Browsing by Subject "ORGANIZATIONS"

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  • Oksanen, Atte; Oksa, Reetta; Savela, Nina; Kaakinen, Markus; Ellonen, Noora (2020)
    Cyberbullying at work takes many forms, from aggressive and threatening behavior to social ostracism. It can also have adverse consequences on general well-being that might be even more severe for people whose identities are centrally based on social media ties. We examined this type of identity-driven social media use via the concept of social media identity bubbles. We first analyzed the risk and protective factors associated with cyberbullying victimization at work and then investigated its impacts on well-being. We expected that workers strongly involved in social media identity bubbles would be in the worst position when faced with cyberbullying. Data include a sample of workers from five Finnish expert organizations (N = 563) and a representative sample of Finnish workers (N = 1817). We investigated cyberbullying at work with 10 questions adapted from the Cyberbullying Behavior Questionnaire. Other measures included scales for private and professional social media usage, social media identity bubbles (six-item Identity Bubble Reinforcement Scale), well-being at work, sociodemographic factors, and job-related information. Prevalence of monthly cyberbullying victimization at work was 13% in expert organizations and 17% in the Finnish working population. Victims were young, active users of professional social media and they were strongly involved in social media identity bubbles. Victims who were in social media identity bubbles reported higher psychological distress, exhaustion, and technostress than other victims. Cyberbullying at work is a prevalent phenomenon and has negative outcomes on well-being at work. Negative consequences are more severe among those with highly identity-driven social media use.
  • Ghahramani, Abolfazl (2017)
    The evaluation of safety performance in occupational health and safety assessment series (OHSAS) 18001-certified companies provides useful information about the quality of the management system. A certified organization should employ an adequate level of safety management and a positive safety culture to achieve a satisfactory safety performance. The present study conducted in six manufacturing companies: three OHSAS 18001-certified, and three non-certified to assess occupational health "and safety (OHS) as well as OHSAS 18001 practices. The certified companies had a better OHS practices compared with the non-certified companies. The certified companies slightly differed in OHS and OHSAS 18001 practices and one of the certified companies had the highest activity rates for both practices. The results indicated that the implemented management systems have not developed and been maintained appropriately in the certified companies. The indepth analysis of the collected evidence revealed shortcomings in safety culture improvement in the certified companies. This study highlights the importance of safety culture to continuously improve the quality of OHSAS 18001 and to properly perform OHS/OHSAS 18001 practices in the certified companies.
  • Haapasaari, Arja; Engestrom, Yrjo; Kerosuo, Hannele (2018)
    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the generation of innovations by employees and the creation of initiative paths, and to discover which factors contribute to the implementation of an initiative. Design/methodology/approach - Based on longitudinal qualitative research, the study explores the profiles of initiative paths and the types of innovations and relationships among the generated innovations. Findings - It was found that, to become an innovation, an initiative followed different paths along which the processing and outcomes varied, as did the time needed for experimentation. The creation of initiative paths required the transformative agency of the actors involved. Power relations had an impact on the generation of initiatives and implementation of innovations. Originality/value - Innovations research has concentrated on the generation of ideas and the implementation of innovations. This study focuses on the process path along which ideas become innovations and on the role of power relations in the innovations process.
  • Hakkarainen, Viola T; Anderson, Christopher B.; Eriksson, Max; van Riper, Carena J.; Horcea-Milcu, Andra-Ioana; Raymond, C.M (2020)
    This study identifies and analyses the underlying assumptions of experts involved in the first author meeting (FAM) of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)'s Values Assessment, and how they shape understandings of the multiple values of nature. We draw from survey data collected from 94 experts attending the FAM. Respondents self-report the tendencies and aims they bring to the assessment (i.e. motivation), the type and amount of evidence they require for knowledge to be valid (i.e. confirmation) and their epistemic worldviews (i.e. objectivity). Four clusters emerged that correspond to Pragmatist, Post-Positivist, Constructivist and Transformative epistemic worldviews. This result clarifies how different knowledge claims are represented in science-policy processes. Despite the proportionately higher number of social scientists in the Values Assessment, compared with previous IPBES assessments, we still found that fewer experts have Constructivist or Transformative worldviews than Pragmatist or Post-Positivist outlooks, an imbalance that may influence the types of values and valuation perspectives emphasised in the assessment. We also detected a tension regarding what constitutes valid knowledge between Post-Positivists, who emphasised high levels of agreement, and Pragmatists and Constructivists, who did not necessarily consider agreement crucial. Conversely, Post-Positivists did not align with relational values and were more diverse in their views regarding definitions of multiple values of nature compared to other clusters. Pragmatists emphasized relational values, while Constructivists tended to consider all value types (including relational values) as important. We discuss the implications of our findings for future design and delivery of IPBES processes and interdisciplinary research.
  • Pessi, Anne Birgitta; Seppanen, Anna Martta; Spannari, Jenni; Gronlund, Henrietta; Martela, Frank; Paakkanen, Miia (2022)
    Re-enchantment taps well into the current zeitgeist: The rising focus on emotions and post-material values also in organizational context. Enchantment is deeply tied to socially generated emotions. Our aim is to develop the concept of copassion, referring to the process of responding to the positive emotion of a fellow human being. Concepts are crucial as they shape our understanding of the world. Our core claim is relating to our colleagues' positive emotions not only enables and maintains but also fosters enchantment at work. In this article, by laying the ground by discussing enchantment and the theoretical framework of intersubjectivity, we will link copassion to the physiological and evolutionary basis of humans, as well as explore its conceptual neighbors. Finally, we will discuss intersubjectivity, and particularly mutual recognition, as well as the inseparability of compassion and copassion in human experience at work, and its implications to the study of enchantment.
  • Vihemäki, Heini; Toppinen, Anne; Toivonen, Ritva (2020)
    Intermediaries can potentially help reduce institutional lock-ins that slow down sustainability transitions by influencing policy processes, because of their connectedness and often high level of legitimacy. In this paper, we analysed intermediaries seeking to accelerate the diffusion of wooden multi-storey construction (WMC) in Finland, their roles and engagement in policy processes. Increasing the use of wood in construction has high policy support nationally, backed up with climate and forest policies. Yet, market diffusion has been slow. The data consist of qualitative interviews of intermediaries and other actors, participatory observation and a review of secondary materials. The results reveal a complex set of intermediaries, including systemic, niche and regime-based ones. The intermediaries are characterised by multiple goals, partly overlapping roles and means of policy influencing. The low degree of coordination among the intermediaries and the differences in their agenda for transition are critical challenges which limit the effectiveness of their actions.
  • Toppinen, Anne Maarit Kristiina; Sauru, Miska Eemil; Pätäri, Satu; Lähtinen, Katja; Tuppura, Anni (2019)
    In transitioning to a renewable material-based bio economy, growing public and industry interest is apparent for using wooden multistory construction (WMC) as a sustainable urban housing solution in Europe, but its business implications are not well understood. In our study, we evaluate, which internal and external factors of competitiveness are shaping the future of WMC, especially in the context of Finland and Sweden. Based on a multi-level perspective of socio-technical transitions, we conducted a three-stage dissensus-based Delphi study. The identified internal and external factors affecting the future competitiveness of the WMC business emphasize the importance of skilled architects and builders and the role of standardized building systems. Based on our results, the key aspects influencing the future competitiveness of WMC in the region are related to the development of technical infrastructure and project-based business networks, while additional changes in regulatory framework are perceived as less important. We conclude that towards 2030, the strong cognitive rules founded in the concrete-based building culture in these countries is likely to inhibit the dynamics of the socio-technical regime level. A change is also needed in the WMC business culture towards more open cross-sectoral collaboration and new business networks between different-sized players.
  • Niemistö, Charlotta; Hearn, Jeff; Karjalainen, Mira; Tuori, Annamari (2020)
    Abstract Purpose Privilege is often silent, invisible and not made explicit, and silence is a key question for theorizing on organizations. This paper examines interrelations between privilege and silence for relatively privileged professionals in high-intensity knowledge businesses (KIBs). Design/methodology/approach This paper draws on 112 interviews in two rounds of interviews using the collaborative interactive action research method. The analysis focuses on processes of recruitment, careers and negotiation of boundaries between work and nonwork in these KIBs. The authors study how relative privilege within social inequalities connects with silences in multiple ways, and how the invisibility of privilege operates at different levels: individual identities and interpersonal actions of privilege (micro), as organizational level phenomena (meso) or as societally constructed (macro). Findings At each level, privilege is reproduced in part through silence. The authors also examine how processes connecting silence, privilege and social inequalities operate differently in relation to both disadvantage and the disadvantaged, and privilege and the privileged. Originality/value This study is relevant for organization studies, especially in the kinds of “multi-privileged” contexts where inequalities, disadvantages and subordination may remain hidden and silenced, and, thus, are continuously reproduced.
  • Matilainen, Anne-Maria Kristiina; Koch, Marc; Zivojinovic, Ivana; Lähdesmäki, Merja Riitta; Lidestav, Gun; Karppinen, Heimo Markku Timo; Didolot, Francois; Jarsky, Vilem; Põllumäe, Priit; Colson, Vincent; Hricova , Zuzana; Glavonjic, Predrag; Scriban, Ramona (2019)
    Private forest owners possess a major part of Europe's forests. Therefore, their behaviour plays a significant role in the development and management of European forest resources. At the same time, forest owners' values and objectives are becoming more versatile. There is a need for further understanding of elements affecting forest owners' management behaviour. One aspect of potential impact is how forest ownership is perceived by the forest owners themselves. Understanding how they experience the ownership, especially on the psychological level, can provide new insights into forest owners' management behaviour and aid in planning better services to meet their needs. This paper aims to describe the new NIPF owners' perceptions of forest ownership by qualitative analyses drawn from 23 in-depth interviews covering different contextual settings in Europe. The theory of psychological ownership is used as a theoretical background. The aim is to examine, how psychological ownership is expressed and the ownership feelings are manifested in different forest owning contexts. The results illustrate what kind of ownership values new forest owners set for their forests and discuss how these affect their forest management behavior. At the same time the paper illustrate the potential of the social science approach in forest ownership research.
  • Eriksson, Max; van Riper, Carena J.; Leitschuh, Ben; Bentley Brymer, Amanda; Rawluk, Andrea; Raymond, Christopher M.; Kenter, Jasper O. (2019)
    The role of social learning in deliberative processes is an emerging area of research in sustainability science. Functioning as a link between the individual and the collective, social learning has been envisioned as a process that can empower and give voice to a diverse set of stakeholder viewpoints, contribute to more adaptive and resilient management decisions and foster broader societal transformations. However, despite its widespread use in the context of participatory management of natural resources, the empirical properties of social learning remain understudied. This paper evaluates the role of social interaction and social capital in achieving transformative learning in discussions about social values. We employ a longitudinal design involving three consecutive surveys of 25 participants of an expert workshop focused on social values, as well as approximately 12 hours of transcribed audio and video recordings of participant interactions. Our mixed methods approach demonstrates the potential of using changes in social networks and definitions of social values that emerge from qualitative coding as indicators of social learning. We find that individuals with a weaker conceptual understanding of social values are more likely to change their definitions of the concept after deliberation. Though slight, these changes display a shift towards definitions more firmly held by other group members.
  • Wagner, Stefan; Méndez Fernández, Daniel; Felderer, Michael; Vetrò, Antonio; Kalinowski, Marco; Wieringa, Roel; Pfahl, Dietmar; Conte, Tayana; Christiansson, Marie-Therese; Greer, Desmond; Lassenius, Casper; Männistö, Tomi; Nayebi, Maleknaz; Oivo, Markku; Penzenstadler, Birgit; Prikladnicki, Rafael; Ruhe, Guenter; Schekelmann, André; Sen, Sagar; Spínola, Rodrigo; Tuzcu, Ahmed; Luis De La Vara, Jose; Winkler, Dietmar (2019)
    Requirements Engineering (RE) has established itself as a software engineering discipline over the past decades. While researchers have been investigating the RE discipline with a plethora of empirical studies, attempts to systematically derive an empirical theory in context of the RE discipline have just recently been started. However, such a theory is needed if we are to define and motivate guidance in performing high quality RE research and practice. We aim at providing an empirical and externally valid foundation for a theory of RE practice, which helps software engineers establish effective and efficient RE processes in a problem-driven manner. We designed a survey instrument and an engineer-focused theory that was first piloted in Germany and, after making substantial modifications, has now been replicated in 10 countries worldwide. We have a theory in the form of a set of propositions inferred from our experiences and available studies, as well as the results from our pilot study in Germany. We evaluate the propositions with bootstrapped confidence intervals and derive potential explanations for the propositions. In this article, we report on the design of the family of surveys, its underlying theory, and the full results obtained from the replication studies conducted in 10 countries with participants from 228 organisations. Our results represent a substantial step forward towards developing an empirical theory of RE practice. The results reveal, for example, that there are no strong differences between organisations in different countries and regions, that interviews, facilitated meetings and prototyping are the most used elicitation techniques, that requirements are often documented textually, that traces between requirements and code or design documents are common, that requirements specifications themselves are rarely changed and that requirements engineering (process) improvement endeavours are mostly internally driven. Our study establishes a theory that can be used as starting point for many further studies for more detailed investigations. Practitioners can use the results as theory-supported guidance on selecting suitable RE methods and techniques.
  • Tatham, Peter; Kovacs, Gyongyi (Elsevier BV, 2010)
  • Siltaoja, Marjo; Lahdesmaki, Merja; Granqvist, Nina; Kurki, Sami; Puska, Petteri; Luomala, Harri (2020)
    This study finds that it is possible for organizations in emerging categories to resist stigmatization through discursive reconstruction of the central and distinctive characteristics of the category in question. We examined the emerging market of organic farming in Finland and discovered how resistance to stigmatization was both an internal and an external power struggle in the organic farming community. Over time, the label of organic farming was manipulated and the practice of farming was associated with more conventional and familiar contexts, while the stigma was diverted at the same time to biodynamic farming. We develop a process model for removal of stigma from a nascent category through stigma diversion. We find that stigma diversion forces the core community to (re)define themselves in relation to the excluded community and the mainstream. We also discuss how notoriety can be an individuating phenomenon that helps categorical members conduct identity work and contributes to stigma removal.
  • Galuppo, Laura; Kajamaa, Anu; Ivaldi, Silvia; Scaratti, Giuseppe (2019)
    In recent years, the number of new organizations aiming to accomplish principles of sustainability has rapidly grown, leading analysts and scholars to announce almost a new industrial revolution. An example of this is the proliferation of the so-called fabrication laboratories (FabLabs) that nowadays are perceived as being forerunners in innovative and sustainable high-tech production through peer-to-peer collaborative practices and sharing. However, the challenges managers face in translating these promotional aims into organizational action is vastly understudied. To address this research gap, we have studied the management of two FabLabs, in Italy and Finland. In this study, we draw from a psycho-sociological framework applying cultural-historical activity theory, and especially from the concepts of activity system and contradiction. According to this perspective, a sustainable organization is based on promotion, enrichment, regeneration, and flexible change efforts, and it is related to the managerial and ability to bring internal and external stakeholders together to recognize and solve tensions and contradictions collectively. Through our case studies, we have provided new research knowledge on how managers make an effort to translate sustainability into action in the complex context of FabLabs, involving multiple, often competing stakeholders and activity systems. Our analysis reveals multiple tensions in the collective activity, stemming from system level contradictions, which represent a challenge for the daily work of the FabLab managers. In the paper we also suggest how an engaged management orientation towards sustainably can be promoted, and we discuss future research topics.