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  • Back, J.; Aalto, J.; Hemmilä, Marja S; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M. (2012)
  • Rantala, Pekka; Taipale, Risto; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija K.; Patokoski, Johanna; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Rinne, Janne (2014)
  • Navarro, J. C. Acosta; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, A.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I. (2014)
  • Aalto, J.; Kolari, P.; Hari, P.; Kerminen, V. -M.; Schiestl-Aalto, P.; Aaltonen, H.; Levula, J.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Back, J. (2014)
  • Praplan, Arnaud P.; Tykka, Toni; Schallhart, Simon; Tarvainen, Virpi; Back, Jaana; Hellen, Heidi (2020)
    In forested area, a large fraction of total hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity remains unaccounted for. Very few studies have looked at the variations in total OH reactivity from biogenic emissions. In the present study, we investigate the total OH reactivity from three common boreal tree species (Scots pine, Norway spruce, and downy birch) by comparing it with the calculated reactivity from the chemically identified emissions. Total OH reactivity was measured using the comparative reactivity method (CRM), and the chemical composition of the emissions was quantified with two gas chromatographs coupled with mass spectrometers (GC-MSs). Dynamic branch enclosures were used, and emissions from one branch of a tree at the time were measured by periodically rotating between them. Results show that birch had the highest values of total OH reactivity of the emissions (TOHRE), while pine had the lowest. The main drivers for the known reactivity of pine and spruce were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Birch emissions were dominated by sesquiterpenes, but monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) were present as well. However, calculated reactivity values remained low, leading to the highest missing fraction of reactivity (> 96 %), while pine and spruce had similar missing reactivity fractions between 56% and 82% (higher in the spring and decreasing as the summer proceeded). The high average values were driven by low-reactivity periods, and the fraction of missing reactivity got smaller for pine and spruce when the TOHRE values increased. Important exceptions were identified for periods when the emission profiles changed from terpenes to GLVs, a family of compounds containing a backbone of six carbon atoms with various functionalities (e.g. alcohols, aldehydes, esters) that indicate that the plant is suffering from stress. Then, very high TOHRE values were measured, and the missing fraction remained high. This study found a different trend in the missing OHRE fraction of the Norway spruce from spring to autumn compared to one previous study (Nolscher et al., 2013), which indicates that additional studies are required to fully understand the complexity of biogenic reactive emissions. Future studies of boreal trees in situ should be conducted to confirm the findings presented.
  • Joensuu, Johanna; Altimir, Nuria; Hakola, Hannele; Rostas, Michael; Raivonen, Maarit; Vestenius, Mika; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Riederer, Markus; Bäck, Jaana (2016)
    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) produced by plants have a major role in atmospheric chemistry. The different physicochemical properties of BVOCs affect their transport within and out of the plant as well as their reactions along the way. Some of these compounds may accumulate in or on the waxy surface layer of conifer needles and participate in chemical reactions on or near the foliage surface. The aim of this work was to determine whether terpenes, a key category of BVOCs produced by trees, can be found on the epicuticles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and, if so, how they compare with the terpenes found in shoot emissions of the same tree. We measured shoot-level emissions of pine seedlings at a remote outdoor location in central Finland and subsequently analysed the needle surface waxes for the same compounds. Both emissions and wax extracts were clearly dominated by monoterpenes, but the proportion of sesquiterpenes was higher in the wax extracts. There were also differences in the terpene spectra of the emissions and the wax extracts. The results, therefore, support the existence of BVOC associated to the epicuticular waxes. We briefly discuss the different pathways for terpenes to reach the needle surfaces and the implications for air chemistry.
  • Hellen, Heidi; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Tykka, Toni; Helin, Aku; Schallhart, Simon; Schiestl-Aalto, Piia P.; Back, Jaana; Hakola, Hannele (2021)
    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by the forests are known to have strong impacts in the atmosphere. However, lots of missing reactivity is found, especially in the forest air. Therefore better characterization of sources and identification/quantification of unknown reactive compounds is needed. While isoprene and monoterpene (MT) emissions of boreal needle trees have been studied quite intensively, there is much less knowledge on the emissions of boreal deciduous trees and emissions of larger terpenes and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs). Here we quantified the downy birch (Betula pubescens) leaf emissions of terpenes, oxygenated terpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) at the SMEAR II boreal forest site using in situ gas chromatographs with mass spectrometers. Sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (OSQTs) were the main emitted compounds. Mean emission rates of SQTs and OSQTs were significantly higher in the early growing season (510 and 650 ng g(dw)(-1) h(-1), respectively) compared to in the main (40 and 130 ng g(dw)(-1) h(-1), respectively) and late (14 and 46 ng g(dw)(-1) h(-1), respectively) periods, indicating that early leaf growth is a strong source of these compounds. The emissions had a very clear diurnal variation with afternoon maxima being on average 4 to 8 times higher than seasonal means for SQTs and OSQTs, respectively. fi Caryophyllene and fi-farnesene were the main SQTs emitted. The main emitted OSQTs were tentatively identified as 14-hydroxy-beta-caryophyllene acetate (M = 262 g mol(-1)) and 6-hydroxy-beta-caryophyllene (M D 220 g mol(-1)). Over the whole growing season, the total MT emissions were only 24% and 17% of the total SQT and OSQT emissions, respectively. A stressed tree growing in a pot was also studied, and high emissions of ff -farnesene and an unidentified SQT were detected together with high emissions of GLVs. Due to the relatively low volatility and the high reactivity of SQTs and OSQTs, downy birch emissions are expected to have strong impacts on atmospheric chemistry, especially on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production.
  • Kajos, M. K.; Hakola, H.; Holst, T.; Nieminen, T.; Tarvainen, V.; Maximov, T.; Petaja, T.; Arneth, A.; Rinne, J. (2013)
  • Rissanen, Kaisa; Hölttä, Teemu; Bäck, Jaana (2018)
    Most plant-based emissions of volatile organic compounds are considered mainly temperature dependent. However, certain oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) have high water solubility; thus, also stomatal conductance could regulate their emissions from shoots. Due to their water solubility and sources in stem and roots, it has also been suggested that their emissions could be affected by transport in the xylem sap. Yet further understanding on the role of transport has been lacking until present. We used shoot-scale long-term dynamic flux data from Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) to analyse the effects of transpiration and transport in xylem sap flow on emissions of 3 water-soluble OVOCs: methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde. We found a direct effect of transpiration on the shoot emissions of the 3 OVOCs. The emissions were best explained by a regression model that combined linear transpiration and exponential temperature effects. In addition, a structural equation model indicated that stomatal conductance affects emissions mainly indirectly, by regulating transpiration. A part of the temperature's effect is also indirect. The tight coupling of shoot emissions to transpiration clearly evidences that these OVOCs are transported in the xylem sap from their sources in roots and stem to leaves and to ambient air.
  • Vanhatalo, A.; Chan, T.; Aalto, J.; Korhonen, J. F.; Kolari, P.; Holtta, T.; Nikinmaa, E.; Back, J. (2015)
    Tree canopies are known to emit large amounts of VOCs( volatile organic compounds) such as monoterpenes into the surrounding air. High VOC emission rates from bo-real forests have been observed during the transition from winter to summer activity. The most important sources of these are considered to be the green foliage, understory vegetation and soil organisms, but emissions from the living stand woody compartments have so far not been quantified. We analyzed whether the non-foliar components could partially explain the springtime high emission rates. We measured the monoterpene emissions from Scots pine( Pinus sylvestris L.) stem and shoots during the dehardening phase of trees in field conditions in two consecutive springs. We observed a large, transient monoterpene burst from the stem, while the shoot monoterpene emissions remained low. The burst lasted about 12 h. Simultaneously, an unusual nighttime sap flow and a non-systematic diurnal pattern of tree diameter were detected. Hence, we suggest that the monoterpene burst was a consequence of the recovery of the stem from wintertime, and likely related to the refilling of embolized tracheids and/or phenological changes in the living cells of the stem. This indicates that the dominant processes and environmental drivers triggering the monoterpene emissions are different between the stem and the foliage.