrix factorization guided by physiologically informed sparseness constraints in lieu of explicit data labelling. Methods: UAM was tested in a set of virtual target reaching tasks completed by able-bodied and amputee subjects. Tests were conducted under normative and electrode perturbed conditions to gauge control robustness with comparisons to non-adaptive and supervised adaptive myocontrol schemes. Furthermore, UAM was used to interface an amputee with a multi-functional powered hand prosthesis during standardized Clothespin Relocation Tests, also conducted in normative and perturbed conditions. Results: In virtual tests, UAM effectively mitigated performance degradation caused by electrode displacement, affording greater resilience over an existing supervised adaptive system for amputee subjects. Induced electrode shifts also had negligible effect on the real world control performance of UAM with consistent completion times (23.91 +/- 1.33 s) achieved across Clothespin Relocation Tests in the normative and electrode perturbed conditions. Conclusion: UAM affords comparable robustness improvements to existing supervised adaptive myocontrol interfaces whilst providing additional practical advantages for clinical deployment. Significance: The proposed system uniquely incorporates neuromuscular control principles with unsupervised online learning methods and presents a working example of a freely co-adaptive bionic interface.
  • Myyry, Liisa; Kallunki, Veera; Katajavuori, Nina; Repo, Saara; Tuononen, Tarja; Anttila, Henrika; Kinnunen, Päivi Anneli; Haarala-Muhonen, Anne; Pyörälä, Eeva (2022)
    This study examines, using a cross-sectional approach, the digital competence of academic teachers at a time when teaching shifted to digital distance learning at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Teachers from different academic fields at a large multidisciplinary Finnish university (N = 265) responded to a questionnaire about the purposes for which they use digital tools in teaching, how they evaluated their competence at distance teaching during the lockdown of March-May 2020 and their beliefs about distance teaching. The respondents used digital tools in teaching mostly for delivering information. According to their evaluations, their competence in distance teaching increased during the early stages of COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, but their beliefs about distance teaching did not relate to the feelings of competence. Respondents with no experience in distance teaching before the lockdown evaluated their competence as having increased more than did respondents with previous experience. The implications of the findings for understanding competence development are then discussed.
  • Olaleye, Sunday; Sanusi, I.T.; Fanning, Stephen; Salo, Jari (2020)
  • Oksanen, Atte; Oksa, Reetta; Savela, Nina; Kaakinen, Markus; Ellonen, Noora (2020)
    Cyberbullying at work takes many forms, from aggressive and threatening behavior to social ostracism. It can also have adverse consequences on general well-being that might be even more severe for people whose identities are centrally based on social media ties. We examined this type of identity-driven social media use via the concept of social media identity bubbles. We first analyzed the risk and protective factors associated with cyberbullying victimization at work and then investigated its impacts on well-being. We expected that workers strongly involved in social media identity bubbles would be in the worst position when faced with cyberbullying. Data include a sample of workers from five Finnish expert organizations (N = 563) and a representative sample of Finnish workers (N = 1817). We investigated cyberbullying at work with 10 questions adapted from the Cyberbullying Behavior Questionnaire. Other measures included scales for private and professional social media usage, social media identity bubbles (six-item Identity Bubble Reinforcement Scale), well-being at work, sociodemographic factors, and job-related information. Prevalence of monthly cyberbullying victimization at work was 13% in expert organizations and 17% in the Finnish working population. Victims were young, active users of professional social media and they were strongly involved in social media identity bubbles. Victims who were in social media identity bubbles reported higher psychological distress, exhaustion, and technostress than other victims. Cyberbullying at work is a prevalent phenomenon and has negative outcomes on well-being at work. Negative consequences are more severe among those with highly identity-driven social media use.
  • Appelgren, Ester; Linden, Carl-Gustav (2020)
    The combined set of skills needed for producing data journalism (e.g., investigative journalism methods, programming, knowledge in statistics, data management, statistical reporting, and design) challenges the understanding of what competences a journalist needs and the boundaries for the tasks journalists perform. Scholars denote external actors with these types of knowledge as interlopers or actors at the periphery of journalism. In this study, we follow two Swedish digital native data journalism start-ups operating in the Nordics from when they were founded in 2012 to 2019. Although the start-ups have been successful in news journalism over the years and acted as drivers for change in Nordic news innovation, they also have a presence in sectors other than journalism. This qualitative case study, which is based on interviews over time with the start-up founders and a qualitative analysis of blog posts written by the employees at the two start-ups, tells a story of journalists working at the periphery of legacy media, at least temporarily forced to leave journalism behind yet successfully using journalistic thinking outside of journalistic contexts.
  • Gagliardone, Iginio; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Findlay, Kyle; Olaniran, Samuel; Pohjonen, Matti; Tallam, Edwin (2021)
    This article presents new empirical insights into what people do with conspiracy theories during crises. By suppressing the impulse to distinguish between truth and falsehood, which has characterized most scholarship on the COVID-19 "infodemic," and engaging with claims surrounding two popular COVID-19 conspiracies-on 5G and on Bill Gates-in South Africa and Nigeria, we illustrate how conspiracies morph as they interact with different socio-political contexts. Drawing on a mixed-method analysis of more than 6 million tweets, we examine how, in each country, conspiracies have uniquely intersected with longer-term discourses and political projects. In Nigeria, the two conspiracies were both seized as opportunities to extend criticism to the ruling party. In South Africa, they produced distinctive responses: while the 5G conspiracy had limited buy-in, the Gates conspiracy resonated with deep-rooted resentment toward the West, corporate interests, and what is seen as a paternalistic attitude of some external actors toward Africa. These findings stress the importance of taking conspiracy theories seriously, rather than dismissing them simply as negative externalities of digital ecosystems. Situating conspiracies in specific dynamics of trust and mistrust can make an important difference when designing responses that are not limited to broadcasting truthful information, but can also enable interventions that account for deeply rooted sentiments of suspicion toward specific issues and actors, which can vary significantly across communities.
  • Döveling, Katrin; Harju, Anu Annika; Sommer, Denise (2018)
    Research on the processes of mediatization aims to explore the mutual shaping of media and social life and how new media technologies influence and infiltrate social practices and cultural life. We extend this discussion of media’s role in transforming the everyday by including in the discussion the mediatization of emotion and discuss what we conceptualize as digital affect culture(s). We understand these as relational, contextual, globally emergent spaces in the digital environment where affective flows construct atmospheres of emotional and cultural belonging by way of emotional resonance and alignment. Approaching emotion as a cultural practice, in terms of affect, as something people do instead of have, we discuss how digital affect culture(s) traverse the digital terrains and construct pockets of culture-specific communities of affective practice. We draw on existing empirical research on digital memorial culture to empirically illustrate how digital affect culture manifests on micro, meso, and macro levels and elaborate on the constitutive characteristics of digital affect culture. We conclude with implications of this conceptualization for theoretical advancement and empirical research.
  • Latvala, Tiina; Alho, Hannu; Raisamo, Susanna; Salonen, Anne H. (2019)
    Aims: This study explores the associations between gambling involvement, type of gambling, at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG) and register-based grade point average (GPA), among Finnish people aged 18-29 years (N = 676). It is assumed that high gambling involvement and engaging in certain types of gambling are linked to ARPG, and that low school achievement is positively associated with these measures. Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional random sample was collected in 2015. The data were weighted based on gender, age and region. Analyses were carried out using logistic regression models. Results: Frequent gambling, playing several game types, online gambling and ARPG were more common among men than women. Those with low GPA played fast and low-paced daily lottery games and used online casinos significantly more often than men and women with average/high GPA. Men with a low GPA were also more likely to gamble on a weekly basis and played casino games and online poker more often. For women with a low GPA online gambling and playing slot machines were more common than for women with an average/high GPA. When controlling for sociodemographic variables and gambling involvement, men's participation in daily lottery games and online poker was significantly associated with a low GPA, but among women none of the game types remained statistically significant. Among women, playing several different game types was linked with a low GPA. Conclusions: It seems that poorer school achievement is associated not only with frequent gambling, a large number of game types played and online gambling, but also, to some extent at least, with game type preferences.
  • Vilen, M.; Kankainen, A.; Baczyk, P.; Canete, L.; Dobaczewski, J.; Eronen, T.; Geldhof, S.; Jokinen, A.; Konieczka, M.; Kostensalo, J.; Moore, I. D.; Nesterenko, D. A.; Penttilä, H.; Pohjalainen, I.; Reponen, M.; Rinta-Antila, S.; de Roubin, A.; Satula, W.; Suhonen, J. (2019)
    An upgraded ion-guide system for the production of neutron-deficient isotopes with heavy-ion beams has been commissioned at the IGISOL facility with an Ar-36 beam on a Ni-nat target. It was used together with the JYFLTRAP double Penning trap to measure the masses of Zr-82, Nb-84, Mo-86, Tc-88, and Ru-89 ground states and the isomeric state Tc-88(m). Of these, Ru-89 and Tc-88(m) weremeasured for the first time. The precision of measurements of Zr-82, Nb-84, and Tc-88 was significantly improved. The literature value for Mo-86 was verified. The measured states in Tc-88 were compared to shell-model calculations and additional constraints on the spins and level scheme were obtained. The masses of Mo-82 and Ru-86 have been predicted using the measured masses of their mirror partners and theoretical mirror displacement energies, resulting in more tightly bound nuclei with smaller atomic mass uncertainties than reported in the literature.
  • Kruskopf, Milla; Hakkarainen, Kai; Li, Shupin; Lonka, Kirsti (2021)
    The rise of modern socio-digital technologies has fundamentally changed the everyday environments in which young people communicate with each other and cultivate interests. To gain a more sophisticated understanding of this phenomenon, this study provides in-depth, qualitative insights into adolescents’ experiences of their socio-digital developmental ecologies. The 15 interview participants were recruited based on a previously conducted questionnaire. The semi-structured theme interview addressed the socio-digital aspects of the participants’ interest-driven behaviours and related networks with the aid of participant-generated egocentric maps. The data not only qualitatively enrich the picture on adolescents’ friendship- and interest-driven socio-digital participation but also provide new perspectives on the phenomena through the added network-layer of analysis. The youth seem to vary in their motivational profiles related to their participation and the potential relevant psychological background factors for this variation are considered. Educational implications of these results are discussed when it comes to effective student engagement and connected learning.
  • Kärki, Kaisa Annikki (2022)
    In bioethics vaccine refusal is often discussed as an instance of free riding on the herd immunity of an infectious disease. However, the social science of vaccine refusal suggests that the reasoning behind refusal to vaccinate more often stems from previous negative experiences in healthcare practice as well as deeply felt distrust of healthcare institutions. Moreover, vaccine refusal often acts like an exit mechanism. Whilst free riding is often met with sanctions, exit, according to Albert Hirschman's theory of exit and voice is most efficiently met by addressing concerns and increasing the quality and number of feedback channels. If the legitimate grievances responsible for vaccine refusal are not heard or addressed by healthcare policy, further polarization of attitudes to vaccines is likely to ensue. Thus, there is a need in the bioethics of vaccine refusal to understand the diverse ethical questions of this inflammable issue in addition to those of individual responsibility to vaccinate.
  • Mäenpää, Kati; Järvenoja, Hanna; Peltonen, Jouni; Pyhältö, Kirsi (2020)
    Although there is a strong body of evidence showing that motivational factors are critical components of self‐regulated professional learning and commitment to work, little is known about nursing students' motivation regulation during their studies. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of nursing students' motivation regulation (MR) strategies and factors contributing to their reported use along their 3‐year study path in a blended learning environment. A purposeful sampling was used to select 12 undergraduate nursing students, who exhibited different MR profiles and had completed almost 3 years of study in a BL degree program. A qualitative, deductive, content analysis was used to depict students' experiences from their retrospective recollection in the interview situation. Seven motivation strategies were identified: environmental structuring, self‐consequating, goal‐oriented self‐talk, efficacy management, emotion regulation, regulation of value, and interest enhancement. Individual and situational factors were found to enhance and to sustain the use of appropriate MR strategies. The students exhibited versatility in their use of MR strategies, which were related to the study phase. These findings regarding nursing students' MR strategies should be considered in the development of nursing education programs and the implementation of improvements that contribute to professional and self‐regulated learning in BL programs.
  • Thomas, Suzie; Wessman, Anna; Heikkilä, Eino (2018)
    The University of Helsinki has made significant changes to its educational frameworks and degree programmes. For museum studies the changes have been particularly far-reaching. From autumn 2017 onwards there has been a reduction in the total number of study credits available, but also a move from bachelors- to masters-level teaching. This upheaval presented an opportunity to redesign the course in an inclusive way, consulting both with museum professionals and museum studies graduates in Finland and further afield. The resulting courses aim to implement collaboratively the preferences of these consultees, while staying true to the university's own requirements. In this article, we reflect upon the evaluation process and offer insights that we hope are useful both to museum professionals that have (or wish to have) a relationship with a university museum studies programme, and also for the teachers and researchers involved in devising and delivering these programmes.
  • Rantanen, Teemu; Gluschkoff, Kia; Silvennoinen, Piia; Heponiemi, Tarja (2021)
    Background: The significance of web-based health and social care services has been highlighted in recent years. There is a risk that the digitalization of public services will reinforce the digital and social exclusion of vulnerable groups, such as individuals with mental health problems. Objective: This study aims to examine the associations between mental health problems and attitudes toward web-based health and social care services in the general population. The attitudes measured include lack of interest, perceived need for face-to-face encounters, and concern for safety. The study also evaluates whether sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, education level, and poverty) modify these associations. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based data were collected from 4495 Finnish adults in 2017. Linear regression was used to examine the main effects and interactions of poor mental health and sociodemographic characteristics on attitudes toward web-based health and social care services. Results: The results show that mental health was associated with attitudes toward web-based health and social care services. Individuals with mental health problems were especially concerned about the safety of web-based services. Poor mental health was independently associated with negative attitudes toward web-based services over the effects of sociodemographic factors. Some of the associations between poor mental health and negative attitudes toward web-based services were stronger among older people and men. With regard to sociodemographic characteristics, particularly higher age, low education, and poverty were associated with negative attitudes toward web-based health and social care services. Conclusions: Poor mental health is associated with negative attitudes toward web-based health and social care services and thus indirectly with exclusion. It seems that being older and being male both reinforce the link between poor mental health and exclusion. In supporting the digital inclusion of people with mental health problems, attention should be paid to guidance and counseling, reliability, and the user-friendliness of web-based services as well as to the prevention of poverty. In addition, it is essential to see web-based services as complementary to, and not a substitute for, face-to-face services.
  • Castren, Sari; Kontto, Jukka; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne H. (2018)
    AimsTo investigate gambling expenditure and its relationship with socio-demographics, health-related correlates and past-year gambling behaviour. DesignCross-sectional population survey. SettingPopulation-based survey in Finland. ParticipantsFinnish people aged 15-74years drawn randomly from the Population Information System. The participants in this study were past-year gamblers with gambling expenditure data available (n = 3251, 1418 women and 1833 men). MeasurementsExpenditure shares, means of weekly gambling expenditure (WGE, Euro) and monthly gambling expenditure as a percentage of net income (MGE/NI, %) were calculated. The correlates used were perceived health, smoking, mental health [Mental Health Inventory (MHI)-5], alcohol use [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C], game types, gambling frequency, gambling mode and gambling severity [South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS)]. FindingsGender (men versus women) was found to be associated significantly with gambling expenditure, with exp = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.29, 1.52 and P ConclusionsIn Finland, male gender is associated significantly with both weekly gambling expenditure and monthly gambling expenditure related to net income. People in Finland with lower incomes contribute proportionally more of their income to gambling compared with middle- and high-income groups.
  • Kaakinen, Markus; Sirola, Anu; Savolainen, Iina; Oksanen, Atte (2020)
    Introduction and Aims Online gambling advertising and user-generated gambling content have increased. This study used a social psychological online experiment to analyse young people's reactions towards and self-reported interests in social media gambling messages. Design and Methods A vignette experiment with a two-level between-subjects factor (group condition or control condition) and three two-level within-subjects factors (expressed stance on gambling, narrative perspective and majority opinion) was conducted with two samples of young Finnish people aged 15 to 25 years (N = 1200, 50% female, mean age 21.29 years) and 15 to 30 years (N = 230, 53% female, mean age 24.35 years). Participants were asked to indicate how they would react to presented gambling messages (i.e. like or dislike the content) and how interesting would the content appear to them. In addition to experimental factors, the Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale and a global self-esteem measure were used as the independent variables. A statistical analysis included multilevel linear and logistic regressions. Results Young people preferred anti-gambling messages instead of pro-gambling messages. This effect was moderated by personal gambling attitudes as participants with highly positive gambling attitudes preferred pro-gambling content. Fact-driven messages were favoured over experience-driven messages. Positive majority opinions predicted more favourable reactions and positive interest. Discussion and Conclusions Young people prefer anti-gambling content and factual argumentation but their online behaviour is also influenced by perceived group norms. The potential risks of online gambling promotion mainly concern young people already interested in gambling.