Browsing by Subject "ORGANIC-MATTER"

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  • Bernard, Guillaume; Kauppi, Laura; Lavesque, Nicolas; Ciutat, Aurelie; Gremare, Antoine; Masse, Cecile; Maire, Olivier (2020)
    The invasive mussel Arcuatula senhousia has successfully colonized shallow soft sediments worldwide. This filter feeding mussel modifies sedimentary habitats while forming dense populations and efficiently contributes to nutrient cycling. In the present study, the density of A. senhousia was manipulated in intact sediment cores taken within an intertidal Zostera noltei seagrass meadow in Arcachon Bay (French Atlantic coast), where the species currently occurs at levels corresponding to an early invasion stage. It aimed at testing the effects of a future invasion on (1) bioturbation (bioirrigation and sediment mixing) as well as on (2) total benthic solute fluxes across the sediment-water interface. Results showed that increasing densities of A. senhousia clearly enhanced phosphate and ammonium effluxes, but conversely did not significantly affect community bioturbation rates, highlighting the ability of A. senhousia to control nutrient cycling through strong excretion rates with potential important consequences for nutrient cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling at a broader scale. However, it appears that the variability in the different measured solute fluxes were underpinned by different interactions between the manipulated density of A. senhousia and several faunal and/or environmental drivers, therefore underlining the complexity of anticipating the effects of an invasion process on ecosystem functioning within a realistic context.
  • Egger, Matthias; Kraal, Peter; Jilbert, Tom; Sulu-Gambari, Fatimah; Sapart, Celia J.; Röckmann, Thomas; Slomp, Caroline P. (2016)
    The surface sediments in the Black Sea are underlain by extensive deposits of iron (Fe)-oxide-rich lake sediments that were deposited prior to the inflow of marine Mediterranean Sea waters ca. 9000 years ago. The subsequent downward diffusion of marine sulfate into the methane-bearing lake sediments has led to a multitude of diagenetic reactions in the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ), including anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate. While the sedimentary cycles of sulfur (S), methane and Fe in the SMTZ have been extensively studied, relatively little is known about the diagenetic alterations of the sediment record occurring below the SMTZ. Here we combine detailed geochemical analyses of the sediment and porewater with multicomponent diagenetic modeling to study the diagenetic alterations below the SMTZ at two sites in the western Black Sea. We focus on the dynamics of Fe, S and phosphorus (P), and demonstrate that diagenesis has strongly overprinted the sedimentary burial records of these elements. In line with previous studies in the Black Sea, we show that sulfate-mediated AOM substantially enhances the downward diffusive flux of sulfide into the deep limnic deposits. During this downward sulfidization, Fe oxides, Fe carbonates and Fe phosphates (e.g., vivianite) are converted to sulfide phases, leading to an enrichment in solid-phase S and the release of phosphate to the porewater. Below the sulfidization front, high concentrations of dissolved ferrous Fe (Fe2+) lead to sequestration of downward-diffusing phosphate as authigenic vivianite, resulting in a transient accumulation of total P directly below the sulfidization front. Our model results further demonstrate that downward-migrating sulfide becomes partly re-oxidized to sulfate due to reactions with oxidized Fe minerals, fueling a cryptic S cycle and thus stimulating slow rates of sulfate-driven AOM (similar to 1-100 pmol cm(-3) d(-1)) in the sulfate-depleted limnic deposits. However, this process is unlikely to explain the observed release of dissolved Fe2+ below the SMTZ. Instead, we suggest that besides organoclastic Fe oxide reduction and reactivation of less reactive Fe oxides by methanogens, AOM coupled to the reduction of Fe oxides may also provide a possible mechanism for the high concentrations of Fe2+ in the porewater at depth. Our results reveal that methane plays a key role in the diagenetic alterations of Fe, S and P records in Black Sea sediments. The downward sulfidization into the limnic deposits is enhanced through sulfate-driven AOM with sulfate, and AOM with Fe oxides may provide a deep source of dissolved Fe2+ that drives the sequestration of P in vivianite below the sulfidization front.
  • Ning, Wenxin; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Jilbert, Thomas Stephen; Åkesson, Christine; Slomp, Caroline P.; Andren, Elinor; Broström, Anne; Filipsson, Helena L. (2018)
    Coastal environments have experienced large ecological changes as a result of human activities over the last 100-200 years. To understand the severity and potential consequences of such changes, paleoenvironmental records provide important contextual information. The Baltic Sea coastal zone is naturally a vulnerable system and subject to significant human-induced impacts. To put the recent environmental degradation in the Baltic coastal zone into a long-term perspective, and to assess the natural and anthropogenic drivers of environmental change, we present sedimentary records covering the last 1000 years obtained from a coastal inlet (Gasfjarden) and a nearby lake (Lake Storsjon) in Sweden. We investigate the links between a pollen-based land cover reconstruction from Lake Storsjon and paleoenvironmental variables from Gasfjarden itself, including diatom assemblages, organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents, stable C and N isotopic ratios, and biogenic silica contents. The Lake Storsjon record shows that regional land use was characterized by small-scale agricultural activity between 900 and 1400 CE, which slightly intensified between 1400 and 1800 CE. Substantial expansion of cropland was observed between 1800 and 1950 CE, before afforestation between 1950 and 2010 CE. From the Gasfjarden record, prior to 1800 CE, relatively minor changes in the diatom and geochemical proxies were found. The onset of cultural eutrophication in Gasfjarden can be traced to the 1800s and intensified land use is identified as the main driver. Anthropogenic activities in the 20th century have caused unprecedented ecosystem changes in the coastal inlet, as reflected in the diatom composition and geochemical proxies. (c) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Robertson, Elizabeth K.; Bartoli, Marco; Bruechert, Volker; Dalsgaard, Tage; Hall, Per O. J.; Hellemann, Dana; Hietanen, Susanna; Zilius, Mindaugas; Conley, Daniel J. (2019)
    Determining accurate rates of benthic nitrogen (N) removal and retention pathways from diverse environments is critical to our understanding of process distribution and constructing reliable N budgets and models. The whole-core N-15 isotope pairing technique (IPT) is one of the most widely used methods to determine rates of benthic nitrate-reducing processes and has provided valuable information on processes and factors controlling N removal and retention in aquatic systems. While the whole core IPT has been employed in a range of environments, a number of methodological and environmental factors may lead to the generation of inaccurate data and are important to acknowledge for those applying the method. In this review, we summarize the current state of the whole core IPT and highlight some of the important steps and considerations when employing the technique. We discuss environmental parameters which can pose issues to the application of the IPT and may lead to experimental artifacts, several of which are of particular importance in environments heavily impacted by eutrophication. Finally, we highlight the advances in the use of the whole-core IPT in combination with other methods, discuss new potential areas of consideration and encourage careful and considered use of the whole-core IPT. With the recognition of potential issues and proper use, the whole-core IPT will undoubtedly continue to develop, improve our understanding of benthic N cycling and allow more reliable budgets and predictions to be made.
  • Koho, Karoliina A.; de Nooijer, Lennart J.; Fontanier, Christophe; Toyofuku, Takashi; Oguri, Kazumasa; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Reichart, Gert-Jan (2017)
    The Mn / Ca of calcium carbonate tests of living (rose-Bengal-stained) benthic foraminifera (Elphidium batialis, Uvigerina spp., Bolivina spissa, Nonionellina labradorica and Chilostomellina fimbriata) were determined in relation to pore water manganese (Mn) concentrations for the first time along a bottom water oxygen gradient across the continental slope along the NE Japan margin (western Pacific). The local bottom water oxygen (BWO) gradient differs from previous field study sites focusing on foraminiferal Mn / Ca and redox chemistry, therefore allowing further resolution of previously observed trends. The Mn / Ca ratios were analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), allowing single-chamber determination of Mn / Ca. The incorporation of Mn into the carbonate tests reflects environmental conditions and is not influenced by ontogeny. The inter-species variability in Mn / Ca reflected foraminiferal in-sediment habitat preferences and associated pore water chemistry but also showed large interspecific differences in Mn partitioning. At each station, Mn / Ca ratios were always lower in the shallow infaunal E. batialis, occupying relatively oxygenated sediments, compared to intermediate infaunal species, Uvigerina spp. and B. spissa, which were typically found at greater depth, under more reducing conditions. The highest Mn / Ca was always recorded by the deep infaunal species N. labradorica and C. fimbriata. Our results suggest that although partitioning differs, Mn / Ca ratios in the intermediate infaunal taxa are promising tools for palaeoceanographic reconstructions as their microhabitat exposes them to higher variability in pore water Mn, thereby making them relatively sensitive recorders of redox conditions and/or bottom water oxygenation.
  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Rantala, Marttiina V.; Kivila, E. Henriikka; Nevalainen, Liisa; Ojala, Antti E. K. (2019)
    Lakes are a dominant feature of the Arctic landscape and a focal point of regional and global biogeochemical cycling. We collected a sediment core from a High Arctic Lake in southwestern Svalbard for multiproxy paleolimnological analysis. The aim was to find linkages between the terrestrial and aquatic environments in the context of climate change to understand centennial-long Arctic biogeochemical cycling and environmental dynamics. Two significant thresholds in elemental cycling were found based on sediment physical and biogeochemical proxies that were associated with the end of the cold Little Ice Age and the recent warming. We found major shifts in diatom, chironomid and cladoceran communities and their functionality that coincided with increased summer temperatures since the 1950s. We also discovered paleoecological evidence that point toward expanded bird (Little Auk) colonies in the catchment alongside climate warming. Apparently, climate-driven increase in glacier melt water delivery as well as a prolonged snow- and ice-free period have increased the transport of mineral matter from the catchment, causing significant water turbidity and disappearance of several planktonic diatoms and clear-water chironomids. We also found sedimentary accumulation of microplastic particles following the increase in Little Auk populations suggesting that seabirds potentially act as biovectors for plastic contamination. Our study demonstrates the diverse nature of climate-driven changes in the Arctic lacustrine environment with increased inorganic input from the more exposed catchment, larger nutrient delivery from the increased bird colonies at the surrounding mountain summits and subsequent alterations in aquatic communities.
  • Gammal, Johanna; Norkko, Joanna; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Norkko, Alf (2017)
    Coastal ecosystems are important because of the vital ecosystem functions and services they provide, but many are threatened by eutrophication and hypoxia. This results in loss of biodiversity and subsequent changes in ecosystem functioning. Consequently, the need for empirical field studies regarding biodiversity-ecosystem functioning in coastal areas has been emphasized. The present field study quantified the links between benthic macrofaunal communities (abundance, biomass, and species richness), sediment oxygen consumption, and solute fluxes (NO3- + NO2-, NH4+, PO43-, SiO4, Fe, Mn) along a 7.5-km natural gradient of seasonal hypoxia in the coastal northern Baltic Sea. Sampling was done in late August 2010 in the middle archipelago zone of the Hanko peninsula, Finland. As predicted, the macrofaunal communities were decimated with increasing hypoxia, and the nutrient transformation processes were changed at the sediment-water interface, with notably higher effluxes of phosphate and ammonium from the sediment. Solute fluxes varied even during normoxia, which implies a high context-dependency, and could be explained by even small variations in environmental variables such as organic matter and C/N ratios. Importantly, the low diversity benthic macrofaunal communities, which were dominated by Macoma balthica and the invasive Marenzelleria spp., had a large influence on the solute fluxes, especially under normoxia, but also under hypoxia.
  • Zobitz, John; Aaltonen, Heidi; Zhou, Xuan; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka; Köster, Kajar (2021)
    Forest fires modify soil organic carbon and suppress soil respiration for many decades after the initial disturbance. The associated changes in soil autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration from the time of the forest fire, however, are less well characterized. The FireResp model predicts soil autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration parameterized with a novel dataset across a fire chronosequence in the Yukon and Northwest Territories of Canada. The dataset consisted of soil incubation experiments and field measurements of soil respiration and soil carbon stocks. The FireResp model contains submodels that consider a Q(10) (exponential) model of respiration compared to models of heterotrophic respiration using Michaelis-Menten kinetics parameterized with soil microbial carbon. For model evaluation we applied the Akaike information criterion and compared predicted patterns in components of soil respiration across the chronosequence. Parameters estimated with data from the 5 cm soil depth had better model-data comparisons than parameters estimated with data from the 10 cm soil depth. The model-data fit was improved by including parameters estimated from soil incubation experiments. Models that incorporated microbial carbon with Michaelis-Menten kinetics reproduced patterns in autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration components across the chronosequence. Autotrophic respiration was associated with aboveground tree biomass at more recently burned sites, but this association was less robust at older sites in the chronosequence. Our results provide support for more structured soil respiration models than standard Q(10) exponential models.
  • Kastovska, Eva; Strakova, Petra; Edwards, Keith; Urbanova, Zuzana; Barta, Jiri; Mastny, Jiri; Santruckova, Hana; Picek, Tomas (2018)
    Peatlands are large repositories of carbon (C). Sphagnum mosses play a key role in C sequestration, whereas the presence of vascular plants is generally thought to stimulate peat decomposition. Recent studies stress the importance of plant species for peat quality and soil microbial activity. Thus, learning about specific plant-microbe-soil relations and their potential feedbacks for C and nutrient cycling are important for a correct understanding of C sequestration in peatlands and its potential shift associated with vegetation change. We studied how the long-term presence of blueberry and cotton-grass, the main vascular dominants of spruce swamp forests, is reflected in the peat characteristics, soil microbial biomass and activities, and the possible implications of their spread for nutrient cycling and C storage in these systems. We showed that the potential effect of vascular plants on ecosystem functioning is species specific and need not necessarily result in increased organic matter decomposition. Although the presence of blueberry enhanced phosphorus availability, soil microbial biomass and the activities of C-acquiring enzymes, cotton-grass strongly depleted phosphorus and nitrogen from the peat. The harsh conditions and prevailing anoxia retarded the decomposition of cotton-grass litter and caused no significant enhancement in microbial biomass and exoenzymatic activity. Therefore, the spread of blueberry in peatlands may stimulate organic matter decomposition and negatively affect the C sequestration process, whereas the potential spread of cotton-grass would not likely change the functioning of peatlands as C sinks.
  • Sihvonen, Matti; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Pihlainen, Sampo; Salo, Tapio; Lai, Tin-Yu (2021)
    We introduce a multistep modeling approach for studying optimal management of fertilizer inputs in a situation where soil nitrogen and carbon dynamics and water and atmosphere externalities are considered. The three steps in the modeling process are: (1) generation of the data sets with a detailed simulation model; (2) estimation of the system models from the data; (3) application of the obtained dynamic economic optimization model considering inorganic and organic fertilizer inputs. We demonstrate the approach with a case study: barley production in southern Finland on coarse and clay soils. Our results show that there is a synergy between climate change mitigation and water protection goals, and a trade-off between pollution mitigation and crop production goals. If a field is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and an insignificant source of water pollution, atmospheric externalities dominate the water externalities, even for a relatively low social cost of carbon (SCC). If a field is a significant source of water pollution, the SCC would have to be very high before atmospheric externalities dominate water externalities. In addition, an integrated nutrient management system appears better than a system in which only inorganic or organic fertilizer is used, although manure is not a solution to agriculture's GHG emissions problem. Moreover, GHG emissions and nitrogen and carbon leaching mitigation efforts should first be targeted at coarse soils rather than clay soils, because the marginal abatement costs are considerably lower for coarse soils.
  • Palviainen, Marjo; Laurén, Ari; Pumpanen, Jukka; Bergeron, Yves; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Larjavaara, Markku; Kashian, Daniel; Köster, Kajar; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Chen, Han; Seedre, Meelis; Wardle, David; Gundale, Michael; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wang, Chuankuan; Berninger, Frank (2020)
    Boreal forests store 30% of the world's terrestrial carbon (C). Consequently, climate change mediated alterations in the boreal forest fire regime can have a significant impact on the global C budget. Here we synthesize the effects of forest fires on the stocks and recovery rates of C in boreal forests using 368 plots from 16 long-term (>= 100 year) fire chronosequences distributed throughout the boreal zone. Forest fires led to a decrease in total C stocks (excluding mineral soil) by an average of 60% (range from 80%), which was primarily a result of C stock declines in the living trees and soil organic layer. Total C stocks increased with time since fire largely following a sigmoidal shape Gompertz function, with an average asymptote of 8.1 kg C m(-2). Total C stocks accumulated at a rate of 2-60 g m(-2) yr(-1)during the first 100 years. Potential evapotranspiration (PET) was identified as a significant driver of C stocks and their post-fire recovery, likely because it integrates temperature, radiation, and the length of the growing season. If the fire return interval shortens to
  • Hellemann, Dana; Tallberg, Petra Astrid Sofia; Bartl, Ines; Voss, Maren; Hietanen, Siru Susanna (2017)
    Estuaries are often seen as natural filters of riverine nitrate, but knowledge of this nitrogen sink in oligotrophic systems is limited. We measured spring and summer dinitrogen production (denitrification, anammox) in muddy and non-permeable sandy sediments of an oligotrophic estuary in the northern Baltic Sea, to estimate its function in mitigating the riverine nitrate load. Both sediment types had similar denitrification rates, and no anammox was detected. In spring at high nitrate loading, denitrification was limited by likely low availability of labile organic carbon. In summer, the average denitrification rate was similar to 138 mu mol N m(-2) d(-1). The corresponding estuarine nitrogen removal for August was similar to 1.2 t, of which similar to 93% was removed by coupled nitrification-denitrification. Particulate matter in the estuary was mainly phytoplankton derived (> 70% in surface waters) and likely based on the riverine nitrate which was not removed by direct denitrification due to water column stratification. Subsequently settling particles served as a link be tween the otherwise uncoupled nitrate in surface waters and benthic nitrogen removal. We suggest that the riverine nitrate brought into the oligotrophic estuary during the spring flood is gradually, and with a time delay, removed by benthic denitrification after being temporarily ` trapped' in phytoplankton particulate matter. The oligotrophic system is not likely to face eutrophication from increasing nitrogen loading due to phosphorus limitation. In response, coupled nitrification-denitrification rates are likely to stay constant, which might increase the future export of nitrate to the open sea and decrease the estuary's function as a nitrogen sink relative to the load.
  • Jokinen, Sami A.; Koho, Karoliina; Virtasalo, Joonas J.; Jilbert, Tom (2020)
    Molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U) contents in sedimentary archives are often used to reconstruct past changes in seafloor oxygenation. However, their sequestration processes are as yet poorly constrained in low-salinity coastal waters, which often suffer from anthropogenic eutrophication but only mild oxygen depletion. Due to the consequent lack of robust long-term paleo-redox reconstructions in such settings often characterized by a shallow front of dissolved sulfide accumulation within the sediment pore waters, inadequate understanding of the long-term drivers behind oxygen loss impedes cost-effective mitigation of this environmental problem. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of Mo and U sequestration in an oxic, low-salinity coastal setting in the northern Baltic Sea where anthropogenic eutrophication over the 20th century has resulted in formation of a shallow sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) in the sediment column of this brackish-water basin. Our results demonstrate remarkably similar patterns for authigenic Mo and U sequestration, whereby the depth and intensity of the SMTZ exerts a first-order control on their solid-phase uptake. Sequential extraction analysis suggests that a large part of the authigenic Mo pool is hosted by refractory Fe-S phases such as pyrite and nanoscale FeMoS4, implying that the Fe-sulfide pathway is the dominating process of authigenic Mo scavenging. However, we also observe a pool of extremely labile Mo deep within the SMTZ, which might record an intermediate phase in authigenic Mo sequestration and/or partial switch to the organic matter (OM) pathway at low dissolved Fe levels. Authigenic U resides in acid-extractable and refractory phases, likely reflecting uptake into poorly crystalline monomeric U(IV) and crystalline uraninite, respectively. Similarly to Mo, authigenic U uptake is active at two fronts within the SMTZ, paralleled by increases in dissolved sulfide levels, suggesting coupling between sulfide production and U reduction. Our results imply that both Mo and U could provide viable proxies for mild bottom water deoxygenation in these settings, through the indirect link between seafloor oxygen conditions and the depth of SMTZ. Of these, Mo appears to more robustly capture variations in seafloor oxygen levels due to the significantly higher share of the authigenic pool. However, temporal resolution of these proxies is limited by the vertical offset between seafloor and the zone of authigenic uptake, and the superimposed character of the signal at a given depth due to vertical migrations of the SMTZ. These results have important implications for the use of Mo and U as paleo-redox proxies in other low-salinity coastal settings exposed to eutrophication.
  • Sheehy, Jatta; Nuutinen, Visa; Six, Johan; Palojarvi, Ansa; Knuutila, Ossi; Kaseva, Janne; Regina, Kristiina (2019)
    By processing large quantities of crop residues, earthworms enhance the mineralization of organic matter but have also been shown to stabilize soil organic carbon (SOC) into soil fractions like microaggregates (53-250 mu m) within macroaggregates (> 250 mu m) especially in no-till soils. Our objective was to find direct evidence on the impact of an anecic, soil surface-feeding earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L., on the redistribution of SOC and soil nitrogen (N) into macroaggregate-occluded soil fractions of boreal soils. We sampled soil (0-5 cm depth) from the middens of L. terrestris (mounds of collected residue and surface casts at the openings of its permanent burrows) and the adjacent non-midden (bulk) soil at three no-till sites in southern Finland: two clayey sites (sites 1-2) and one coarse textured site (site 3). Compared to bulk soil, the soil in L. terrestris middens featured general increase in aggregate size and content of SOC and N within the large macroaggregates (> 2000 mu m) at the clayey sites. The microaggregates within the large macroaggregates had accumulated more SOC and N in the midden soil especially at site 1 where 99% of the difference in total SOC between midden and bulk soil was associated with this type of SOC stabilization. At site 2, the increase in SOC found in the large macroaggregates was counteracted by a decrease in SOC in microaggregates within the small macroaggregates (250-2000 mu m). No differences in SOC stored in soil fractions were found between midden and non-midden soil at the coarse soil site 3 with higher top soil decomposition rate compared to sites 1 and 2. Across the study sites, the total amount of SOC was 6% higher in midden soil compared to the bulk soil. These results suggest L. terrestris mediates the storage of SOC and N into better protected soil fractions in clay soils under boreal conditions.
  • Deng, Biar; Tammeorg, Priit; Luukkanen, Olavi; Helenius, Juha; Starr, Mike (2017)
    We studied the effects of Acacia seyal Del. intercropping and biochar soil amendment on soil physico-chemical properties and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) yields in a two-year field experiment conducted on a silt loam site near Renk in South Sudan. A split-plot design with three replications was used. The main factor was tree-cropping system (dense acacia + sorghum, scattered acacia + sorghum, and sole sorghum) and biochar (0 and 10 Mg ha(-1)) was the subplot factor. The two acacia systems had lower soil pH, N and higher C/N ratios compared to the sole sorghum system. Biochar significantly increased soil C, exchangeable K+ contents, field capacity and available water content, but reduced soil exchangeable Ca2+ and effective CEC, and had no effect on soil pH. Acacia intercropping significantly reduced sorghum grain yields while biochar had no significant effect on sorghum yields. The land equivalent ratio (LER) for sorghum yield was 0.3 for both acacia systems in 2011, with or without biochar, but increased in 2012 to 0.6 for the scattered acacia system when combined with biochar. The reduction in sorghum yields by the A. seyal trees was probably due to a combination of competition for water and nutrients and shading. The lack of a yield response to biochar maybe due to insufficient time or too low a dosage. Further research is needed to test for the effects of tree intercropping and biochar and their interactions on soil properties and crop yields in drylands.
  • Nausch, Monika; Bach, Lennart Thomas; Czerny, Jan; Goldstein, Josephine; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Hellemann, Dana; Hornick, Thomas; Achterberg, Eric Pieter; Schulz, Kai-Georg; Riebesell, Ulf (2016)
    Studies investigating the effect of increasing CO2 levels on the phosphorus cycle in natural waters are lacking although phosphorus often controls phytoplankton development in many aquatic systems. The aim of our study was to analyse effects of elevated CO2 levels on phosphorus pool sizes and uptake. The phosphorus dynamic was followed in a CO2-manipulation mesocosm experiment in the Storfjarden (western Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea) in summer 2012 and was also studied in the surrounding fjord water. In all mesocosms as well as in surface waters of Storfjarden, dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) concentrations of 0.26aEuro-+/- aEuro-0.03 and 0.23aEuro-+/- aEuro-0.04aEuro-A mu molaEuro-L-1, respectively, formed the main fraction of the total P-pool (TP), whereas phosphate (PO4) constituted the lowest fraction with mean concentration of 0.15aEuro-A +/- aEuro-0.02 in the mesocosms and 0.17aEuro-A +/- aEuro-0.07aEuro-A mu molaEuro-L-1 in the fjord. Transformation of PO4 into DOP appeared to be the main pathway of PO4 turnover. About 82aEuro-% of PO4 was converted into DOP whereby only 18aEuro-% of PO4 was transformed into particulate phosphorus (PP). PO4 uptake rates measured in the mesocosms ranged between 0.6 and 3.9aEuro-nmolaEuro-L(-1)aEuro-h(-1). About 86aEuro-% of them was realized by the size fraction <aEuro-3aEuro-A mu m. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) uptake revealed that additional P was supplied from organic compounds accounting for 25-27aEuro-% of P provided by PO4 only. CO2 additions did not cause significant changes in phosphorus (P) pool sizes, DOP composition, and uptake of PO4 and ATP when the whole study period was taken into account. However, significant short-term effects were observed for PO4 and PP pool sizes in CO2 treatments > aEuro-1000aEuro-A mu atm during periods when phytoplankton biomass increased. In addition, we found significant relationships (e.g., between PP and Chl a) in the untreated mesocosms which were not observed under high fCO(2) conditions. Consequently, it can be hypothesized that the relationship between PP formation and phytoplankton growth changed with CO2 elevation. It can be deduced from the results, that visible effects of CO2 on P pools are coupled to phytoplankton growth when the transformation of PO4 into POP was stimulated. The transformation of PO4 into DOP on the other hand does not seem to be affected. Additionally, there were some indications that cellular mechanisms of P regulation might be modified under CO2 elevation changing the relationship between cellular constituents.
  • Salmon, Yann; Buchmann, Nina; Barnard, Romain L. (2016)
    Knowledge gaps regarding potential ontogeny and plant species identity effects on carbon isotope fractionation might lead to misinterpretations of carbon isotope composition (delta C-13) of respired CO2, a widely-used integrator of environmental conditions. In monospecific mesocosms grown under controlled conditions, the delta C-13 of C pools and fluxes and leaf ecophysiological parameters of seven herbaceous species belonging to three functional groups (crops, forage grasses and legumes) were investigated at three ontogenetic stages of their vegetative cycle (young foliage, maximum growth rate, early senescence). Ontogeny-related changes in delta C-13 of leaf-and soil-respired CO2 and C-13/C-12 fractionation in respiration (Delta(R)) were species-dependent and up to 7 parts per thousand, a magnitude similar to that commonly measured in response to environmental factors. At plant and soil levels, changes in delta C-13 of respired CO2 and Delta(R) with ontogeny were related to changes in plant physiological status, likely through ontogeny-driven changes in the C sink to source strength ratio in the above-ground plant compartment. Our data further showed that lower Delta(R) values (i.e. respired CO2 relatively less depleted in C-13) were observed with decreasing net assimilation. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for ontogenetic stage and plant community composition in ecological studies using stable carbon isotopes.
  • Bhuiyan, Md Rabbil; Minkkinen, Kari; Helmisaari, Helja-Sisko; Ojanen, Paavo; Penttila, Timo; Laiho, Raija (2017)
    Background and aims Estimation of root-mediated carbon fluxes in forested peatlands is needed for understanding ecosystem functioning and supporting greenhouse gas inventories. Here, we aim to determine the optimal methodology for utilizing ingrowth cores in estimating annual fine-root production (FRP) and its vertical distribution in trees, shrubs and herbs. Methods We used 3-year data obtained with modified ingrowth core method and tested two calculation methods: 'ingrowth-dividing' and `ingrowth-subtracting'. Results The ingrowth-dividing method combined with a 2-year incubation of ingrowth cores can be used for the 'best estimate' of FRP. The FRP in the nutrient-rich fen forest (561 g m(-2)) was more than twice that in the nutrient-poor bog forest (244 g m(-2)). Most FRP occurred in the top 20-cm layer (76-82 %). Tree FRP accounted for 71 % of total FRP in the bog and 94 % in the fen forests, respectively, following the aboveground vegetation patterns; however, in fen forest the proportions of spruce and birch in FRP were higher than their proportions in stand basal area. Conclusions Our methodology may be used to study peatland FRP patterns more widely and will reduce the volume of labour-intensive work, but will benefit from verification with other methods, as is the case in all in situ FRP studies.
  • Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Aro, Lasse; Salemaa, Maija; Hansson, Karna; Kleja, Dan Berggren; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko (2014)
  • Roslund, Marja I.; Grönroos, Mira; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Jumpponen, Ari; Romantschuk, Martin; Parajuli, Anirudra; Hyöty, Heikki; Laitinen, Olli; Sinkkone, Aki (2018)
    Background. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulate in urban soils, and PAH contamination can change soil microbial community composition. Environmental microbiota is associated with human commensal microbiota, immune system and health. Therefore, studies investigating the degradation of PAHs, and the consequences of soil pollution on microbial communities in urban landscaping materials, are crucial. Methods. Four landscaping materials (organic matter 1, 2, 13 and 56%) were contaminated with PAHs commonly found at urban sites (phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(b)fluoranthene) in PAH concentrations that reflect urban soils in Finland (2.4 mu g g(-1) soil dry weight). PAHs were analyzed initially and after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Half-lives of PAHs were determined based on 12-weeks degradation. Bacterial communities were analyzed at 1 and 12 weeks after contamination using Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding. Results. Half-lives ranged from 1.5 to 4.4 weeks for PAHs with relatively low molecular weights (phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) in landscaping materials containing 1-2% organic matter. In contrast, in materials containing 13% and 56% organic matter, the half-lives ranged from 2.5 to 52 weeks. Shorter half-lives of phenanthrene and fluoranthene were thus associated with low organic matter content. The half-life of pyrene was inversely related to the relative abundance of Beta-, Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and diversity of Bacteroidetes and Betaprotebacteria. Compounds with higher molecular weights followed compound-specific patterns. Benzo(b)fluoranthene was resistant to degradation and half-life of chrysene was shorter when the relative abundance of Betaproteobacteria was high. Temporal microbiota changes involved increase in the relative abundance of Deltaproteobacteria and decrease in genera Flavobacterium and Rhodanobacter. Exposure to PAHs seems to adjust microbial community composition, particularly within class Beta- and Deltaproteobacteria. Conclusions. In this study, PAH degradation depended on the organic matter content and bacterial community composition of landscaping materials. Contamination seems to alter bacterial community composition in landscaping materials depending on material type. This alteration includes changes in bacterial phyla associated with human health and immune system. This may open new possibilities for managing urban environments by careful selection of landscaping materials, to benefit health and wellbeing.