Browsing by Subject "OPPORTUNITIES"

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  • Jones, Marjaana; Pietilä, Ilkka Veikko (2020)
    Health policies and strategies promote the involvement of people with illness experiences in service development and production, integrating them into settings that have traditionally been domains of health professionals. In this study, we focus on the perspectives of people with personal illness experiences and explore how they justify involvement, position themselves as legitimate actors and forge collaborative relationships with health professionals. We have used discourse analysis in analysing individual interviews conducted with peer support workers and experts by experience (n = 17) who currently work in Finnish health services. The interviewees utilised discourses of empowerment, efficiency and patient-centeredness, aligning themselves with the justifications constructed by patient movements additionally to those found in current health policies. Both groups wanted to retain critical distance from professionals in order to voice criticisms of current care practices, yet they also frequently aligned themselves with professionals in order to gain legitimacy for their involvement. They adopted professional traits that moved them further from being lay participants sharing personal experiences and adopted an expert position. Although national-level policies provided backing and legitimacy for involvement, the lack of local-level guidance could hinder the practical implementation and make involvement largely dependent of professionals' discretion.
  • Locatelli, Bruno; Pramova, Emilia; Di Gregorio, Monica; Brockhaus, Maria; Chávez , Dennis Armas; Tubbeh , Ramzi; Sotes, Juan; Perla, Javier (2020)
    Increasing attention is being given to integrating adaptation and mitigation in climate change policies. Policy network analysis is a way to explore connections between adaptation and mitigation, and the opportunities or barriers to effective integration between these two policy subdomains. This study explores climate governance and policy networks by examining collaboration and information flows in national policy processes in Peru, a country with an active climate change policy domain. In contrast to most climate policy network analyses, this study distinguishes adaptation and mitigation subdomains through a multiplex approach. We used ERGM (Exponential Random Graph Models) to explain the existence of information flows and collaborations among 76 key actors in climate change policy in Peru. We identified actors who could connect adaptation and mitigation subdomains. Results show a concentration of influence in national government actors, particularly in the mitigation subdomain, and the isolation of actor groups that matter for policy implementation, such as the private sector or subnational actors. Results highlight the predominance of mitigation over adaptation and the existence of actors well positioned to broker relationships between the subdomains. The top brokers across subdomains were, however, not only actors with high centrality and brokerage roles in the subdomains, but also several "unusual key players" that were not brokers in any of the two layers separately. Key policy insights • National government institutions are central actors in climate change policy networks in Peru, reflecting national ownership of the climate change issue. • Private sector organizations and subnational actors in Peru are the least involved in information sharing and collaboration on climate change. • Actors from different levels and sectors are active in both adaptation and mitigation, which is good for climate policy integration. • Actors with the capacity to bridge the two policy subdomains are not necessarily central to each subdomain but may be actors that close structural holes between subdomains.
  • Syyrilä, Tiina; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Härkänen, Marja (2020)
    Abstract Aim To identify the types and frequencies of communication issues (communication pairs, person related, institutional, structural, process, and prescription-related issues) detected in medication incident reports and to compare communication issues that caused moderate or serious harm to patients. Background Communication issues have been found to be amongst the main contributing factors of medication incidents, thus necessitating communication enhancement. Design A sequential exploratory mixed-method design. Methods Medication incident reports from Finland (n=500) for the year 2015 in which communication was marked as a contributing factor were used as the data source. Indicator phrases were used for searching communication issues from free texts of incident reports. The detected issues were analysed statistically, qualitatively, and considering the harm caused to the patient. Citations from free texts were extracted as evidence of issues and were classified following main categories of indicator phrases. The EQUATOR?s SRQR checklist was followed in reporting. Results Twenty-eight communication pairs were identified, with nurse-nurse (68.2%; n=341), nurse-physician (41.6%; n=208), and nurse-patient (9.6%; n=48) pairs being the most frequent. Communication issues existed mostly within unit (76.6%, n=383). The most commonly identified issues were digital communication (68.2%; n=341), lack of communication within a team (39.6%; n=198), false assumptions about work processes (25.6%; n=128) and being unaware of guidelines (25.0%; n=125). Collegial feedback, and communication from patients and relatives were the preventing issues. Moderate harm cases were often linked with lack of communication within the unit, digital communication and not following guidelines. Conclusions The interventions should be prioritized to (a) enhancing communication about work-processes, (b) verbal communication about digital prescriptions between professionals, (c) feedback among professionals, and (f) encouraging patients to communicate about medication. Relevance to clinical practice Upon identifying the most harmful and frequent communication issues, interventions to strengthen medication safety can be implemented.
  • Savela, Nina; Oksanen, Atte; Kaakinen, Markus; Noreikis, Marius; Xiao, Yu (2020)
    Augmented reality (AR) applications have recently emerged for entertainment and educational purposes and have been proposed to have positive effects on social interaction. In this study, we investigated the impact of a mobile, indoor AR feature on sociability, entertainment, and learning. We conducted a field experiment using a quiz game in a Finnish science center exhibition. We divided participants (N = 372) into an experimental group (AR app users) and two control groups (non-AR app users; pen-and-paper participants), including 28 AR users of follow-up interviews. We used Kruskal-Wallis rank test to compare the experimental groups and the content analysis method to explore AR users' experiences. Although interviewed AR participants recognized the entertainment value and learning opportunities for AR, we did not detect an increase in perceived sociability, social behavior, positive affect, or learning performance when comparing the experimental groups. Instead, AR interviewees experienced a strong conflict between the two different realities. Despite the engaging novelty value of new technology, performance and other improvements do not automatically emerge. We also discuss potential conditional factors. Future research and development of AR and related technologies should note the possible negative effects of dividing attention to both realities.
  • Aschard, Hugues; Tobin, Martin D.; Hancock, Dana B.; Skurnik, David; Sood, Akshay; James, Alan; Smith, Albert Vernon; Manichaikul, Aniw; Campbell, Archie; Prins, Bram P.; Hayward, Caroline; Loth, Daanw; Porteous, David J.; Strachan, David P.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; O'Connor, George T.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Boezen, H. Marike; Schulz, Holger; Deary, Ian J.; Hall, Ian P.; Rudan, Igor; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wilson, James F.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Zhao, Jing Hua; de Jong, Kim; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Wain, Louise V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kahonen, Mika; Fornage, Myriam; Polasek, Ozren; Cassano, Patricia A.; Barr, R. Graham; Rawal, Rajesh; Harris, Sarah E.; Gharib, Sina A.; Enroth, Stefan; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Gyllensten, Ulf; Jackson, Victoria E.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Tang, Wenbo; Dupuis, Josee; Artigas, Maria Soler; Joshi, Amit D.; London, Stephanie J.; Understanding Soc Sci Grp (2017)
    Background: Smoking is the strongest environmental risk factor for reduced pulmonary function. The genetic component of various pulmonary traits has also been demonstrated, and at least 26 loci have been reproducibly associated with either FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) or FEV1/FVC (FEV1/forced vital capacity). Although the main effects of smoking and genetic loci are well established, the question of potential gene-by-smoking interaction effect remains unanswered. The aim of the present study was to assess, using a genetic risk score approach, whether the effect of these 26 loci on pulmonary function is influenced by smoking. Methods: We evaluated the interaction between smoking exposure, considered as either ever vs never or pack-years, and a 26-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genetic risk score in relation to FEV1 or FEV1/FVC in 50 047 participants of European ancestry from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) and SpiroMeta consortia. Results: We identified an interaction (beta(int) = -0.036, 95% confidence interval, -0.040 to -0.032, P = 0.00057) between an unweighted 26 SNP genetic risk score and smoking status (ever/never) on the FEV1/FVC ratio. In interpreting this interaction, we showed that the genetic risk of falling below the FEV1/FVC threshold used to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is higher among ever smokers than among never smokers. A replication analysis in two independent datasets, although not statistically significant, showed a similar trend in the interaction effect. Conclusions: This study highlights the benefit of using genetic risk scores for identifying interactions missed when studying individual SNPs and shows, for the first time, that persons with the highest genetic risk for low FEV1/FVC may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of smoking.
  • Nelimarkka, Matti; Leinonen, Teemu; Durall, Eva; Dean, Philip (2021)
    Online communities and social-network sites are used to deliver professional-development services for teachers. Professional development should help teachers to reflect on their practice and improve in helping them to guide students' growth. Peer and community models, such as coaching and sharing knowledge in network and knowledge communities, have been proposed. Recently these practices have been taken into use in social media services, such as Facebook. Although earlier research has examined teachers' online communities, we move beyond understanding individuals motivations and examine community-level dynamics. Understanding these dynamics is important to understand the interaction between teachers, resources and the platform in use and resulting professional development. To understand the evolution of an informal and self-organised Facebook teachers' group, containing nearly 20,000 teachers, its eight years of activity was analysed by employing a mixed-methods research design; data science and participatory observation. Analysis gives account of both the evolution of participants' engagement and activity, and the evolution of content and its relevance for teachers' professional development. The results suggest that managers of professional development need to consider how to facilitate participation in order to focus on pedagogically motivated use of information technology, for system developers to consider how to assist recruitment of members and sustain their activity, and for all stakeholders to acknowledge that a peer-organised online professional development community requires significant effort. Furthermore, we suggest that instead of addressing large groups like these as communities, scholars and practitioners should instead see them as personal learning networks and think about how to establish smaller and more manageable groups as communities.
  • Camargo, Marisa Camilher; Hogarth, Nicholas J.; Pacheco, Pablo; Nhantumbo, Isilda; Kanninen, Markku (2019)
    Despite the plethora of discourse about how sustainable development should be pursued, the production of agricultural commodities is held responsible for driving c. 80% of global deforestation. Partially as a response, the private sector has made commitments to eliminate deforestation, but it is not yet clear what factors these commitments should take into account to effectively halt deforestation while also contributing to broader sustainable development. In the context of private sector commitments to zero-deforestation, this study characterizes the perceptions of different types of stakeholders along the cocoa and chocolate supply chain in order to determine the main challenges and solutions to encourage sustainable production. The main purpose is to understand the key factors that could facilitate a transition to a more sustainable supply while harmonizing the multiple actors’ interests. A qualitative thematic analysis of perceptions was conducted based on responses from 59 interviews with different stakeholders along the cocoa and chocolate supply chain in six key producing and consuming countries. Thematic analysis of the responses revealed six main themes: (1) make better use of policies, regulations and markets to help promote sustainability; (2) improve information and data (e.g., impacts of climate change on cocoa) to inform sound interventions; (3) focus on the landscape rather than the farm-level alone and improve integration of supply chain actors; (4) promote better coordination between stakeholders and initiatives (e.g., development assistance projects and corporate sustainability efforts); (5) focus on interdependent relationships between social, environmental and economic dimensions to achieve sustainable development; and (6) engage with the private sector. The study shows the importance of identifying different stakeholder priorities in order to design solutions that accommodate multiple interests. It also emphasizes the need to improve coordination and communication between stakeholders and instruments in order to address the three different dimensions of sustainability in a synergistic manner, considering the interactions from production of raw material to end consumer.
  • Mononen, Niina; Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika; Airaksinen, Marja S. A.; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri (2020)
    Objective Finland is one of the few countries that has established a national Medicines Information (MI) Strategy. The ultimate goal of the strategy is a well-implemented medication use process resulting in well-informed adherent patients. This study aimed at evaluating the implementation of the strategy 3years after its launch. Design The evaluation applied a pragmatic approach and was conducted by interviewing stakeholders involved in the National MI Network enhancing the MI Strategy's implementation. The network comprises national key stakeholders producing and using MI. Data were deductively analysed according to the medication use process of the MI Strategy using the framework method, complemented with inductively derived categories. Setting National implementation of the MI Strategy throughout the healthcare system after the first operational period (2012-2014) in 2015. Participants The members of the National MI Network (n=79/111, participation rate 71%, representing 42/53 stakeholder organisations). Outcome measures A new conceptual framework was developed based on stakeholders' views on well-implemented actions and actions needing development in the medication use process at (1) infrastructure (macro), (2) healthcare professionals (meso) and (3) patient (micro) levels. Results Medication counselling by community pharmacists was the primary implemented action, followed by physicians' actions while starting a new medication, and advice given by nurses. The major development needs concerned (1) poor access to patient information and its transfer in healthcare, particularly the lack of reconciled medication lists and electronic health records (macro); (2) poorly functioning medication use process in home care and social care units, such as nursing homes (meso); and (3) limited patient involvement in their care (micro). Conclusions Far more actions for development than well-established practices in the medication use process were identified. Major challenges found in this evaluation are considered in the ongoing Rational Pharmacotherapy Action Plan 2018-2022 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.
  • Lam, Max; Chen, Chia-Yen; Ge, Tian; Xia, Yan; Hill, David W.; Trampush, Joey W.; Yu, Jin; Knowles, Emma; Davies, Gail; Stahl, Eli A.; Huckins, Laura; Liewald, David C.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Melle, Ingrid; Christoforou, Andrea; Reinvang, Ivar; DeRosse, Pamela; Lundervold, Astri J.; Steen, Vidar M.; Espeseth, Thomas; Raikkonen, Katri; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Giegling, Ina; Konte, Bettina; Hartmann, Annette M.; Roussos, Panos; Giakoumaki, Stella; Burdick, Katherine E.; Payton, Antony; Ollier, William; Chiba-Falek, Ornit; Koltai, Deborah C.; Need, Anna C.; Cirulli, Elizabeth T.; Voineskos, Aristotle N.; Stefanis, Nikos C.; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Hatzimanolis, Alex; Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Bilder, Robert M.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; London, Edythe; Poldrack, Russell A.; Sabb, Fred W.; Congdon, Eliza; Conley, Emily Drabant; Scult, Matthew A.; Dickinson, Dwight; Straub, Richard E.; Donohoe, Gary; Morris, Derek; Corvin, Aiden; Gill, Michael; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Pendleton, Neil; Bitsios, Panos; Rujescu, Dan; Lahti, Jari; Hellard, Stephanie Le; Keller, Matthew C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Deary, Ian J.; Glahn, David C.; Huang, Hailiang; Liu, Chunyu; Malhotra, Anil K.; Lencz, Todd (2021)
    Broad-based cognitive deficits are an enduring and disabling symptom for many patients with severe mental illness, and these impairments are inadequately addressed by current medications. While novel drug targets for schizophrenia and depression have emerged from recent large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of these psychiatric disorders, GWAS of general cognitive ability can suggest potential targets for nootropic drug repurposing. Here, we (1) meta-analyze results from two recent cognitive GWAS to further enhance power for locus discovery; (2) employ several complementary transcriptomic methods to identify genes in these loci that are credibly associated with cognition; and (3) further annotate the resulting genes using multiple chemoinformatic databases to identify "druggable" targets. Using our meta-analytic data set (N = 373,617), we identified 241 independent cognition-associated loci (29 novel), and 76 genes were identified by 2 or more methods of gene identification. Actin and chromatin binding gene sets were identified as novel pathways that could be targeted via drug repurposing. Leveraging our transcriptomic and chemoinformatic databases, we identified 16 putative genes targeted by existing drugs potentially available for cognitive repurposing.
  • Valoppi, Fabio; Agustin, Melissa; Abik, Felix; Morais de Carvalho, Danila; Sithole, Jaison; Bhattarai, Mamata; Varis, Jutta Johanna; Arzami, Anis; Pulkkinen, Elli Eva; Mikkonen, Kirsi S. (2021)
    While the world population is steadily increasing, the capacity of Earth to renew its resources is continuously declining. Consequently, the bioresources required for food production are diminishing and new approaches are needed to feed the current and future global population. In the last decades, scientists have developed novel strategies to reduce food loss and waste, improve food production, and find new ingredients, design and build new food structures, and introduce digitalization in the food system. In this work, we provide a general overview on circular economy, alternative technologies for food production such as cellular agriculture, and new sources of ingredients like microalgae, insects, and wood-derived fibers. We present a summary of the whole process of food design using creative problem-solving that fosters food innovation, and digitalization in the food sector such as artificial intelligence, augmented and virtual reality, and blockchain technology. Finally, we briefly discuss the effect of COVID-19 on the food system. This review has been written for a broad audience, covering a wide spectrum and giving insights on the most recent advances in the food science and technology area, presenting examples from both academic and industrial sides, in terms of concepts, technologies, and tools which will possibly help the world to achieve food security in the next 30 years.
  • Käyhkö, Janina; Wiréhn, Lotten; Juhola, Sirkku; Schmid Neset, Tina-Simone (2020)
    Climate change adaptation measures and practices may induce fundamental changes i.e. transformations in socio-ecological systems. Adaptation that intentionally aims for transformation is often intended to increase benefits and synergies with other broader societal development goals such as sustainability. Adaptation measures also have possible unintended negative effects that, in the case of system transformations, may be difficult to reverse. This study seeks to identify characteristic features of the adaptation processes that may result in agrifood system transformations. We introduce an integrated framework to identify these features and 'adaptation activity spaces', and apply this framework to the Nordic context, analysing stakeholder interviews that integrated serious gaming. The results show how transformations may result from adaptation measures targeted towards climate risks with an objective of changing either current practices or surrounding supportive structures. This study addresses reasons why transformative adaptation is not occurring in Nordic agri-food systems and presents novel information that may contribute to policymaking and further research needs on transformations in relation to adaptation decision-making.
  • Lin, Brenda B.; Ossola, Alessandro; Alberti, Marina; Andersson, Erik; Bai, Xuemei; Dobbs, Cynnamon; Elmqvist, Thomas; Evans, Karl L.; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Fuller, Richard A.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Haase, Dagmar; Jim, Chi Yung; Konijnendijk, Cecil; Nagendra, Harini; Niemelä, Jari; McPhearson, Timon; Moomaw, William R.; Parnell, Susan; Pataki, Diane; Ripple, William J.; Tan, Puay Yok (2021)
    Record climate extremes are reducing urban liveability, compounding inequality, and threatening infrastructure. Adaptation measures that integrate technological, nature-based, and social solutions can provide multiple co-benefits to address complex socioecological issues in cities while increasing resilience to potential impacts. However, there remain many challenges to developing and implementing integrated solutions. In this Viewpoint, we consider the value of integrating across the three solution sets, the challenges and potential enablers for integrating solution sets, and present examples of challenges and adopted solutions in three cities with different urban contexts and climates (Freiburg, Germany; Durban, South Africa; and Singapore). We conclude with a discussion of research directions and provide a road map to identify the actions that enable successful implementation of integrated climate solutions. We highlight the need for more systematic research that targets enabling environments for integration; achieving integrated solutions in different contexts to avoid maladaptation; simultaneously improving liveability, sustainability, and equality; and replicating via transfer and scale-up of local solutions. Cities in systematically disadvantaged countries (sometimes referred to as the Global South) are central to future urban development and must be prioritised. Helping decision makers and communities understand the potential opportunities associated with integrated solutions for climate change will encourage urgent and deliberate strides towards adapting cities to the dynamic climate reality.
  • Figueiredo, Patricia; Lepland, Anni; Scodeller, Pablo; Fontana, Flavia; Torrieri, Giulia; Tiboni, Mattia; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Casettari, Luca; Kostiainen, Mauri; Hirvonen, Jouni; Teesalu, Tambet; Santos, Hélder A. (2021)
    Nanomedicines represent innovative and promising alternative technologies to improve the therapeutic effects of different drugs for cancer ablation. Targeting M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) has emerged as a favorable therapeutic approach to fight against cancer through the modulation of the tumor microenvironment. However, the immunomodulatory molecules used for this purpose present side effects upon systemic administration, which limits their clinical translation. Here, the biocompatible lignin polymer is used to prepare lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) that carry a dual agonist of the toll-like receptors TLR7/8 (resiquimod, R848). These LNPs are targeted to the CD206-positive M2-like TAMs using the “mUNO” peptide, in order to revert their pro-tumor phenotype into anti-tumor M1-like macrophages in the tumor microenvironment of an aggressive triple-negative in vivo model of breast cancer. Overall, we show that targeting the resiquimod (R848)-loaded LNPs to the M2-like macrophages, using very low doses of R848, induces a profound shift in the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment towards an anti-tumor immune state, by increasing the representation of M1-like macrophages, cytotoxic T cells, and activated dendritic cells. This effect consequently enhances the anticancer effect of the vinblastine (Vin) when co-administered with R848-loaded LNPs to the M2-like macrophages, using very low doses of R848, induces a profound shift in the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment towards an anti-tumor immune state, by increasing the representation of M1-like macrophages, cytotoxic T cells, and activated dendritic cells. This effect consequently enhances the anticancer effect of the vinblastine (Vin) when co-administered with R848-loaded LNPs. Statement of significance Lignin-based nanoparticles (LNPs) were successfully developed to target a potent TLR7/8 agonist (R848) of the tumor microenvironment (TME). This was achieved by targeting the mannose receptor (CD206) on the tumor supportive (M2-like) macrophages with the "mUNO" peptide, to reprogram them into an antitumor (M1-like) phenotype for enhanced chemotherapy. LNPs modified the biodistribution of the R848, and enhanced its accumulation and efficacy in shifting the immunological profile of the cells in the TME, which was not achieved by systemic administration of free R848. Moreover, a reduction in the tumor volumes was observed at lower equivalent doses of R848 compared with other studies. Therefore, the co-administration of R848@LNPs is a promising chemotherapeutic application in aggressive tumors, such as the triple-negative breast cancer. (c) 2020 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Silander, Katariina; Särkilahti, Anna; Torkki, Paulus; Peltokorpi, Antti; Tarkkanen, Maija; Kaila, Minna (2019)
    Mass customisation and modularisation are considered means to enhance patient-centredness and control increasing healthcare expenditures. The purpose of this study is to identify existing knowledge regarding the application of mass customisation and modularisation in healthcare delivery while focusing specifically on outcomes. A scoping review was conducted with various combinations of search terms using Scopus. Nearly 2,000 studies were identified of which 18 met inclusion criteria. Patient experience, customisation, and the economic impact on service delivery were analysed. Mass customisation and modularisation may be applicable in healthcare. The model may increase patient satisfaction. However, more knowledge of the outcomes of mass customisation is needed. As the number of studies in this area is limited, more empirical mixed methods research on the implementation and outcomes of mass customisation is needed to understand the expected benefits and to determine the possible effects on patient satisfaction and financial implications.
  • Agache, Ioana; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Bonertz, Andreas; Branca, Francesco; Cant, Andrew; Fras, Zlatko; Ingenrieth, Frank; Namazova-Baranova, Leyla; Odemyr, Mikaela; Spanevello, Antonio; Vieths, Stefan; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Alvaro-Lozano, Montserat; Hernandez, Domingo Barber; Chivato, Tomas; Del Giacco, Stefano; Diamant, Zuzana; Eguiluz-Gracia, Ibon; van Wijk, Roy Gert; Gevaert, Philippe; Graessel, Anke; Hellings, Peter; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Jutel, Marek; Lau, Susanne; Lauerma, Antti; Olaguibel, Jose Maria; O'Mahony, Liam; Ozdemir, Cevdet; Palomares, Oscar; Pfaar, Oliver; Sastre, Joaquin; Scadding, Glennis; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Shamji, Mohamed; Skypala, Isabel; Spinola, Monica; Spranger, Otto; Torres, Maria; Vereda, Andrea; Bonini, Sergio (2019)
    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) organized the first European Strategic Forum on Allergic Diseases and Asthma. The main aim was to bring together all relevant stakeholders and decision-makers in the field of allergy, asthma and clinical Immunology around an open debate on contemporary challenges and potential solutions for the next decade. The Strategic Forum was an upscaling of the EAACI White Paper aiming to integrate the Academy's output with the perspective offered by EAACI's partners. This collaboration is fundamental for adapting and integrating allergy and asthma care into the context of real-world problems. The Strategic Forum on Allergic Diseases brought together all partners who have the drive and the influence to make positive change: national and international societies, patients' organizations, regulatory bodies and industry representatives. An open debate with a special focus on drug development and biomedical engineering, big data and information technology and allergic diseases and asthma in the context of environmental health concluded that connecting science with the transformation of care and a joint agreement between all partners on priorities and needs are essential to ensure a better management of allergic diseases and asthma in the advent of precision medicine together with global access to innovative and affordable diagnostics and therapeutics.
  • Korpilo, Silviya; Kaaronen, Roope Oskari; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Raymond, Prof. Christopher (2022)
    In the last two decades, there has been an exponential increase in application of public participation GIS (PPGIS) methods to urban green and blue space (UGBS) planning. However, integrating different elements of environ-mental justice in PPGIS research is still in its infancy, especially in regards to the deep and less visible issues related to recognition and participation of different groups in local green space planning and management. Here we present a new method for assessing perceived recognition and procedural justice with respect to UGBS in the Amager island of Copenhagen, Denmark. We collected survey data together with 2187 place-based values and preferences from 298 local residents. Using Exploratory Factor Analysis, we classified respondents in four clusters representing low to high perceived recognition and procedural justice. We then examined how these clusters relate to socio-demographics and the spatial distribution of mapped values and preferences. Results indicated no significant differences in terms of income and age between clusters. However, there was clear variation in the spatial distribution and type of values and preferences respondents from different clusters assigned, particularly for those who feel unrecognized and do not participate in local environmental decision -making compared to all other groups. In addition, gender had a significant effect on the perceptions of recog-nition and procedure. Female respondents scored lower on procedural justice than male and mapped landscape values and preferences closer to home than males, thus suggesting that gender inequalities can be deeply embedded in everyday public spaces and practices. Planning inclusive and environmentally just UGBS requires not only incorporating such gender perspectives, but a more flexible, intersectional and relational understanding of space that reflects the everyday needs of different and marginalized groups.
  • Wellmann, Thilo; Andersson, Erik; Knapp, Sonja; Lausch, Angela; Palliwoda, Julia; Priess, Joerg; Scheuer, Sebastian; Haase, Dagmar (2023)
    While held to be a means for climate change adaptation and mitigation, nature-based solutions (NbS) themselves are vulnerable to climate change. To find ways of compensating for this vulnerability we combine a focused literature review on how information technology has been used to strengthen positive social-ecological-technological feedback, with the development of a prototype decision-support tool. Guided by the literature review, the tool integrates recent advances in using globally available remote sensing data to elicit information on functional diversity and ecosystem service provisioning with information on human service demand and population vulnerability. When combined, these variables can inform climate change adaptation strategies grounded in local social-ecological realities. This type of integrated monitoring and packaging information to be actionable have potential to support NbS management and local knowledge building for context-tailored solutions to societal challenges in urban environments.
  • Neset, Tina-Simone; Juhola, Sirkku; Wirehn, Lotten; Kayhko, Janina; Navarra, Carlo; Asplund, Therese; Glaas, Erik; Wibeck, Victoria; Linner, Bjorn-Ola (2020)
    Background. Serious games are gaining increasing prominence in environmental communication research, but their potential to form an integrated part of participatory research approaches is still strikingly understudied. This is particularly the case for applications of interactive digital formats in research on environmental challenges of high complexity, such as climate adaptation, which is a specifically suitable case as it involves complex interaction between climate systems and society, but where the response also involves trade-offs with potentially negative - maladaptive - outcomes. Intervention. This article presents the Maladaptation Game, which was designed to facilitate dialogue about potential negative outcomes of agricultural climate adaptation. Methods. We conducted test sessions with agricultural stakeholders in Finland and Sweden, and analysed quantitative and qualitative, audio-recorded and transcribed, material for opportunities and challenges related to dialogues, engagement, interactivity and experienced relevance. Results. The qualitative analysis of recorded dialogues shows that the Maladaptation Game has potential to support dialogue by challenging players to negotiate between options with negative outcomes. The gameplay itself presents opportunities in terms of creating engagement with options that provoke disagreement and debates between players, as well as interactivity, that players reflected upon as quick and easy, while challenges were related to the experienced relevance, in particular the options provided in the game, and its general framing. Conclusions. The results indicate a need for complementary approaches to this type of game but also suggest the importance of moderation when the game design is aimed at creating dialogue around a complex environmental challenge such as agricultural climate adaptation.
  • Wang, Tianduanyi; Gautam, Prson; Rousu, Juho; Aittokallio, Tero (2020)
    While high-throughput drug screening offers possibilities to profile phenotypic responses of hundreds of compounds, elucidation of the cell context-specific mechanisms of drug action requires additional analyses. To that end, we developed a computational target deconvolution pipeline that identifies the key target dependencies based on collective drug response patterns in each cell line separately. The pipeline combines quantitative drug-cell line responses with drug-target interaction networks among both intended on- and potent off-targets to identify pharmaceutically actionable and selective therapeutic targets. To demonstrate its performance, the target deconvolution pipeline was applied to 310 small molecules tested on 20 genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines to identify cell line-specific target mechanisms in terms of cytotoxic and cytostatic drug target vulnerabilities. The functional essentiality of each protein target was quantified with a target addiction score (TAS), as a measure of dependency of the cell line on the therapeutic target. The target dependency profiling was shown to capture inhibitory information that is complementary to that obtained from the structure or sensitivity of the drugs. Comparison of the TAS profiles and gene essentiality scores from CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screens revealed that certain proteins with low gene essentiality showed high target addictions, suggesting that they might be functioning as protein groups, and therefore be resistant to single gene knock-out. The comparative analysis discovered protein groups of potential multi-target synthetic lethal interactions, for instance, among histone deacetylases (HDACs). Our integrated approach also recovered a number of well-established TNBC cell line-specific drivers and known TNBC therapeutic targets, such as HDACs and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The present work provides novel insights into druggable vulnerabilities for TNBC, and opportunities to identify multi-target synthetic lethal interactions for further studies. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.