Browsing by Subject "ORAL-HEALTH"

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  • Kämppi, Antti; Tanner, Tarja; Viitanen, Olavi; Pohjola, Vesa; Päkkilä, Jari; Tjäderhane, Leo; Anttonen, Vuokko; Patinen, Pertti (2022)
    The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence of dental fear among Finnish conscripts. Other aims were to study the association between dental fear and cariological status as well as their self-reported, dentition-related well-being. The study material consisted of 13,564 men and 255 women conscripts who underwent oral examinations. Of those, 8713 responded to a computer-based questionnaire. The mean number of decayed teeth (DT) was used in analyses for cariological status. Self-reported dental fear, dentition-related well-being and regular check-ups were analysed. Data were analysed with cross tables, Pearson Chi-Square tests, Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regressive analysis. High dental fear or finding dental visits very scary was associated with DT > 2 both among women (14.6%, when DT = 0; 33.3%, when DT > 2) and men conscripts (2.3% and 10.8%, respectively). In addition, those reporting that dental health had a negative impact on their well-being and had no regular check-ups were more likely to need cariological treatment than the rest. A high education level, both one's own and parental, was a protective factor for restorative treatment need in male conscripts. The findings of this study support the concept of a vicious cycle of dental fear and dental caries. A preventive, interactive way of work by dental teams would most likely be beneficial for dental health, avoiding the development of dental fear, and dentition-related well-being.
  • Niskanen, Mirka Carita; Mattila, Pauli Taneli; Niinimaa, Ahti Olavi; Vehkalahti, Miira Marjaliisa; Knuuttila, Matti (2020)
    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the association of behavioural and socioeconomic factors with the occurrence of periodontal disease and dental caries, paying special attention to the simultaneous occurrence of these diseases. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 5255 dentate persons aged >= 30 years from a nationally representative survey. Caries and probing pocket depth were recorded by tooth and calculated in relation to the number of existing teeth. The groups were: non-affected (A), the two most affected quintiles for periodontal disease with little or no dental caries (B), the two most affected quintiles for dental caries with little or no periodontal disease (C) and the two most affected quintiles for both periodontal disease and dental caries (D). Presence of dental plaque was determined, and behavioural and socioeconomic factors were established. Results: Dental plaque, smoking, lack of regular dental check-ups, older age and a basic level of education were strongly associated with the simultaneous occurrence of periodontal disease and dental caries. Conclusions: There are many behavioural and socioeconomic factors that associate with the occurrence of both periodontal disease and dental caries. These factors also increase the risk of individuals having these diseases simultaneously.
  • Tanner, Tarja; Harju, Laura; Pakkila, Jari; Patinen, Pertti; Tjäderhane, Leo; Anttonen, Vuokko (2020)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of consumption of snack products, as well as the association between snacking and restorative treatment need, and associated factors among a healthy Finnish male population. Approximately 8500 conscripts answered a computer-based questionnaire covering their snacking habits and other health behaviours. Restorative treatment need and history (DT, DMFT) were examined by trained and calibrated dentists. Cross-tabulations were used to investigate the associations between snacking habits and the other researched variables, and logistic regression analyses (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval) were used to investigate the variables influencing the restorative treatment need. In the present study, almost one-third of the study group consumed snack products daily, most often fizzy and energy drinks. Only 10% had received a diet counselling. The most common situations involving snacking were at the cinema and while playing computer games. According to Pearson's Chi square test, snacking was associated with smoking and snuffing and infrequent tooth brushing (p <0.001). According to the regression analyses, daily snacking, smoking, and doing exercise daily increased the odds for restorative treatment need whereas higher education level and tooth brushing twice or more often per day decreased the odds for restorative treatment need. It can be concluded that daily snacking is common among Finnish young men and is associated with restorative treatment need. Snacking is also associated with other harmful oral and general health habits. Individual dietary counselling should be routinely offered to everybody in dental clinics.
  • Soder, Birgitta; Meurman, Jukka H.; Soder, Per-Osten (2016)
    Objectives Dental infections, such as periodontitis, associate with atherosclerosis and its complications. We studied a cohort followed-up since 1985 for incidence of angina pectoris with the hypothesis that calculus accumulation, proxy for poor oral hygiene, links to this symptom. Methods In our Swedish prospective cohort study of 1676 randomly selected subjects followed-up for 26 years. In 1985 all subjects underwent clinical oral examination and answered a questionnaire assessing background variables such as socio-economic status and pack-years of smoking. By using data from the Center of Epidemiology, Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden we analyzed the association of oral health parameters with the prevalence of in-hospital verified angina pectoris classified according to the WHO International Classification of Diseases, using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 1676 subjects, 51 (28 women/23 men) had been diagnosed with angina pectoris at a mean age of 59.8 +/- 2.9 years. No difference was observed in age and gender between patients with angina pectoris and subjects without. Neither was there any difference in education level and smoking habits (in pack years), Gingival index and Plaque index between the groups. Angina pectoris patients had significantly more often their first maxillary molar tooth extracted (d. 16) than the other subjects (p = 0.02). Patients also showed significantly higher dental calculus index values than the subjects without angina pectoris (p = 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed odds ratio 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.17-4.17) in the association between high calculus index and angina pectoris (p = 0.015). Conclusion Our study hypothesis was confirmed by showing for the first time that high dental calculus score indeed associated with the incidence of angina pectoris in this cohort study.
  • Nikinmaa, Sakari; Moilanen, Niina; Sorsa, Timo; Rantala, Juha; Alapulli, Heikki; Kotiranta, Anja; Auvinen, Petri; Kankuri, Esko; Meurman, Jukka H.; Pätilä, Tommi (2021)
    Aim: This study aimed to determine the feasibility and first efficacy of indocyanine green (ICG)-assisted antimicrobial photodynamictherapy (aPDT) as activated using LED light to the dental plaque. Methods: Fifteen healthy adults were assigned to this four-day randomized study. After rinsing with ICG, 100 J/cm(2) of 810 nm LED light was applied to the aPDT-treatment area. Plaque area and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) were measured, and plaque bacteriomes before and after the study were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: aPDT administration was preformed successfully and plaque-specifically with the combination of ICG and the applicator. Total plaque area and endpoint MMP-8 levels were reduced on the aPDT-treatment side. aPDT reduced Streptococcus, Acinetobacteria, Capnocytophaga, and Rothia bacteria species in plaques. Conclusion: ICG-assisted aPDT reduces plaque forming bacteria and exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-proteolytic effects.
  • Lundmark, Anna; Johannsen, Gunnar; Eriksson, Kaja; Kats, Anna; Jansson, Leif; Tervahartiala, Taina; Rathnayake, Nilminie; Akerman, Sigvard; Klinge, Bjorn; Sorsa, Timo; Yucel-Lindberg, Tulay (2017)
    Aim: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by irreversible destruction of tooth-supporting tissue including alveolar bone. We recently reported mucin 4 ( MUC4) and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) as highly associated with periodontitis in gingival tissue biopsies. The aim of this study was to further investigate the levels of MUC4 and MMP7 in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples of patients with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Saliva and GCF samples were collected from periodontitis patients and healthy controls. The levels of MUC4, MMP7, and total protein concentrations were analysed using ELISA or Bradford assay. Results: MUC4 levels were significantly lower in saliva and GCF from periodontitis patients relative to healthy controls. MMP7 levels were significantly higher in saliva and GCF from periodontitis patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that MUC4 was significantly associated with periodontitis after adjusting for age and smoking habits and, moreover, that the combination of MUC4 and MMP7 accurately discriminated periodontitis from healthy controls. Conclusions: MUC4 and MMP7 may be utilized as possible novel biomarkers for periodontitis.
  • Dent, E.; Morley, J. E.; Cruz-Jentoft, A. J.; Woodhouse, L.; Rodriguez-Manas, L.; Fried, L. P.; Woo, J.; Aprahamian; Sanford, A.; Lundy, J.; Landi, F.; Beilby, J.; Martin, F. C.; Bauer, J. M.; Ferrucci, L.; Merchant, R. A.; Dong, B.; Arai, H.; Hoogendijk, E. O.; Won, C. W.; Abbatecola, A.; Cederholm, T.; Strandberg, T.; Gutierrez Robledo, L. M.; Flicker, L.; Bhasin, S.; Aubertin-Leheudre, M.; Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A.; Guralnik, J. M.; Muscedere, J.; Pahor, M.; Ruiz, J.; Negm, A. M.; Reginster, J. Y.; Waters, D. L.; Vellas, B. (2019)
    Objective The task force of the International Conference of Frailty and Sarcopenia Research (ICFSR) developed these clinical practice guidelines to overview the current evidence-base and to provide recommendations for the identification and management of frailty in older adults. Methods These recommendations were formed using the GRADE approach, which ranked the strength and certainty (quality) of the supporting evidence behind each recommendation. Where the evidence-base was limited or of low quality, Consensus Based Recommendations (CBRs) were formulated. The recommendations focus on the clinical and practical aspects of care for older people with frailty, and promote person-centred care. Recommendations for Screening and Assessment The task force recommends that health practitioners case identify/screen all older adults for frailty using a validated instrument suitable for the specific setting or context (strong recommendation). Ideally, the screening instrument should exclude disability as part of the screening process. For individuals screened as positive for frailty, a more comprehensive clinical assessment should be performed to identify signs and underlying mechanisms of frailty (strong recommendation). Recommendations for Management A comprehensive care plan for frailty should address polypharmacy (whether rational or nonrational), the management of sarcopenia, the treatable causes of weight loss, and the causes of exhaustion (depression, anaemia, hypotension, hypothyroidism, and B12 deficiency) (strong recommendation). All persons with frailty should receive social support as needed to address unmet needs and encourage adherence to a comprehensive care plan (strong recommendation). First-line therapy for the management of frailty should include a multi-component physical activity programme with a resistance-based training component (strong recommendation). Protein/caloric supplementation is recommended when weight loss or undernutrition are present (conditional recommendation). No recommendation was given for systematic additional therapies such as cognitive therapy, problem-solving therapy, vitamin D supplementation, and hormone-based treatment. Pharmacological treatment as presently available is not recommended therapy for the treatment of frailty.
  • Grigoriadis, Andreas; Räisänen, Ismo T.; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo; Sakellari, Dimitra (2021)
    Objective: The aim of the study was to propose an efficient chairside clinical strategy for the identification of undiagnosed hyperglycaemia in periodontal clinics. Material and methods: Alpha chairside system was used for assessment of glycated hemoglobin 1c (HbA1c) and active Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 levels (aMMP-8) were analyzed by immunotest in patients (n = 150) who fulfilled the criteria for screening of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Full-mouth periodontal parameters were assessed and various data such as Body Mass Index (BMI), smoking and education were recorded. Results: Thirty-one patients out of 150 tested were found with unknown hyperglycaemia (20.7%). Regarding sex, education, parent with diabetes, normal BMI, smoking, age >= 45 years and prior testing for diabetes, no differences were observed between subjects displaying HbA1c <5.7 and >= 5.7% (Pearson's Chi-square test, p > .05). Subgroups differed regarding BMI (kg/m(2)), tooth count, percentages of 4 and 5 mm pockets (Mann-Whitney and z-test, p <.05). The diagnostic performance for HbA1c >= 5.7 was tested by Receiving Operator Characteristic curves and Areas Under the Curve (AUC) for the following: age >= 45 years and BMI (AUC 0.651, p = .010), the above and aMMP-8 (AUC 0.660, p = .006), age >= 45 years, BMI and Stage of Periodontitis (AUC 0.711, p <.001) and age >= 45 years, BMI, aMMP-8 and stage of periodontitis (AUC 0.713, p <.001). Conclusions: Findings of the study suggest that the combination of stage of periodontitis, increasing age, BMI and aMMP-8, without chairside HbA1c assessment appears to be a viable screening strategy for referring dental patients for testing for prediabetes/diabetes.
  • Rathnayake, Nilminie; Akerman, Sigvard; Klinge, Bjorn; Lundegren, Nina; Jansson, Henrik; Tryselius, Ylva; Sorsa, Timo; Gustafsson, Anders (2013)
  • Keles Yucel, Zeynep Pinar; Silbereisen, Angelika; Emingil, Gulnur; Tokgoz, Yavuz; Kose, Timur; Sorsa, Timo; Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Bostanci, Nagihan (2020)
    Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening chronic inflammatory disease in children due to respiratory complications. Saliva could serve as reservoir of bacterial colonization and potentially reflect systemic inflammation. This study investigated whether salivary triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1), peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1), interleukin (IL)-1? and calprotectin are associated with CF or reflect concomitant gingival inflammation. Methods Ten CF (age:3-12yrs) and ten systemically healthy age-and-gender-matched children (C) were enrolled in the study. Individuals with CF underwent routine laboratory determinations. Probing pocket depth (PPD), gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded on fully erupted teeth and saliva samples collected. Salivary TREM-1, PGLYRP1, IL-1? and calprotectin were analysed by ELISA. Results Children with CF had significantly higher BOP scores (P = 0.001) and calprotectin levels (P = 0.017) compared to the C group. TREM-1, PGLYRP1 and IL-1? could not distinguish between CF and SH but showed positive correlation with GI, PI and BOP in both groups. Calprotectin levels positively correlated with procalcitonin (P = 0.014), thrombocyte counts (P = 0.001), mean platelet volume (P = 0.030) and with PGLYRP1 (P = 0.019) and IL-1? (P = 0.013) in CF children. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for calprotectin (CFvsC) showed an area under the curve of 0.79 (95% CI 0.58-0.99, P = 0.034). Conclusions CF children presented with higher gingival inflammation scores and salivary calprotectin levels, that correlated with systemic inflammatory markers. Salivary calprotectin levels were not associated with periodontal parameters. Hence, preliminary data demonstrate that salivary calprotectin might have a chairside diagnostic potential for CF in children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
  • Koskela, Anu; Neittaanmäki, Anneli; Rönnberg, Kaj; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Palotie, Tuula (2021)
    Severe malocclusions appear in up to 20 per cent of the population. Many neuropsychiatric diseases are likely to have a neurodevelopmental, partially genetic background with their origins as early as fetal life. However, the possible relationship between neurodevelopmental disorders and severe malocclusions is unclear. The aim of this study was in a population-based setting (270 000 inhabitants) to investigate whether patients with severe malocclusions have more mental and behavioural disorders and growth or speech problems than controls without severe malocclusion.The study group consisted of patients from the Espoo Health Care Center, Finland, born in year 2000, who were retrospectively screened for their medical and dental records, including their possible mental and behavioural disorders (i.e. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Asperger’s syndrome, autism, mood disorder, or broadly defined behavioural abnormalities, learning problems, mental disorders, sleep disturbances, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and eating-related symptoms) and their need of orthodontic treatment according to the Treatment Priority Index (TPI). The study group consisted of a severe malocclusion group (n =1008; TPI 8–10) and a control group (n = 1068) with no severe malocclusion (TPI 0–7).Patients with severe mandibular retrognatia (P \lt; 0.000), lip incompetence (P = 0.006), or neurodevelopmental disorders (mental and behavioural; P = 0.002) were found to have significantly more speech problems than the controls. The patients with severe malocclusions were leaner, that is, body mass index (kg/m2) \lt;17, underweight; 17–25, normal weight; \gt;25, overweight) than controls (P = 0.003), and underweight patients had a significant association with retrognathic maxilla (P \lt; 0.000) compared to normal or overweight patients. No significant relationship between neurodevelopmental disorders and severe malocclusions, that is, retrognatia of maxilla, hypodontia, and severe dental crowding was observed.Our results indicate that patients with severe mandibular retrognatia, lip incompetence, or neurodevelopmental disorders were found to have significantly more speech problems than controls. During orthodontic treatment of patients with severe malocclusion, special attention should be paid to patients with severe mandibular retrognatia, lip incompetence, and speech problems to detect signs of possible neurodevelopmental disorders and record if potential follow-up measures are in place.