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  • Loupakis, Fotios; Stein, Alexander; Ychou, Marc; Hermann, Frank; Salud, Antonieta; Osterlund, Pia (2016)
    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. A significant proportion of patients presents with unresectable metastatic disease or develops metachronous metastases following surgical resection of the primary tumor. The prognosis of the disease has improved over the past two decades, with extended multimodality treatment options and the development of increasingly intensified chemotherapy regimens that now typically include targeted biologics. A recent advance in therapy is a treatment regimen composed of three chemotherapeutic agents (i.e., triplet chemotherapy: 5-fluorouracil [5-FU]/leucovorin [LV], oxaliplatin, and irinotecan; FOLFOXIRI) in combination with the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor bevacizumab. This regimen has been shown to elicit significantly improved objective response rates and median progression-free survival compared with 5-FU/LV and irinotecan in combination with bevacizumab. However, triplet chemotherapy has been associated with increased rates of chemotherapy-related adverse events, and treatment-emergent adverse events should be properly managed to minimize treatment interruption or discontinuation. We present herein a review of clinical studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of FOLFOXIRI with bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer, and propose a practical guide for the management of adverse events associated with the regimen.
  • Bonifazi, Francesca; Solano, Carlos; Wolschke, Christine; Sessa, Mariarosaria; Patriarca, Francesca; Zallio, Francesco; Nagler, Arnon; Selleri, Carmine; Risitano, Antonio Maria; Messina, Giuseppe; Bethge, Wolfgang; Herrera, Pilar; Sureda, Anna; Carella, Angelo Michele; Cimminiello, Michele; Guidi, Stefano; Finke, Juergen; Sorasio, Roberto; Ferra, Christelle; Sierra, Jorge; Russo, Domenico; Benedetti, Edoardo; Milone, Giuseppe; Benedetti, Fabio; Heinzelmann, Marion; Pastore, Domenico; Jurado, Manuel; Terruzzi, Elisabetta; Narni, Franco; Voelp, Andreas; Ayuk, Francis; Ruutu, Tapani; Kroeger, Nicolaus (2019)
    Background We previously showed that human anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATLG) plus ciclosporin and methotrexate given to patients with acute leukaemia in remission, having allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation with peripheral blood stem cells from an HLA-identical sibling donor after myeloablative conditioning, significantly reduced 2-year chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) incidence and severity, without increasing disease relapse and infections, and improves cGVHD-free and relapse-free survival (cGRFS). The aim of an extended follow-up study was the assessment of long-term outcomes, which are, in this context, scarcely reported in the literature. We report unpublished data on quality of life (QoL) from the original study and the results of a follow-up extension. Methods In the original open-label study, patients with acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukaemia in first or subsequent remission, having sibling HLA-identical allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive ATLG plus standard GVHD prophylaxis with ciclosporin and short-term methotrexate (ATLG group) or standard GVHD prophylaxis without ATLG (non-ATLG group). Conditioning regimens were cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg with either total body irradiation (12 Gy) or busulfan (12 . 8 mg/kg intravenously or 16 mg/kg orally), with or without etoposide (30-60 mg/kg). Randomisation was stratified according to centre and disease risk. The primary endpoint was cumulative incidence of cGVHD at 2 years. The primary and secondary endpoints, excluding QoL, have been published. QoL, assessed using European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-HDC29 questionnaires, was an unpublished secondary endpoint, which we now report here. A follow-up extension was then done, with the primary endpoint cumulative incidence of cGVHD. Enrolment has been completed for both studies. Findings In the original study, from Dec 14, 2006, to Feb 2, 2012, 161 patients were enrolled and 155 were randomly assigned to either the ATLG group (n=83) or to the non-ATLG group (n=72). In the follow-up study, which started on Feb 7, 2017, and was completed on June 30, 2017, 61 patients were included in the ATLG group and 53 were included in the non-ATLG group. Global health status showed a more favourable time course in the ATLG group compared with the non-ATLG group (p=0 . 02; treatment by visit interaction). ATLG was descriptively superior to non-ATLG at 24 months for physical function (points estimate -14.8 [95% CI -26.4 to-3.1]; p= 0.014) and social function (-19.1 [-38.0 to -0.2]; p=0.047), gastrointestinal side-effects (8 . 8 [2.5-15.1]; p=0 . 008) and effect on family (13.5 [1.2-25.8]; p=0.032). Extended follow-up (median 5 . 9 years [IQR 1.7-7.9]) confirmed a lower 5-year cGVHD incidence (30.0% [95% CI 21.4-41.9] vs 69.1% [59.1-80.1]; analysis for entire follow-up, p Interpretation The addition of ATLG to standard GVHD prophylaxis improves the probability of surviving without disease relapse and cGVHD after myeloablative peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor for patients with acute leukaemia in remission. Further additional benefits are better QoL and shorter immunosuppressive treatment compared with standard GVHD prophylaxis without ATLG. Therefore, in this setting, ATLG plus standard GVHD prophylaxis should be preferred over the standard GVHD prophylaxis alone. Copyright (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Dohner, Hartmut; Symeonidis, Argiris; Deeren, Dries; Demeter, Judit; Sanz, Miguel A.; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Esteve, Jordi; Fiedler, Walter; Porkka, Kimmo; Kim, Hee-Je; Lee, Je-Hwan; Usuki, Kensuke; D'Ardia, Stefano; Won Jung, Chul; Salamero, Olga; Horst, Heinz-August; Recher, Christian; Rousselot, Philippe; Sandhu, Irwindeep; Theunissen, Koen; Thol, Felicitas; Dohner, Konstanze; Teleanu, Veronica; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Naoe, Tomoki; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Belsack, Valerie; Ge, Miaomiao; Taube, Tillmann; Ottmann, Oliver G. (2021)
    In this phase 3 trial, older patients with acute myeloid leukemia ineligible for intensive chemotherapy were randomized 2:1 to receive the polo-like kinase inhibitor, volasertib (V; 350 mg intravenous on days 1 and 15 in 4-wk cycles), combined with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC; 20 mg subcutaneous, twice daily, days 1-10; n = 444), or LDAC plus placebo (P; n = 222). Primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR); key secondary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Primary ORR analysis at recruitment completion included patients randomized >= 5 months beforehand; ORR was 25.2% for V+LDAC and 16.8% for P+LDAC (n = 371; odds ratio 1.66 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.95-2.89]; P = 0.071). At final analysis (>= 574 OS events), median OS was 5.6 months for V+LDAC and 6.5 months for P+LDAC (n = 666; hazard ratio 0.97 [95% CI, 0.8-1.2]; P = 0.757). The most common adverse events (AEs) were infections/infestations (grouped term; V+LDAC, 81.3%; P+LDAC, 63.5%) and febrile neutropenia (V+LDAC, 60.4%; P+LDAC, 29.3%). Fatal AEs occurred in 31.2% with V+LDAC versus 18.0% with P+LDAC, most commonly infections/infestations (V+LDAC, 17.1%; P+LDAC, 6.3%). Lack of OS benefit with V+LDAC versus P+LDAC may reflect increased early mortality with V+LDAC from myelosuppression and infections.
  • Kasanen, Henna; Hernberg, Micaela; Mäkelä, Siru; Brück, Oscar; Juteau, Susanna; Kohtamäki, Laura; Ilander, Mette; Mustjoki, Satu; Kreutzman, Anna (2020)
    Anti-PD1 treatment has improved the survival of metastatic melanoma patients, yet it is unknown which patients benefit from the treatment. In this exploratory study, we aimed to understand the effects of anti-PD1 therapy on the patients' immune system and discover the characteristics that would result in successful treatment. We collected peripheral blood (PB) samples from 17 immuno-oncology-naive metastatic melanoma patients before and after 1 and 3 months of anti-PD1 therapy. In addition, matching tumor biopsies at the time of diagnosis were collected for tissue microarray. The complete blood counts, PB immunophenotype, serum cytokine profiles, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were analyzed and correlated with the clinical data. Patients were categorized based on their disease control into responders (complete response, partial response, stable disease > 6 months, N = 11) and non-responders (progressive disease, stable disease
  • Andre, T.; Vernerey, D.; Im, S. A.; Bodoky, G.; Buzzoni, R.; Reingold, S.; Rivera, F.; McKendrick, J.; Scheithauer, W.; Ravit, G.; Fountzilas, G.; Yong, W. P.; Isaacs, R.; Österlund, P.; Liang, J. T.; Creemers, G. J.; Rakez, M.; Van Cutsem, E.; Cunningham, D.; Tabernero, J.; de Gramont, A. (2020)
    Background: The bevacizumab-Avastin (R) adjuVANT (AVANT) study did not meet its primary end point of improving disease-free survival (DFS) with the addition of bevacizumab to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer (CC). We report here the long-term survival results (S-AVANT). Patients and methods: Patients with curatively resected stage III CC were randomly assigned to FOLFOX4, FOLFOX4-bevacizumab, or XELOX-bevacizumab. Results: A total of 2867 patients were randomized: FOLFOX4: n = 955, FOLFOX4-bevacizumab: n = 960, XELOX-bevacizumab: n = 952. With a median of 6.73 years follow-up (interquartile range 5.51-10.54), 672 patients died, of whom 198 (20.7%), 250 (26.0%), and 224 (23.5%) were in the FOLFOX4, FOLFOX4-bevacizumab, and XELOX-bevacizumab arms, respectively. The 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 74.6%, 67.2%, and 69.9%, (P = 0.003) and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 73.2%, 68.5%, and 71.0% (P = 0.174), respectively. OS and DFS hazard ratios were 1.29 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.55; P = 0.008] and 1.16 (95% CI 0.99-1.37; P = 0.063) for FOLFOX4-bevacizumab versus FOLFOX4 and 1.15 (95% CI 0.95-1.39; P = 0.147) and 1.1 (95% CI 0.93 -1.29; P = 0.269) for XELOX-bevacizumab versus FOLFOX4, respectively. CC-related deaths (n = 542) occurred in 157 (79.3%) patients receiving FOLFOX4, 205 (82.0%) receiving FOLFOX4-bevacizumab, and 180 (80.4%) receiving XELOX-bevacizumab (P = 0.764), while non-CC-related deaths occurred in 41 (20.7%), 45 (18.0%), and 44 (19.6%) patients, respectively. Cardiovascular-related and sudden deaths during treatment or follow-up were reported in 13 (6.6%), 17 (6.8%), and 14 (6.3%) patients, in the FOLFOX4, FOLFOX4-bevacizuamb, and XELOX-bevacizumab arms, respectively (P = 0.789). Treatment arm, sex, age, histological differentiation, performance status, T/N stages, and localization of primary tumor were independent prognostic factors of OS in stage III. Conclusions: S-AVANT confirms the initial AVANT report. No benefit of the bevacizumab addition to FOLFOX4 adjuvant therapy in patients with stage III CC was observed in terms of DFS with a negative effect in OS, without increase in non-CC related deaths.
  • Routila, Johannes; Qiao, Xi; Weltner, Jere; Rantala, Juha K.; Carpen, Timo; Hagström, Jaana; Mäkitie, Antti; Leivo, Ilmo; Ruuskanen, Miia; Söderlund, Jenni; Rintala, Marjut; Hietanen, Sakari; Irjala, Heikki; Minn, Heikki; Westermarck, Jukka; Ventelä, Sami (2022)
    Objectives: Cisplatin is combined with radiotherapy for advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). While providing a beneficial effect on survival, it also causes side effects and thus is an important target when considering treatment de-escalation. Currently, there are no biomarkers to predict its patientselective therapeutic utility. In this study, we examined the role of the stem cell factor OCT4 as a potential biomarker to help clinicians stratify HNSCC patients between radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Materials and methods: OCT4 immunohistochemical staining of a population-validated tissue microarray (PV-TMA) (n = 166) representative of a standard HNSCC patients was carried out, and 5-year survival was analyzed. The results were validated using ex vivo drug sensitivity analysis of HNSCC tumor samples, and further crossvalidated in independent oropharyngeal (n = 118), nasopharyngeal (n = 170), and vulvar carcinoma (n = 95) clinical datasets. In vitro, genetically modified, patient-derived HNSCC cells were used. Results: OCT4 expression in HNSCC tumors was associated with radioresistance. However, combination therapy with cisplatin was found to overcome this radioresistance in OCT4-expressing HNSCC tumors. The results were validated by using several independent patient cohorts. Furthermore, CRISPRa-based OCT4 overexpression in the HNSCC cell line resulted in apoptosis resistance, and cisplatin was found to downregulate OCT4 protein expression in vitro. Ex vivo drug sensitivity analysis of HNSCC tumors confirmed the association between OCT4 expression and cisplatin sensitivity. Conclusion: This study introduces OCT4 immunohistochemistry as a simple and cost-effective diagnostic approach for clinical practice to identify HNSCC patients benefitting from radiosensitization by cisplatin using either full or reduced dosing.
  • Tannir, Nizar M.; Powles, Thomas; Escudier, Bernard; Donskov, Frede; Gruenwald, Viktor; Sternberg, Cora N.; Schmidinger, Manuela; Schoeffski, Patrick; Szczylik, Cezary; Peltola, Katriina; Nosov, Dmitry; Melichar, Bohuslav; Clary, Douglas; Scheffold, Christian; Motzer, Robert J.; Choueiri, Toni K. (2020)
    Background: We investigated outcomes with cabozantinib versus everolimus in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with or without prior nephrectomy in the phase 3 METEOR trial (NCT01865747). Methods: Patients (N = 658) with advanced clear cell RCC and prior treatment with >= 1 VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) were randomized to cabozantinib 60 mg/day or everolimus 10 mg/day. Pre-specified subgroup analyses of progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and objective response rate (ORR) were conducted by prior nephrectomy status. Response was assessed by independent radiology committee. Results: Most enrolled patients (85%) had prior nephrectomy. Baseline prognostic factors (e.g. MSKCC risk group) were less favorable for patients without prior nephrectomy. Cabozantinib improved outcomes versus everolimus in the subgroups with and without nephrectomy-hazard ratios (95% CIs) of 0.51 (0.41-0.64) and 0.51 (0.30-0.86), respectively, for PFS, and 0.66 (0.52-0.84) and 0.75 (0.44-1.27), respectively, for OS. Median OS was numerically longer in patients with versus those without prior nephrectomy in both treatment arms. ORR for cabozantinib versus everolimus was 17% versus 4% for the prior nephrectomy subgroup and 21% versus 2% for the subgroup without prior nephrectomy. Among evaluable patients without prior nephrectomy, reductions of renal target lesions occurred in 94% (16/17) of patients in the cabozantinib arm versus 44% (8/18) in the everolimus arm. The safety profiles of both subgroups were generally consistent with that of the overall study population. Conclusion: Cabozantinib improved PFS, ORR, and OS compared with everolimus in patients with advanced RCC irrespective of nephrectomy status.
  • Toresson, L.; Steiner, J. M.; Razdan, P.; Spodsberg, E.; Olmedal, G.; Suchodolski, J. S.; Spillmann, T. (2018)
    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies of parenteral and oral cobalamin supplementation protocols in dogs with chronic enteropathies and low cobalamin concentrations. It was hypothesised that both treatments would increase serum cobalamin concentrations significantly. Fifty-three dogs with chronic enteropathies and serum cobalamin concentrations <285 ng/L (reference interval 244-959 ng/L) were enrolled. Dogs were randomised to treatment with either daily oral cobalamin tablets (0.25-1.0 mg cyanocobalamin daily according to body weight) or parenteral cobalamin (0.4-1.2 mg hydroxycobalamin according to body weight). Serum cobalamin concentrations were analysed 28 +/- 5 days and 90 +/- 15 days after initiation of supplementation. After 28 days, all dogs had serum cobalamin concentrations within the reference interval or above. In the parenteral group (n = 26), median (range) cobalamin concentrations were 228 (150-285) ng/L at inclusion, 2107 (725-10,009) ng/L after 28 days and 877 (188-1267) ng/L after 90 days. In the oral group (n = 27), median (range) serum cobalamin concentrations were 245 (150-285) ng/L at inclusion, 975 (564-2385) ng/L after 28 days and 1244 (738-4999) ng/L after 90 days. In both groups, there were significant differences in serum cobalamin concentrations between baseline and 28 days, and between 28 days and 90 days (P <0.001). In conclusion, both parenteral and oral cobalamin supplementation effectively increase serum cobalamin concentrations in dogs with chronic enteropathies and low cobalamin concentrations. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Duque-Afonso, Jesus; Finke, Jürgen; Labopin, Myriam; Craddock, Charles; Protheroe, Rachel; Kottaridis, Panagiotis; Tholouli, Eleni; Byrne, Jenny L.; Orchard, Kim; Salmenniemi, Urpu; Hilgendorf, Inken; Hunter, Hannah; Nicholson, Emma; Bloor, Adrian; Snowden, John A.; Verbeek, Mareike; Clark, Andrew; Savani, Bipin N.; Spyridonidis, Alexandros; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad (2022)
    In recent years considerable variations in conditioning protocols for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) protocols have been introduced for higher efficacy, lower toxicity, and better outcomes. To overcome the limitations of the classical definition of reduced intensity and myeloablative conditioning, a transplantation conditioning intensity (TCI) score had been developed. In this study, we compared outcome after two frequently used single alkylator-based conditioning protocols from the intermediate TCI score category, fludarabine/melphalan 140 mg/m(2) (FluMel) and fludarabine/treosulfan 42 g/m(2) (FluTreo) for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in complete remission (CR). This retrospective analysis from the registry of the Acute Leukemia Working Party (ALWP) of the European Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) database included 1427 adult patients (median age 58.2 years) receiving either Flu/Mel (n = 1005) or Flu/Treo (n = 422). Both groups showed similar 3-year overall survival (OS) (54% vs 51.2%, p value 0.49) for patients conditioned with FluMel and FluTreo, respectively. However, patients treated with FluMel showed a reduced 3-year relapse incidence (32.4% vs. 40.4%, p value < 0.001) and slightly increased non-relapse mortality (NRM) (25.7% vs. 20.2%, p value = 0.06) compared to patients treated with FluTreo. Our data may serve as a basis for further studies examining the role of additional agents/ intensifications in conditioning prior to allo-HCT.
  • D'Alessio, D.; Haering, H. -U.; Charbonnel, B.; de Pablos-Velasco, P.; Candelas, C.; Dain, M. -P.; Vincent, M.; Pilorget, V.; Yki-Jarvinen, H.; EAGLE Investigators (2015)
  • Soini, Erkki; Hautala, Anne; Poikonen, Eira; Becker, Ursula; Kyttala, Mira; Martikainen, Janne (2016)
    Purpose: The cost-effectiveness of first-line chronic lymphocytic leukemia treatments was assessed among patients unsuitable for full doses of fludarabine. Methods: The study's key outcome was the life-time incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) (euro/quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] gained) with an annual 3% discounting. A probabilistic Markov model with 3 health states (progression-free, progression, and death) was developed. Survival time was modeled based on age-matched clinical data by using appropriate survival distributions. Each health state was assigned an EuroQoL-5D-3L quality-of-life estimate and Finnish payer costs according to treatment received, and Binet stage of disease; severe adverse events and treatment inconvenience were also included. Six approaches considered the risk and value of key outcomes: cost-effectiveness efficiency frontiers; Bayesian treatment ranking (BTR) rated the lowest ICERs and best QALY gains; the cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier demonstrated optimal treatment; expected value of perfect information; and the cost-benefit assessment (CBA), a type of clinical value analysis, increased the clinical interpretation and appeal of modeled outcomes by including both relative and absolute (impact investment [benefit obtained with a fixed limited budget]) benefit assessments. Findings: The ICERs compared with chlorambucil varied from (sic)29,334 with obinutuzumab + chlorambucil to (sic)82,159 with ofatumumab + chlorambucil. Based on the BTR of ICERs versus chlorambucil, obinutuzumab + chlorambucil was the most cost-effective with 93% probability; rituximab + chlorambucil was the second most cost-effective (73%); and rituximab + bendamustine was the third most cost-effective (65%). The ICERs of obinutuzumab + chlorambucil were (sic)20,038, (sic)11,556, and (sic)15,586 compared with rituximab + chlorambucil, rituximab + bendamustine, and ofatumumab + chlorambucil. Obinutuzumab + chlorambucil was the most cost-effective treatment, with 54% and 99% probability at (sic)30,000 and (sic)50,000/ QALY gained, respectively. The corresponding expected values of perfect information were (sic)1438 and (sic)44 per patient. Based on the BTR of QALYs gained, obinutuzumab + chlorambucil was the most effective, with 100% probability; rituximab + chlorambucil was the second most effective (56%); and rituximab + bendamustine was the third most effective treatment (81%). Results were robust in sensitivity analyses. For obinutuzumab + chlorambucil, the CBA demonstrated the best clinical value to cost-effectiveness relation and the longest time progression-free with a limited budget. Implications: The mean results were sensitive to large changes in time horizon, indirect comparison hazard ratios, survival distributions, and discounting; however, obinutuzumab + chlorambucil provided considerable effectiveness and best value for money among chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients unsuitable to receive full doses of fludarabine. In this case, CBA concurred with the key outcome of the study. However, the CBA cannot fully substitute the key outcome, and further cost-effectiveness studies with different cancer types are needed to assess the validity of a limited CBA. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.
  • Jernström, Sandra; Hongisto, Vesa; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Due, Eldri Undlien; Tadele, Dagim Shiferaw; Edgren, Henrik; Kallioniemi, Olli; Perälä, Merja; Mlandsmo, Gunhild Mari; Sahlberg, Kristine Kleivi (2017)
    Background: Approximately 15%-20% of all diagnosed breast cancers are characterized by amplified and overexpressed HER2 (= ErbB2). These breast cancers are aggressive and have a poor prognosis. Although improvements in treatment have been achieved after the introduction of trastuzumab and lapatinib, many patients do not benefit from these drugs. Therefore, in-depth understanding of the mechanisms behind the treatment responses is essential to find alternative therapeutic strategies. Materials and methods: Thirteen HER2 positive breast cancer cell lines were screened with 22 commercially available compounds, mainly targeting proteins in the ErbB2-signaling pathway, and molecular mechanisms related to treatment sensitivity were sought. Cell viability was measured, and treatment responses between the cell lines were compared. To search for response predictors and genomic and transcriptomic profiling, PIK3CA mutations and PTEN status were explored and molecular features associated with drug sensitivity sought. Results: The cell lines were divided into three groups according to the growth-retarding effect induced by trastuzumab and lapatinib. Interestingly, two cell lines insensitive to trastuzumab (KPL4 and SUM190PT) showed sensitivity to an Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor. These cell lines had mutation in PIK3CA and loss of PTEN, suggesting an activated and druggable Akt-signaling pathway. Expression levels of five genes (CDC42, MAPK8, PLCG1, PTK6, and PAK6) were suggested as predictors for the Akt1/2 kinase-inhibitor response. Conclusion: Targeting the Akt-signaling pathway shows promise in cell lines that do not respond to trastuzumab. In addition, our results indicate that several molecular features determine the growth-retarding effects induced by the drugs, suggesting that parameters other than HER2 amplification/expression should be included as markers for therapy decisions.
  • PRIMA Trial Investigators PATH; Merkies, Ingemar S. J.; van Schaik, Ivo N.; Leger, Jean-Marc; Saarela, Mika; Mielke, Orell (2019)
    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a potential therapy for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). To investigate the efficacy and safety of the IVIG IgPro10 (Privigen) for treatment of CIDP, results from Privigen Impact on Mobility and Autonomy (PRIMA), a prospective, open-label, single-arm study of IVIG in immunoglobulin (Ig)-naive or IVIG pre-treated subjects (NCT01184846, n = 28) and Polyneuropathy And Treatment with Hizentra (PATH), a double-blind, randomized study including an open-label, single-arm IVIG phase in IVIG pre-treated subjects (NCT01545076, IVIG restabilization phase n = 207) were analyzed separately and together (n = 235). Efficacy assessments included change in adjusted inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) score, grip strength and Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and ADRs/infusion were recorded. Adjusted INCAT response rate was 60.7% in all PRIMA subjects at Week 25 (76.9% in IVIG pre-treated subjects) and 72.9% in PATH. In the pooled cohort (n = 235), INCAT response rate was 71.5%; median time to INCAT improvement was 4.3 weeks. No clear demographic differences were noticed between early (responding before Week 7, n = 148) and late responders (n = 21). In the pooled cohort, median change from baseline to last observation was -1.0 (interquartile range -2.0; 0.0) point for INCAT score; +8.0 (0.0; 20.0) kPa for maximum grip strength; +3.0 (1.0; 7.0) points for MRC sum score. In the pooled cohort, 271 ADRs were reported in 105 subjects (44.7%), a rate of 0.144 ADRs per infusion. This analysis confirms the efficacy and safety of IgPro10, a recently FDA-approved IVIG for CIDP, in a population of mainly pre-treated subjects with CIDP [Correction added on 14 March 2019 after first online publication: the INCAT response rate has been corrected.].
  • Haverinen, Annina; Kangasniemi, Marika; Luiro, Kaisu; Piltonen, Terhi; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Tapanainen, Juha S. (2021)
    Objective: To compare the effects of two formulations of combined oral contraceptives (COCs), estradiol valerate (EV) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) combined with dienogest (DNG), and DNG-only, on glucose tolerance. Study Design: We performed a randomized, controlled 9-week clinical trial. Inclusion criteria were: age 18-35 years, regular menstrual cycle (28 +/- 7 days), no polycystic ovaries, non-smoking, no contraindications for COC use and a 2-month wash-out from hormonal contraceptive use. The women were randomized to EV + DNG (n = 20), EE + DNG (n = 20), and DNG-only (n = 19), and evaluated at baseline, at 4-5 weeks and 8-9 weeks of treatment. Study medications were used continuously for 63 days. Primary outcome measure was change in the whole-body insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda index) derived from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) over the treatment period. Secondary outcome measures were area under curves (AUC) of glucose and insulin, homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI). Results: Fifty-nine women enrolled, and 56 women completed the study. The Matsuda index changed from baseline as follows (mean percentage change, mean change [95%CI]): DNG-only -12%, -1.45 [95%CI -3.22-0.325] P = 0.10; EV + DNG + 2.7%, -0.10 [-1.34 to 1.14] P = 0.86; EE + DNG -5.5%, -1.02 [-2.51 to 0.46] P = 0.16, comparing the groups P = 0.27. There were no clinically significant differences in glucose tolerance between the COC groups, but the DNG-only group showed an improvement in the 2-h glucose levels (5.5 [95%CI 5.0-6.0] to 4.7 mmol/l [4.2-5.2], P = 0.001). Conclusion: We found no clinically significant differences between EV and EE combined with DNG and DNG-only on glucose tolerance in healthy, young, normal-weight women, indicating that these preparations appear close to neutral regarding glucose metabolism when used continuously for nine weeks. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Penttila, P.; Donskov, F.; Rautiola, J.; Peltola, K.; Laukka, M.; Bono, P. (2017)
    Background: Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors may induce pneumonitis. We analysed the association of pneumonitis with outcomes in everolimus treated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients. Patients and methods: Eighty-five mRCC patients received everolimus at Helsinki University Hospital (cohort A). Computed tomography (CT) verified pneumonitis was correlated with outcome using Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression and logistic regression. An independent cohort of 148 everolimus treated mRCC patients (cohort B) at Aarhus University Hospital was assessed for validation. Results: In cohort A, CT-verified pneumonitis (N = 29, 34.1%) was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (24.7 versus 8.5 months; P <0.001), progression-free survival (PFS) (5.5 versus 3.2 months; P = 0.002) and clinical benefit rate (CBR) 57.1% versus 24.1% (P = 0.003). In multivariate analyses pneumonitis was associated with improved OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.44; P <0.001), PFS (HR 0.37; 95% CI 0.21-0.66; P = 0.001) and CBR (odds ratio [OR] 4.11; 95% CI 1.42-11.95; P = 0.01). In cohort B, CT-verified pneumonitis (N = 29, 19.6%) was associated with improved OS (12.9 versus 6.0 months; P = 0.02), PFS (6.0 versus 2.8 months; P = 0.02) and CBR (79.3% versus 39.5%; P <0.001). In multivariate analyses pneumonitis was associated with improved OS (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.36-0.94; P = 0.03), PFS (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.39-0.95; P = 0.03) and CBR (OR 5.65; 95% CI 2.10-15.18; P = 0.001). In a combined multivariate analysis (N = 233), with pneumonitis as a time-dependent covariate, CT-verified pneumonitis was associated with longer OS (HR, 0.67; 95% CI 0.46-0.97; P = 0.03). Furthermore, in a landmark analysis, pneumonitis was associated with longer OS (17.4 versus 7.8 months; P = 0.01). Conclusions: Everolimus-induced pneumonitis is associated with improved outcome in patients with mRCC and may serve as a biomarker of everolimus efficacy. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Malard, Florent; Labopin, Myriam; Cho, Christina; Blaise, Didier; Papadopoulos, Esperanza B.; Passweg, Jakob; O'Reilly, Richard; Forcade, Edouard; Maloy, Molly; Volin, Liisa; Castro-Malaspina, Hugo; Hicheri, Yosr; Jakubowski, Ann A.; Orvain, Corentin; Giralt, Sergio; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon; Perales, Miguel-Angel (2018)
    BackgroundGraft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the leading causes of non-relapse mortality and morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT).MethodsWe evaluated the outcomes of two well-established strategies used for GVHD prevention: in vivo T cell depletion using antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and ex vivo T cell depletion using a CD34-selected (CD34+) graft. A total of 525 adult patients (363 ATG, 162 CD34+) with intermediate or high-risk cytogenetics acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) were included. Patients underwent myeloablative allo-HCT using matched related or unrelated donors.ResultsTwo-year overall survival estimate was 69.9% (95% CI, 58.5-69.4) in the ATG group and 67.6% (95% CI, 60.3-74.9) in the CD34+ group (p=0.31). The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD and chronic GVHD was higher in the ATG cohort [HR 2.0 (95% CI 1.1-3.7), p=0.02; HR 15.1 (95% CI 5.3-42.2), p
  • Hanker, Ariella B.; Garrett, Joan T.; Estrada, Monica Valeria; Moore, Preston D.; Ericsson, Paula Gonzalez; Koch, James P.; Langley, Emma; Singh, Sharat; Kim, Phillip S.; Frampton, Garrett M.; Sanford, Eric; Owens, Philip; Becker, Jennifer; Groseclose, M. Reid; Castellino, Stephen; Joensuu, Heikki; Huober, Jens; Brase, Jan C.; Majjaj, Samira; Brohee, Sylvain; Venet, David; Brown, David; Baselga, Jose; Piccart, Martine; Sotiriou, Christos; Arteaga, Carlos L. (2017)
    Purpose: Dual blockade of HER2 with trastuzumab and lapatinib or pertuzumab has been shown to be superior to single-agent trastuzumab. However, a significant fraction of HER2-overexpressing (HER2(+)) breast cancers escape from these drug combinations. In this study, we sought to discover the mechanisms of acquired resistance to the combination of lapatinib + trastuzumab. Experimental Design: HER2(+) BT474 xenografts were treated with lapatinib + trastuzumab long-term until resistance developed. Potential mechanisms of acquired resistance were evaluated in lapatinib + trastuzumab-resistant (LTR) tumors by targeted capture next-generation sequencing. In vitro experiments were performed to corroborate these findings, and a novel drug combination was tested against LTR xenografts. Gene expression and copy-number analyses were performed to corroborate our findings in clinical samples. Results: LTR tumors exhibited an increase in FGF3/4/19 copy number, together with an increase in FGFR phosphorylation, marked stromal changes in the tumor microenvironment, and reduced tumor uptake of lapatinib. Stimulation of BT474 cells with FGF4 promoted resistance to lapatinib + trastuzumab in vitro. Treatment with FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors reversed these changes and overcame resistance to lapatinib + trastuzumab. High expression of FGFR1 correlated with a statistically shorter progression-free survival in patients with HER2(+) early breast cancer treated with adjuvant trastuzumab. Finally, FGFR1 and/or FGF3 gene amplification correlated with a lower pathologic complete response in patients with HER2(+) early breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant anti-HER2 therapy. Conclusions: Amplification of FGFR signaling promotes resistance to HER2 inhibition, which can be diminished by the combination of HER2 and FGFR inhibitors. (C) 2017 AACR.
  • Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Baker, Jason; Cahn, Avivit; Eckel, Robert H.; Sayed, Nuha Ali El; Fischl, Amy Hess; Gaede, Peter; Leslie, R. David; Pieralice, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Dario; Pozzilli, Paolo; Richelsen, Bjørn; Roitman, Eytan; Standl, Eberhard; Toledano, Yoel; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Weber, Sandra L.; Umpierrez, Guillermo E. (2020)
    Abstract Hypoglycemia is common in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and constitutes a major limiting factor in achieving glycemic control among people with diabetes. While hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level under 70 mg/dL (3.9?mmol/L), symptoms may occur at higher blood glucose levels in individuals with poor glycemic control. Severe hypoglycemia is defined as an episode requiring the assistance of another person to actively administer carbohydrate, glucagon, or take other corrective actions to assure neurologic recovery. Hypoglycemia is the most important safety outcome in clinical studies of glucose lowering agents. The ADA Standards of Medical Care recommends that a management protocol for hypoglycemia should be designed and implemented by every hospital, along with a clear prevention and treatment plan. A tailored approach, using clinical and pathophysiologic disease stratification, can help individualize glycemic goals and promote new therapies to improve quality of life of patients. Data from recent large clinical trials reported low risk of hypoglycemic events with the use of newer antidiabetic drugs. Increased hypoglycemia risk is observed with the use of insulin and/or sulfonylureas. Vulnerable patients with T2D at dual risk of severe hypoglycemia and Cardiovascular (CV) outcomes show features of ?frailty?. Many of such patients may be better treated by the use of GLP-1 receptor agonists or SGLT2 inhibitors rather than insulin. CGM should be considered for all individuals with increased risk for hypoglycemia, impaired hypoglycemia awareness, frequent nocturnal hypoglycemia and with history of severe hypoglycemia. Patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) benefit from real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). The diabetes educator is an invaluable resource and can devote the time needed to thoroughly educate the individual to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia and integrate the information within the entire construct of diabetes self-management. Conversations about hypoglycemia facilitated by a healthcare professional may reduce the burden and fear of hypoglycemia among patients with diabetes and their family members. Optimizing insulin doses and carbohydrate intake, in addition to a short warm up before or after the physical activity sessions may help avoiding hypoglycemia. Several therapeutic considerations are important to reduce hypoglycemia risk during pregnancy including administration of rapid-acting insulin analogs rather than human insulin, pre-conception initiation of insulin analogs, and immediate postpartum insulin dose reduction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Giebel, Sebastian; Labopin, Myriam; Czerw, Tomasz; Socie, Gerard; Blaise, Didier; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Passweg, Jacob; Ljungman, Per; Poire, Xavier; Chevallier, Patrice; Remenyi, Peter; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Anafasyev, Boris; Fegueux, Nathalie; Rovira, Montserrat; Itälä-Remes, Maija; Bornhaeuser, Martin; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon (2019)
    Background: Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is widely used to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (alloPBSCT). The goal of this study was to retrospectively assess the effect of ATG on outcomes in the setting of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Ph+ ALL). Methods: In the analysis, 1170 adult patients undergoing alloPBSCT from human leucocyte antigen-matched sibling or unrelated donors in the first complete remission between 2007 and 2016 were included. ATG was used in 429/575 (75%) and 121/595 (20%) patients transplanted from unrelated or sibling donors, respectively. Results: The incidence of chronic GVHD was 35% for patients treated with ATG compared with 52% in those not receiving ATG (p <0.001), while the rate of extensive chronic GVHD was 16% and 36%, respectively (p <0.001). The probability of survival free from GVHD and relapse (GRFS) was 42% and 32%, respectively (p = 0.002). In a multivariate model, the use of ATG was associated with reduced risk of overall chronic GVHD (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.52, p <0.001) and extensive chronic GVHD (HR = 0.46, p <0.001). It was also associated with better GRFS (HR = 0.77, p = 0.007), despite increased risk of relapse (HR = 1.41, p = 0.02). No significant effect was found with regard to the risk of non-relapse mortality and overall mortality. Conclusions: The use of ATG for patients with Ph+ ALL undergoing alloPBSCT is associated with reduced risk of chronic GVHD without impact on survival and therefore, could be considered. However, increased risk of relapse suggests the need for strict monitoring of minimal residual diseases and appropriate interventions after transplantation. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Wang, Haining; Liu, Ye; Tian, Qing; Yang, Jin; Lu, Ran; Zhan, Siyan; Haukka, Jari; Hong, Tianpei (2018)
    Aims: To perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including 6 recently published large-scale cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs), to evaluate the risk of pancreatic cancer with incretin-based therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Materials and Methods: For the period January 1, 2007 to May 1, 2017, the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register and databases were searched for RCTs in people with T2DM that compared incretin drugs with placebo or other antidiabetic drugs, with treatment and follow-up durations of >= 52 weeks. Two reviewers screened the studies, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias independently and in duplicate. Results: A total of 33 studies (n = 79971), including the 6 CVOTs, with 87 pancreatic cancer events were identified. Overall, the pancreatic cancer risk was not increased in patients administered incretin drugs compared with controls (Peto odds ratio [OR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-1.02). In the 6 CVOTs, 79 pancreatic cancer events were identified in 55248 participants. Pooled estimates of the 6 CVOTs showed an identical tendency (Peto OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.42-1.01). Notably, in the subgroup of participants who received treatment and follow-up for >= 104 weeks, 84 pancreatic cancer events were identified in 59919 participants, and a lower risk of pancreatic cancer was associated with incretin-based therapies (Peto OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.41-0.95). Conclusions: Treatment with incretin drugs was not associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in people with T2DM. Instead, it might protect against pancreatic malignancy in patients treated for 104 weeks.