Browsing by Subject "ORAL-CAVITY"

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  • Kainulainen, S.; Tornwall, J.; Koivusalo, A. M.; Suominen, A. L.; Lassus, Patrik (2017)
    Objectives: Glucocorticoids are widely used in association with major surgery of the head and neck to improve postoperative rehabilitation, shorten intensive care unit and hospital stay, and reduce neck swelling. This study aimed to clarify whether peri-and postoperative use of dexamethasone in reconstructive head and neck cancer surgery is associated with any advantages or disadvantages. Materials and methods: This prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial comprised 93 patients. A total dose of 60 mg of dexamethasone was administered to 51 patients over three days peri-and post-operatively. The remaining 42 patients served as controls. The main primary outcome variables were neck swelling, length of intensive care unit and hospital stay, duration of intubation or tracheostomy, and delay to start of possible radiotherapy. Complications were also recorded. Results: No statistical differences emerged between the two groups in any of the main primary outcome variables. However, there were more major complications, especially infections, needing secondary surgery within three weeks of the operation in patients receiving dexamethasone than in control patients (27% vs. 7%, p = 0.012). Conclusions: The use of dexamethasone in oral cancer patients with microvascular reconstruction did not provide a benefit. More major complications, especially infections, occurred in patients receiving dexamethasone. Our data thus do not support the use of peri-and postoperative dexamethasone in oropharyngeal cancer patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Jouhi, Lauri; Halme, Elina; Irjala, Heikki; Saarilahti, Kauko; Koivunen, Petri; Pukkila, Matti; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj; Lindholm, Paula; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Vaittinen, Samuli; Ellonen, Anna; Tikanto, Jukka; Blomster, Henry; Laranne, Jussi; Grenman, Reidar; Mäkitie, Antti; Atula, Timo (2018)
    Background: Treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has changed, as the proportion of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related disease has increased. We evaluated nationwide information on its management and outcome during the treatment paradigm change period.Methods: We included all patients diagnosed and treated for OPSCC at the five Finnish university hospitals from 2000 to 2009. Patient records and pathology registries provided the clinicopathological data. p16 staining was performed on primary tumor samples of patients who had received treatment with curative intent.Results: A total of 674 patients were diagnosed and treated for OPSCC and the incidence increased along the study period. Of the evaluable tumors 58.5% were p16-positive and the number of p16-positive tumors increased along the years. The treatment was given with curative intent for 600 patients and it was completed in 564. Of them, 47.9% underwent primary surgery and 52.1% received definitive oncological treatment. Also, the treatment protocol changed towards a more oncological approach. Among patients treated with curative intent the five-year overall, disease-specific and disease-free survival rates were 60.1, 71.5 and 57.0%. In multivariate analysis, p16-positivity seemed to relate to reduced disease mortality in lateral and anterior-wall disease. Depending on primary tumor localization, also sex, classes T3-4, presence of regional metastasis and radiotherapy modality had an association with disease mortality.Conclusion: The incidence of p16-positive OPSCC and delivery of definitive oncological treatment increased in Finland during the study period. An improved survival outcome compared with the previous nationwide investigation was observed in this subset of patients.
  • Seliger, Barbara; Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Yang, Bo; Salo, Tuula; Wickenhauser, Claudia (2022)
    Various in vitro models using primary and established 2- and 3-dimensional cultures, multicellular tumor spheroids, standardized tumor slice cultures, tumor organoids, and microfluidic systems obtained from tumor lesions/biopsies of head and neck cancer (HNC) have been employed for exploring and monitoring treatment options. All of these in vitro models are to a different degree able to capture the diversity of tumors, recapitulate the disease genetically, histologically, and functionally and retain their tumorigenic potential upon xenotransplantation. The models were used for the characterization of the malignant features of the tumors and for in vitro screens of drugs approved for the treatment of HNC, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy as well as recently developed targeted therapies and immunotherapies, or for novel treatments not yet licensed for these tumor entities. The implementation of the best suitable model will enlarge our knowledge of the oncogenic properties of HNC, expand the drug repertoire and help to develop individually tailored treatment strategies resulting in the translation of these findings into the clinic. This review summarizes the different approaches using preclinical in vitro systems with their advantages and disadvantages and their implementation as preclinical platforms to predict disease course, evaluate biomarkers and test therapy efficacy.
  • Jouhi, Lauri; Atula, Timo; Mäkitie, Antti; Keski-Santti, Harri (2019)
    PurposeOnly a minority of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) are diagnosed without regional metastasis (cN0). Studies focusing on the management of cN0 neck in OPSCC are scarce.MethodsWe reviewed all OPSCC patients treated at our institution with cN0 neck between 2000 and 2009. The treatment of neck and pattern of regional control was analyzed. Median follow-up was 5years (range 3.5-9.0) or until death.ResultsOf the total 313 OPSCC patients treated within the period, 56 (18%) presented with cN0 neck. Of them, 51 (91%) received completed treatment with curative intent: 46 (90%) underwent elective neck treatment with either neck dissection (chemo)radiotherapy (C)RT (n=23) or (C)RT (n=23). A regional recurrence occurred in three patients (6%) and they all had a p16-negative soft palate midline primary tumor. Two of these patients had received RT on the neck.Conclusions While the overall prognosis of OPSCC is generally favorable and regional recurrences are infrequent, soft palate tumors, that are usually p16 negative, may form an subgroup warranting more aggressive treatment despite the clinical appearance of early stage.
  • Vander Poorten, Vincent; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Skalova, Alena; Stenman, Göran; Bishop, Justin A.; Hauben, Esther; Hunt, Jennifer L.; Hellquist, Henrik; Feys, Simon; De Bree, Remco; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Quer, Miquel; Strojan, Primoz; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio (2018)
    Although relatively rare, polymorphous adenocarcinoma (PAC) is likely the second most common malignancy of the minor salivary glands (MiSG). The diagnosis is mainly based on an incisional biopsy. The optimal treatment comprises wide surgical excision, often with adjuvant radiotherapy. In general, PAC has a good prognosis. Previously, PAC was referred to as polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA), but the new WHO classification of salivary gland tumours has also included under the PAC subheading, the so-called cribriform adenocarcinoma of minor salivary glands (CAMSG). This approach raised controversy, predominantly because of possible differences in clinical behaviour. For example, PLGA (PAC, classical variant) only rarely metastasizes, whereas CAMSG often shows metastases to the neck lymph nodes. Given the controversy, this review reappraises the definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, genetics, treatment modalities, and prognosis of PAC of the salivary glands with a particular focus on contrasting differences with CAMSG.
  • Nieminen, Teija; Tolvi, Morag; Lassus, Patrik; Wilkman, Tommy; Lehtonen, Lasse; Mäkitie, Antti (2022)
    Background: Free tissue transfer reconstruction carries significant complication rates in surgical head and neck oncology. A registry-based approach offers a possibility to investigate the factors affecting increased morbidity and early mortality, that is, death within 6 months of treatment. Methods: A retrospective registry review was conducted on a series of 317 consecutive microvascular free tissue transfers in head and neck cancer patients performed during 2013-2017 at the Helsinki University Hospital (Helsinki, Finland). All surviving patients had a minimum follow-up of 2 years (range 24-84 months). Results: Overall, 36 (11.4%) early deaths occurred in this series. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, patients aged 75 years and older (p = 0.019), Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27) score of 3 (p = 0.048), tumor class T3 (p = 0.005), lymph node class N2 (p = 0.014), or thrombocyte count of 360 (x 10(9) L) or more (p = 0.001) were more likely to die within 6 months of surgery. Of these 36 patients, 27 (75%) had a complication warranting hospital care and most (n = 22, 61%) had several complications. Conclusions: Early postoperative mortality most frequently affects patients aged 75 years and above, with a high ACE-27 score, advanced tumor stage, or high thrombocyte count. Therefore, preoperative assessment and patient selection should have a crucial role in this patient population.
  • Ronen, O; Robbins, KT; de Bree, R; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Hartl, DM; Homma, A; Khafif, A; Kowalski, LP; Lopez, F; Makitie, AA; Ng, WT; Rinaldo, A; Rodrigo, JP; Sanabria, A; Ferlito, A (2021)
    The inherent variability in performing specific surgical procedures for head and neck cancer remains a barrier for accurately assessing treatment outcomes, particularly in clinical trials. While non-surgical modalities for cancer therapeutics have evolved to become far more uniform, there remains the challenge to standardize surgery. The purpose of this review is to identify the barriers in achieving uniformity and to highlight efforts by surgical groups to standardize selected operations and nomenclature. While further improvements in standardization will remain a challenge, we must encourage surgical groups to focus on strategies that provide such a level.
  • Sjoblom, A; Stenman, UH; Hagstrom, J; Jouhi, L; Haglund, C; Syrjanen, S; Mattila, P; Makitie, A; Carpen, T (2021)
    Simple Summary Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is a form of head and neck cancer in which human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been shown to play a major role in disease development. The survival rates of HPV-positive patients are favorable compared to HPV-negative patients, but the reason for this phenomenon remains unclear. The management of OPSCC is complex, and development of novel treatment options is urgently required. Various possible factors affecting survival have been explored, including the tumor environment and cancer-related proteases. Our aim was to study a protease inhibitor known as tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor and its correlation with survival and clinical data in OPSCC patients. Background: We studied the role of tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) in serum and in tumor tissues among human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC patients. Materials and methods: The study cohort included 90 OPSCC patients treated at the Helsinki University Hospital (HUS), Helsinki, Finland, in 2012-2016. TATI serum concentrations (S-TATIs) were determined by an immunofluorometric assay. Immunostaining was used to assess tissue expression. HPV status was determined with a combination of p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV DNA PCR genotyping. The survival endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). Results: A significant correlation was found between S-TATI positivity and poor OS (p < 0.001) and DSS (p = 0.04) in all patients. In HPV-negative cases, S-TATI positivity was linked to poor OS (p = 0.01) and DSS (p = 0.05). In HPV-positive disease, S-TATI positivity correlated with poor DSS (p = 0.01). S-TATI positivity was strongly associated with HPV negativity. TATI serum was negatively linked to a lower cancer stage. TATI expression in peritumoral lymphocytes was associated with favorable OS (p < 0.025) and HPV positivity. TATI expression in tumor and in peritumoral lymphocytes correlated with lower cancer stages. Conclusion: Our results suggest that S-TATI positivity may be a biomarker of poor prognosis in both HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC.