Browsing by Subject "ORGANIC-CARBON"

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  • Cavalli, F.; Alastuey, A.; Areskoug, H.; Ceburnis, D.; Cech, J.; Genberg, J.; Harrison, R. M.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Kiss, G.; Laj, P.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Perez, N.; Quincey, P.; Schwarz, J.; Sellegri, K.; Spindler, G.; Swietlicki, E.; Theodosi, C.; Yttri, K. E.; Aas, W.; Putaud, J. P. (2016)
    Although particulate organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) are important constituents of the suspended atmospheric particulate matter (PM), measurements of OC and EC are much less common and More uncertain than measurements of e.g. the ionic components of PM. In the framework of atmospheric research infrastructures supported by the European Union, actions have been undertaken to determine and mitigate sampling artefacts, and assess the comparability of OC and EC data obtained in a network of 10 atmospheric observatories across Europe. Positive sampling artefacts (from 0:4 to 2.8 mu g C/m(3)) and analytical discrepancies (between -50% and +40% for the EC/TC ratio) have been taken into account to generate a robust data set, from which we established the phenomenology of carbonaceous aerosols at regional background sites in Europe. Across the network, TC and EC annual average concentrations range from 0.4 to 9 mu g C/m(3), and from 0.1 to 2 mu g C/m(3), respectively. TC/PM10 annual mean ratios range from 0.11 at a Mediterranean site to 0.34 at the most polluted continental site, and TC/PM2.5 ratios are slightly greater at all sites (0.15-0.42). EC/TC annual mean ratios range from 0.10 to 0.22, and do not depend much on PM concentration levels, especially in winter. Seasonal variations in PM and TC concentrations, and in TC/PM and EC/TC ratios, differ across the network, which can be explained by seasonal changes in PM source contributions at some sites. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Zanatta, M.; Gysel, M.; Bukowiecki, N.; Mueller, T.; Weingartner, E.; Areskoug, H.; Fiebig, M.; Yttri, K. E.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kouvarakis, G.; Beddows, D.; Harrison, R. M.; Cavalli, F.; Putaud, J. P.; Spindler, G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Alastuey, A.; Pandolfi, M.; Sellegri, K.; Swietlicki, E.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Baltensperger, U.; Laj, P. (2016)
    A reliable assessment of the optical properties of atmospheric black carbon is of crucial importance for an accurate estimation of radiative forcing. In this study we investigated the spatio-temporal variability of the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of atmospheric black carbon, defined as light absorption coefficient (sigma(ap)) divided by elemental carbon mass concentration (m(EC)). sigma(ap) and m(EC) have been monitored at supersites of the ACTRIS network for a minimum period of one year. The 9 rural background sites considered in this study cover southern Scandinavia, central Europe and the Mediterranean. sigma(ap) was determined using filter based absorption photometers and m(EC) using a thermal-optical technique. Homogeneity of the data-set was ensured by harmonization of all involved methods and instruments during extensive intercomparison exercises at the European Center for Aerosol Calibration (ECAC). Annual mean values of sigma(ap) at a wavelength of 637 nm vary between 0.66 and 1.3 Mm(-1) in southern Scandinavia, 3.7-11 Mm(-1) in Central Europe and the British Isles, and 2.3-2.8 Mm(-1) in the Mediterranean. Annual mean values of mEC vary between 0.084 and 0.23 mu g m(-3) in southern Scandinavia, 0.28 -1.1 in Central Europe and the British Isles, and 0.22-0.26 in the Mediterranean. Both sigma(ap) and mEC in southern Scandinavia and Central Europe have a distinct seasonality with maxima during the cold season and minima during summer, whereas at the Mediterranean sites an opposite trend was observed. Annual mean MAC values were quite similar across all sites and the seasonal variability was small at most sites. Consequently, a MAC value of 10.0 m(2) g(-1) (geometric standard deviation = 133) at a wavelength of 637 nm can be considered to be representative of the mixed boundary layer at European background sites, where BC is expected to be internally mixed to a large extent. The observed spatial variability is rather small compared to the variability of values in previous literature, indicating that the harmonization efforts resulted in substantially increased precision of the reported MAC. However, absolute uncertainties of the reported MAC values remain as high as +/- 30-70% due to the lack of appropriate reference methods and calibration materials. The mass ratio between elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing matter was used as a proxy for the thickness of coatings around the BC cores, in order to assess the influence of the mixing state on the MAC of BC. Indeed, the MAC was found to increase with increasing values of the coating thickness proxy. This provides evidence that coatings do increase the MAC of atmospheric BC to some extent, which is commonly referred to as lensing effect. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M. A.; Hyvärinen, A.; Hussein, T.; Neitola, Kimmo; Khoder, M.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Almehmadi, F. M. (2017)
    To derive the comprehensive aerosol in situ characteristics at a rural background area in Saudi Arabia, an aerosol measurements station was established to Hada Al Sham, 60 km east from the Red Sea and the city of Jeddah. The present sturdy describes the observational data from February 2013 to February 2015 of scattering and absorption coefficients, Angstrom exponents and single scattering albedo over the measurement period. The average scattering and absorption coefficients at wavelength 525 nm were 109 +/- 71 Min(-1) (mean +/- SD, at STP conditions) and 15 +/- 17 Mm(-1) (at STP conditions), respectively. As expected, the scattering coefficient was dominated by large desert dust particles with low Angstrom scattering exponent, 0.49 +/- 0.62. Especially from February to June the Angstrom scattering exponent was clearly lower (0.23) and scattering coefficients higher (124 Mm(-1)) than total averages because of the dust outbreak season. Aerosol optical properties had clear diurnal cycle. The lowest scattering and absorption coefficients and aerosol optical depths were observed around noon. The observed diurnal variation is caused by wind direction and speed, during night time very calm easterly winds are dominating whereas during daytime the stronger westerly winds are dominating (sea breeze). Positive Matrix Factorization mathematical tool was applied to the scattering and absorption coefficients and PM2.5 and coarse mode (PM10-PM2.5) mass concentrations to identify source characteristics. Three different factors with clearly different properties were found; anthropogenic, BC source and desert dust. Mass absorption efficiencies for BC source and desert dust factors were, 6.0 m(2) g(-1) and 0.4 m(2) g(-1), respectively, and mass scattering efficiencies for anthropogenic (sulphate) and desert dust, 2.5 m(2) g(-1) and 0.8 m(2) g(-1), respectively.
  • Virkkula, Aki; Pohja, Toivo; Aalto, Pasi P.; Keronen, Petri; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Clements, Craig B.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Nikmo, Juha; Kulmala, Markku (2014)
  • Kiuru, Petri; Ojala, Anne; Mammarella, Ivan; Heiskanen, Jouni; Erkkila, Kukka-Maaria; Miettinen, Heli; Vesala, Timo; Huttula, Timo (2019)
    Freshwater lakes are important in carbon cycling, especially in the boreal zone where many lakes are supersaturated with the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) and emit it to the atmosphere, thus ventilating carbon originally fixed by the terrestrial system. The exchange of CO2 between water and the atmosphere is commonly estimated using simple wind-based parameterizations or models of gas transfer velocity (k). More complex surface renewal models, however, have been shown to yield more correct estimates of k in comparison with direct CO2 flux measurements. We incorporated four gas exchange models with different complexity into a vertical process-based physico-biochemical lake model, MyLake C, and assessed the performance and applicability of the alternative lake model versions to simulate air-water CO2 fluxes over a small boreal lake. None of the incorporated gas exchange models significantly outperformed the other models in the simulations in comparison to the measured near-surface CO2 concentrations or respective air-water CO2 fluxes calculated directly with the gas exchange models using measurement data as input. The use of more complex gas exchange models in the simulation, on the contrary, led to difficulties in obtaining a sufficient gain of CO2 in the water column and thus resulted in lower CO2 fluxes and water column CO2 concentrations compared to the respective measurement-based values. The inclusion of sophisticated and more correct models for air-water CO2 exchange in process-based lake models is crucial in efforts to properly assess lacustrine carbon budgets through model simulations in both single lakes and on a larger scale. However, finding higher estimates for both the internal and external sources of inorganic carbon in boreal lakes is important if improved knowledge of the magnitude of CO2 evasion from lakes is included in future studies on lake carbon budgets.
  • Tallberg, Petra; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Niemistö, Juha; Hall, Per O. J.; Lehtoranta, Jouni (2017)
    We estimated the efflux of dissolved silicon (DSi) from sediments in the Gulf of Finland and compared it to sedimentation fluxes, burial of Si and existing data on Si loading and stocks, reassessing the reliability of existing Si budgets. Benthic fluxes of DSi measured in situ and in vitro were several times higher than estimates from diffusion calculations. The spatial variability in the open Gulf of Finland was relatively small, while both very high and low fluxes were measured from coastal areas. Fluxes were highest in late summer and lowest in early spring. In our re-assessed budget we present a new lower estimate for Si burial in the sediments, ca. 6 Gmol a(-1) and show that more than half of the sedimentation flux of Si is released back into the water column. Changes in the efficiency of internal DSi recycling may thus affect the prevalence of siliceous phytoplankton within the ecosystem, and the diatom spring bloom may be regulated by the functioning of this internal recycling pump. We also show that the seasonal variation in benthic DSi fluxes and dissolved phosphate fluxes is similar, and that a tentative connection between hypoLxia and high DSi efflux exists. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ma, Yang; Qu, Zhao-Lei; Liu, Bing; Tan, Jia-Jin; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Sun, Hui (2020)
    Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a devastating disease in conifer forests in Eurasia. However, information on the effect of PWD on the host microbial community is limited. In this study, the bacterial community structure and potential function in the needles, roots, and soil of diseased pine were studied under field conditions using Illumina MiSeq coupled with Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved states (PICRUSt) software. The results showed that the community and functional structure of healthy and diseased trees differed only in the roots and needles, respectively (p <0.05). The needles, roots, and soil formed unique bacterial community and functional structures. The abundant phyla across all samples were Proteobacteria (41.9% of total sequence), Actinobacteria (29.0%), Acidobacteria (12.2%), Bacteroidetes (4.8%), and Planctomycetes (2.1%). The bacterial community in the healthy roots was dominated by Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Rhizobiales, whereas in the diseased roots, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Burkholderiales were dominant. Functionally, groups involved in the cell process and genetic information processing had a higher abundance in the diseased needles, which contributed to the difference in functional structure. The results indicate that PWD can only affect the host bacteria community structure and function in certain anatomical regions of the host tree.
  • COST action TD1107 (2017)
    Key priorities in biochar research for future guidance of sustainable policy development have been identified by expert assessment within the COST Action TD1107. The current level of scientific understanding (LOSU) regarding the consequences of biochar application to soil were explored. Five broad thematic areas of biochar research were addressed: soil biodiversity and ecotoxicology, soil organic matter and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil physical properties, nutrient cycles and crop production, and soil remediation. The highest future research priorities regarding biochar's effects in soils were: functional redundancy within soil microbial communities, bioavailability of biochar's contaminants to soil biota, soil organic matter stability, GHG emissions, soil formation, soil hydrology, nutrient cycling due to microbial priming as well as altered rhizosphere ecology, and soil pH buffering capacity. Methodological and other constraints to achieve the required LOSU are discussed and options for efficient progress of biochar research and sustainable application to soil are presented.
  • Milardi, Marco; Lappalainen, Jyrki; McGowan, Suzanne; Weckström, Jan (2017)
    The additional input and enhanced cycling of nutrients derived from introduced fish can be a significant factor altering nutrient dynamics in oligotrophic lakes. To test this, we used a bioenergetic model to estimate the fish-derived nutrient load in Lake Kuutsjurvi, a historically fishless boreal lake of northern Fennoscandia. The lake was selected because of the absence of other anthropogenic stressors, a known stocking history and the possibility of quantitatively estimating the size-structure and biomass of the fish population through a mass removal. Subsequently, we used a mass balance model to compare fish-derived nutrients with other nutrient load pathways. For comparison over longer timescales, we used lake sediment records of diatoms, chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, C: N ratios and stable isotopes to infer whether fish introduction produced detectable changes in the lake trophic state, primary productivity and terrestrial nutrient input. Based on the nutrient mass balance model, we found that phosphorus and nitrogen derived from fish were 0.46% and 2.2%, respectively, of the total load to the lake, suggesting that fish introduction could not markedly increase the nutrient load. Accordingly, the palaeolimnological record indicated little increase in primary production but instead a shift from pelagic to benthic production after fish introduction.
  • Saarela, Taija; Rissanen, Antti J.; Ojala, Anne; Pumpanen, Jukka; Aalto, Sanni L.; Tiirola, Marja; Vesala, Timo; Jantti, Helena (2020)
    Freshwater ecosystems represent a significant natural source of methane (CH4). CH4 produced through anaerobic decomposition of organic matter (OM) in lake sediment and water column can be either oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) by methanotrophic microbes or emitted to the atmosphere. While the role of CH4 oxidation as a CH4 sink is widely accepted, neither the magnitude nor the drivers behind CH4 oxidation are well constrained. In this study, we aimed to gain more specific insight into CH4 oxidation in the water column of a seasonally stratified, typical boreal lake, particularly under hypoxic conditions. We used (CH4)-C-13 incubations to determine the active CH4 oxidation sites and the potential CH4 oxidation rates in the water column, and we measured environmental variables that could explain CH4 oxidation in the water column. During hypolimnetic hypoxia, 91% of available CH4 was oxidized in the active CH4 oxidation zone, where the potential CH4 oxidation rates gradually increased from the oxycline to the hypolimnion. Our results showed that in warm springs, which become more frequent, early thermal stratification with cold well-oxygenated hypolimnion delays the period of hypolimnetic hypoxia and limits CH4 production. Thus, the delayed development of hypolimnetic hypoxia may partially counteract the expected increase in the lacustrine CH4 emissions caused by the increasing organic carbon load from forested catchments.
  • Aalto, Sanni; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Arvola, Lauri; Tiirola, Marja; Huotari, Jussi; Rissanen, Antti (2019)
    Streams have an important role in regulating nitrogen (N) transportation from terrestrial ecosystems to downstream waters. Here, we examined how catchment land-use affects potential denitrification rates and the function and composition of denitrifier communities in boreal stream sediments, using stable isotope incubations and qPCR and 454-pyrosequencing targeted on nirS, nirK and nosZ genes. Although land-use influenced the water chemistry as higher nitrite+nitrate (NOx)-concentration at the agriculture-affected sampling point, sediment organic matter content was found to be the key factor in regulating potential denitrification rates. However, the abundance as well as the diversity and community composition of denitrifying microbes, and genetic N2O production potential (the ratio between nirS+nirK and nosZ gene abundances) were connected to both NOx- and sediment quality. Overall, our results suggest that catchment land-use-driven changes in N and carbon availability affect the denitrification rates, and possibly N-2:N2O production ratio, in boreal streams, through altering denitrifier abundance and community composition.
  • TeaComposition Network; Kwon, TaeOh; Shibata, Hideaki; Kepfer-Rojas, Sebastian; Schmidt, Inger K.; Larsen, Klaus S.; Beier, Claus; Berg, Björn; Verheyen, Kris; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Hagedorn, Frank; Eisenhauer, Nico; Djukic, Ika (2021)
    Litter decomposition is a key process for carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems and is mainly controlled by environmental conditions, substrate quantity and quality as well as microbial community abundance and composition. In particular, the effects of climate and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on litter decomposition and its temporal dynamics are of significant importance, since their effects might change over the course of the decomposition process. Within the TeaComposition initiative, we incubated Green and Rooibos teas at 524 sites across nine biomes. We assessed how macroclimate and atmospheric inorganic N deposition under current and predicted scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 8.5) might affect litter mass loss measured after 3 and 12 months. Our study shows that the early to mid-term mass loss at the global scale was affected predominantly by litter quality (explaining 73% and 62% of the total variance after 3 and 12 months, respectively) followed by climate and N deposition. The effects of climate were not litter-specific and became increasingly significant as decomposition progressed, with MAP explaining 2% and MAT 4% of the variation after 12 months of incubation. The effect of N deposition was litter-specific, and significant only for 12-month decomposition of Rooibos tea at the global scale. However, in the temperate biome where atmospheric N deposition rates are relatively high, the 12-month mass loss of Green and Rooibos teas decreased significantly with increasing N deposition, explaining 9.5% and 1.1% of the variance, respectively. The expected changes in macroclimate and N deposition at the global scale by the end of this century are estimated to increase the 12-month mass loss of easily decomposable litter by 1.1-3.5% and of the more stable substrates by 3.8-10.6%, relative to current mass loss. In contrast, expected changes in atmospheric N deposition will decrease the mid-term mass loss of high-quality litter by 1.4-2.2% and that of low-quality litter by 0.9-1.5% in the temperate biome. Our results suggest that projected increases in N deposition may have the capacity to dampen the climate-driven increases in litter decomposition depending on the biome and decomposition stage of substrate.
  • Salonen, I. S.; Chronopoulou, P-M; Bird, C.; Reichart, G-J; Koho, K. A. (2019)
    Benthic foraminifera are known to play an important role in marine carbon and nitrogen cycles. Here, we report an enrichment of sulphur cycle -associated bacteria inside intertidal benthic foraminifera (Ammonia sp. (T6), Haynesina sp. (S16) and Elphidium sp. (S5)), using a meta barcoding approach targeting the 16S rRNA and aprA -genes. The most abundant intracellular bacterial groups included the genus Sulfurovum and the order Desulfobacterales. The bacterial 16S OTUs are likely to originate from the sediment bacterial communities, as the taxa found inside the foraminifera were also present in the sediment. The fact that 16S rRNA and aprA -gene derived intracellular bacterial OTUs were species-specific and significantly different from the ambient sediment community implies that bacterivory is an unlikely scenario, as benthic foraminifera are known to digest bacteria only randomly. Furthermore, these foraminiferal species are known to prefer other food sources than bacteria. The detection of sulphur-cycle related bacterial genes in this study suggests a putative role for these bacteria in the metabolism of the foraminiferal host. Future investigation into environmental conditions under which transcription of S-cycle genes are activated would enable assessment of their role and the potential foraminiferal/endobiont contribution to the sulphur-cycle.
  • Kuittinen, Matti; Hautamaki, Ranja; Tuhkanen, Eeva-Maria; Riikonen, Anu; Ariluoma, Mari (2021)
    Purpose Currently, no clear guidance exists for ISO and EN standards of calculating, verifying, and reporting the climate impacts of plants, mulches, and soils used in landscape design and construction. In order to optimise the potential of ecosystem services in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in the built environment, we unequivocally propose their inclusion when assessing sustainability. Methods We analysed the life cycle phases of plants, soils, and mulches from the viewpoint of compiling standard-based Environmental Product Declarations. In comparison to other construction products, the differences of both mass and carbon flows were identified in these products. Results Living and organic products of green infrastructure require an LCA approach of their own. Most importantly, if conventional life cycle guidance for Environmental Product Declarations were to be followed, over time, the asymmetric mass and carbon flows would lead to skewed conclusions. Moreover, the ability of plants to reproduce raises additional questions for allocating environmental impacts. Conclusions We present a set of recommendations that are required for compiling Environmental Product Declarations for the studied products of green infrastructure. In order to enable the quantification of the climate change mitigation potential of these products, it is essential that work for further development of LCA guidance be mandated.
  • Humborg, Christoph; Geibel, Marc. C.; Sun, Xiaole; McCrackin, Michelle; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Stranne, Christian; Jakobsson, Martin; Gustafsson, Bo; Sokolov, Alexander; Norkko, Alf; Norkko, Joanna (2019)
    The summer heat wave in 2018 led to the highest recorded water temperatures since 1926 – up to 21 C – in bottom coastal waters of the Baltic Sea, with implications for the respiration patterns in these shallow coastal systems. We applied cavity ring-down spectrometer measurements to continuously monitor carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) surface-water concentrations, covering the coastal archipelagos of Sweden and Finland and the open and deeper parts of the Northern Baltic Proper. This allowed us to i) follow an upwelling event near the Swedish coast leading to elevated CO2 and moderate CH4 outgassing, and ii) to estimate CH4 sources and fluxes along the coast by investigating water column inventories and air-sea fluxes during a storm and an associated downwelling event. At the end of the heat wave, before the storm event, we found elevated CO2 (1583 µatm) and CH4 (70 nmol/L) concentrations. During the storm, a massive CO2 sea-air flux of up to 274 mmol m-2 d-1 was observed. While water-column CO2 concentrations were depleted during several hours of the storm, CH4 concentrations remained elevated. Overall, we found a positive relationship between CO2 and CH4 wind-driven sea-air fluxes, however, the highest CH4 fluxes were observed at low winds whereas highest CO2 fluxes were during peak winds, suggesting different sources and processes controlling their fluxes besides wind. We applied a box-model approach to estimate the CH4 supply needed to sustain these elevated CH4 concentrations and the results suggest a large source flux of CH4 to the water column of 2.5 mmol m-2 d-1. These results are qualitatively supported by acoustic observations of vigorous and widespread outgassing from the sediments, with flares that could be traced throughout the water column penetrating the pycnocline and reaching the sea surface. The results suggest that the heat wave triggered CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the coastal zones that are comparable with maximum emission rates found in other hot spots, such as boreal and arctic lakes and wetlands. Further, the results suggest that heat waves are as important for CO2 and CH4 sea-air fluxes as the ice break up in spring.
  • van Helmond, Niels A. G. M.; Jilbert, Tom; Slomp, Caroline P. (2018)
    Anthropogenic nutrient input has caused a rapid expansion of bottom water hypoxia in the Baltic Sea over the past century. Two earlier intervals of widespread hypoxia, coinciding with the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTMHI; 8-4 ka before present; BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA(HI); similar to 1200-750 years BP), have been identified from Baltic Sea sediments. Here we present sediment records from two sites in the Baltic Sea, and compare the trace metal (As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Re, Sb, Tl, U, V, Zn) enrichments during all three hypoxic intervals. Distinct differences are observed between the intervals and the various elements, highlighting the much stronger perturbation of trace metal cycles during the modern hypoxic interval. Both Mo and U show a strong correlation with C-org and very high absolute concentrations, indicative of frequently euxinic bottom waters during hypoxic intervals. During the modern hypoxic interval (Modern(HI)) comparatively less Mo is sequestered relative to C-org than in earlier intervals. This suggests partial drawdown of the water column Mo inventory in the modern water column due to persistent euxinia and only partial replenishment of Mo through North Sea inflows. Molybdenum contents in modern sediments are likely also affected by the recent slowdown in input of Mo in association with deposition of Fe and Mn oxides. Strong enrichments of U in recent sediments confirm that the Modern(HI) is more intense than past intervals. These results suggest that U is a more reliable indicator for the intensity of bottom water deoxygenation in the Baltic Sea than Mo. Sedimentary Re enrichment commences under mildly reducing conditions, but this element is not further enriched under more reducing conditions. Enrichments of V are relatively minor for the MCA(HI) and Modern(HI), possibly due to strong reservoir effects on V in the water column, indicating that V is unreliable as an indicator for the intensity of bottom water hypoxia in this setting. Furthermore, Ba profiles are strongly influenced by post-depositional remobilization throughout the Holocene. The strong relationship between C-org and Ni, Tl and particularly Cu suggests that these trace metals can be used to reconstruct the C-org flux into the sediments. Profiles of As, Sb and Cd and especially Pb and Zn are strongly influenced by anthropogenic pollution.
  • Viskari, Toni; Laine, Maisa; Kulmala, Liisa; Mäkelä, Jarmo; Fer, Istem; Liski, Jari (2020)
    Model-calculated forecasts of soil organic carbon (SOC) are important for approximating global terrestrial carbon pools and assessing their change. However, the lack of detailed observations limits the reliability and applicability of these SOC projections. Here, we studied whether state data assimilation (SDA) can be used to continuously update the modeled state with available total carbon measurements in order to improve future SOC estimations. We chose six fallow test sites with measurement time series spanning 30 to 80 years for this initial test. In all cases, SDA improved future projections but to varying degrees. Furthermore, already including the first few measurements impacted the state enough to reduce the error in decades-long projections by at least 1 tCha(-1). Our results show the benefits of implementing SDA methods for forecasting SOC as well as highlight implementation aspects that need consideration and further research.
  • Taipale, Sami J.; Peltomaa, Elina; Hiltunen, Minna; Jones, Roger I.; Hahn, Martin W.; Biasi, Christina; Brett, Michael T. (2015)
    Stable isotope mixing models in aquatic ecology require delta C-13 values for food web end members such as phytoplankton and bacteria, however it is rarely possible to measure these directly. Hence there is a critical need for improved methods for estimating the delta C-13 ratios of phytoplankton, bacteria and terrestrial detritus from within mixed seston. We determined the delta C-13 values of lipids, phospholipids and biomarker fatty acids and used these to calculate isotopic differences compared to the whole-cell delta C-13 values for eight phytoplankton classes, five bacterial taxa, and three types of terrestrial organic matter (two trees and one grass). The lipid content was higher amongst the phytoplankton (9.5 +/- 4.0%) than bacteria (7.3 +/- 0.8%) or terrestrial matter (3.9 +/- 1.7%). Our measurements revealed that the delta C-13 values of lipids followed phylogenetic classification among phytoplankton (78.2% of variance was explained by class), bacteria and terrestrial matter, and there was a strong correlation between the delta C-13 values of total lipids, phospholipids and individual fatty acids. Amongst the phytoplankton, the isotopic difference between biomarker fatty acids and bulk biomass averaged -10.7 +/- 1.1 parts per thousand for Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae, and -6.1 +/- 1.7 parts per thousand for Cryptophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Diatomophyceae. For heterotrophic bacteria and for type I and type II methane-oxidizing bacteria our results showed a -1.3 +/- 1.3 parts per thousand, -8.0 +/- 4.4 parts per thousand, and -3.4 +/- 1.4 parts per thousand delta C-13 difference, respectively, between biomarker fatty acids and bulk biomass. For terrestrial matter the isotopic difference averaged -6.6 +/- 1.2 parts per thousand. Based on these results, the delta C-13 values of total lipids and biomarker fatty acids can be used to determine the delta C-13 values of bulk phytoplankton, bacteria or terrestrial matter with +/- 1.4 parts per thousand uncertainty (i.e., the pooled SD of the isotopic difference for all samples). We conclude that when compound-specific stable isotope analyses become more widely available, the determination of delta C-13 values for selected biomarker fatty acids coupled with established isotopic differences, offers a promising way to determine taxa-specific bulk delta C-13 values for the phytoplankton, bacteria, and terrestrial detritus embedded within mixed seston.
  • Yli-Halla, Markku Juhani; Rimhanen, Karoliina; Muurinen, Johanna; Kaseva, Janne; Kahiluoto, Helena (2018)
    Soil carbon (C) represents the largest terrestrial carbon stock and is key for soil productivity. Major fractions of soil C consist of organic C, carbonates and black C. The turnover rate of black C is lower than that of organic C, and black C abundance decreases the vulnerablility of soil C stock to decomposition under climate change. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of soil C in different pools and impact of agricultural management on the abundance of different species. Soil C fractions were quantified in the topsoils (0-15 cm) of 23 sites in the tropical highlands of Ethiopia. The sites in central Ethiopia represented paired plots of agroforestry and adjacent control plots where cereal crops were traditionally grown in clayey soils. In the sandy loam and loam soils of northern Ethiopia, the pairs represented restrained grazing with adjacent control plots with free grazing, and terracing with cereal-based cropping with adjacent control plots without terracing. Soil C contained in carbonates, organic matter and black C along with total C was determined. The total C median was 1.5% (range 0.33.6%). The median proportion of organic C was 85% (range 53-94%). 6% (0-41%) for carbonate C and 6% (421%) for black C. An increase was observed in the organic C and black C fractions attributable to agroforestry and restrained grazing. The very low concentration of the relatively stable black C fraction and the dominance of organic C in these Ethiopian soils suggest vulnerability to degradation and the necessity for cultivation practices maintaining the C stock. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.