Browsing by Subject "ORIGINS"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-14 of 14
  • Randler, Christoph; Adan, Ana; Antofie, Maria-Mihaela; Arrona-Palacios, Arturo; Candido, Manecas; Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Chandrakar, Priti; Demirhan, Eda; Detsis, Vassilis; Di Milia, Lee; Fancovicova, Jana; Gericke, Niklas; Haldar, Prasun; Heidari, Zeinab; Jankowski, Konrad S.; Lehto, Juhani E.; Lundell-Creagh, Ryan; Medina-Jerez, William; Meule, Adrian; Milfont, Taciano L.; Orgiles, Mireia; Morales, Alexandra; Natale, Vincenzo; Ortiz-Jimenez, Xochitl; Pande, Babita; Partonen, Timo; Pati, Atanu Kumar; Prokop, Pavol; Rahafar, Arash; Scheuch, Martin; Sahu, Subhashis; Tomazic, Iztok; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Medina, Pablo Vallejo; van Petegem, Peter; Vargas, Alejandro; Vollmer, Christian (2021)
    Simple Summary Animal Welfare Attitudes (AWA) can be defined as the attitudes of humans towards the welfare of animals. Although AWA has been previously associated with demographic factors as gender, one of the main limitations is that few studies applied robust psychometric questionnaire scales. Moreover, some evidence of cross-cultural variations in AWA have been reported although limited by the reduced number of countries being examined. To overcome these limitations, a survey aimed at assessing the gender differences in AWA in university students living in 22 nations, based on a questionnaire having undergone psychometric testing (i.e., the Composite Respect for Animals Scale Short version, CRAS-S), was carried out. To this end, the CRAS-S was administered to 7914 people (5155 women, 2711 men, 48 diverse) alongside a questionnaire on demographic information and diet. Moreover, the gender inequality index, based on indicators as completion of secondary education, was computed. The main results showed that diet was significantly related to AWA; more in detail, higher AWA was observed in vegans compared to omnivores. Moreover, gender differences in AWA have been reported, with women referring higher AWA compared to men. In addition, to the decreasing of gender inequality, gender differences in AWA increased. Animal Welfare Attitudes (AWA) are defined as human attitudes towards the welfare of animals in different dimensions and settings. Demographic factors, such as age and gender are associated with AWA. The aim of this study was to assess gender differences among university students in a large convenience sample from twenty-two nations in AWA. A total of 7914 people participated in the study (5155 women, 2711 men, 48 diverse). Participants completed a questionnaire that collected demographic data, typical diet and responses to the Composite Respect for Animals Scale Short version (CRAS-S). In addition, we used a measure of gender empowerment from the Human Development Report. The largest variance in AWA was explained by diet, followed by country and gender. In terms of diet, 6385 participants reported to be omnivores, 296 as pescatarian, 637 ate a vegetarian diet and 434 were vegans (n = 162 without answer). Diet was related with CRAS-S scores; people with a vegan diet scored higher in AWA than omnivores. Women scored significantly higher on AWA than men. Furthermore, gender differences in AWA increased as gender inequality decreased.
  • Fellman, Susanna (2019)
    Prior to the modern welfare state, many large companies provided extensive welfare programmes for their employees. In this article, such welfare programmes - or corporate welfarism - in Finnish manufacturing firms in the early 20th century are the focus of attention. I analyse the content of these programmes and how they changed over time as part of the modernization and professionalization of management and industrial and societal change. I also discuss how company managers perceived the role of welfare provisions in corporate development and what happened with these programmes when the first steps towards the modern welfare state were taken. I show that these programmes started as a necessity and part of industrial paternalism, but gradually became part of labour management, in particular for the creation of a loyal workforce and productivity improvements. These programmes often developed in collaboration with local municipalities, which led to intertwined relationships at the local level, marked by both trust and tension in local communities. Once general welfare reforms emerged, companies often abandoned their voluntary programmes, while some services were taken over by the municipalities. I also ask to what extent these programmes were managerial strategies to counteract growing state involvement in their affairs.
  • Milovanov, Alexander; Zvyagin, Andrey; Daniyarov, Asset; Kalendar, Ruslan; Troshin, Leonid (2019)
    Cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa D.C.) is one of the oldest agricultural crops, each variety comprising an array of clones obtained by vegetative propagation from a selected vine grown from a single seedling. Most clones within a variety are identical, but some show a different form of accession, giving rise to new divergent phenotypes. Understanding the associations among the genotypes within a variety is crucial to efficient management and effective grapevine improvement. Inter-primer binding-site (iPBS) markers may aid in determining the new clones inside closely related genotypes. Following this idea, iPBS markers were used to assess the genetic variation of 33 grapevine genotypes collected from Russia. We used molecular markers to identify the differences among and within five grapevine clonal populations and analysed the variation, using clustering and statistical approaches. Four of a total of 30 PBS primers were selected, based on amplification efficiency. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with PBS primers resulted in a total of 1412 bands ranging from 300 to 6000 bp, with a polymorphism ratio of 44%, ranging from 58 to 75 bands per group. In total, were identified seven private bands in 33 genotypes. Results of molecular variance analysis showed that 40% of the total variation was observed within groups and only 60% between groups. Cluster analysis clearly showed that grapevine genotypes are highly divergent and possess abundant genetic diversities. The iPBS PCR-based genome fingerprinting technology used in this study effectively differentiated genotypes into five grapevine groups and indicated that iPBS markers are useful tools for clonal selection. The number of differences between clones was sufficient to identify them as separate clones of studied varieties containing unique mutations. Our previous phenotypic and phenological studies have confirmed that these genotypes differ from those of maternal plants. This work emphasized the need for a better understanding of the genotypic differences among closely related varieties of grapevine and has implications for the management of its selection processes.
  • Ip, Hill F.; van der Laan, Camiel M.; Krapohl, Eva M. L.; Brikell, Isabell; Sanchez-Mora, Cristina; Nolte, Ilja M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Bolhuis, Koen; Palviainen, Teemu; Zafarmand, Hadi; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Gordon, Scott; Zayats, Tetyana; Aliev, Fazil; Jiang, Chang; Wang, Carol A.; Saunders, Gretchen; Karhunen, Ville; Hammerschlag, Anke R.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Border, Richard; Peterson, Roseann E.; Prinz, Joseph A.; Thiering, Elisabeth; Seppala, Ilkka; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Day, Felix R.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allegrini, Andrea G.; Rimfeld, Kaili; Chen, Qi; Lu, Yi; Martin, Joanna; Soler Artigas, Maria; Rovira, Paula; Bosch, Rosa; Espanol, Gemma; Ramos Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Neumann, Alexander; Ensink, Judith; Grasby, Katrina; Morosoli, Jose J.; Tong, Xiaoran; Marrington, Shelby; Middeldorp, Christel; Scott, James G.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna; Shabalin, Andrey A.; Corley, Robin; Evans, Luke M.; Sugden, Karen; Alemany, Silvia; Sass, Laerke; Vinding, Rebecca; Ruth, Kate; Tyrrell, Jess; Davies, Gareth E.; Ehli, Erik A.; Hagenbeek, Fiona A.; De Zeeuw, Eveline; Van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Larsson, Henrik; Snieder, Harold; Verhulst, Frank C.; Amin, Najaf; Whipp, Alyce M.; Korhonen, Tellervo; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Rose, Richard J.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela; Haavik, Jan; Harris, Jennifer R.; Helgeland, Oyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Knudsen, Gun Peggy S.; Njolstad, Pal Rasmus; Lu, Qing; Rodriguez, Alina; Henders, Anjali K.; Mamun, Abdullah; Najman, Jackob M.; Brown, Sandy; Hopfer, Christian; Krauter, Kenneth; Reynolds, Chandra; Smolen, Andrew; Stallings, Michael; Wadsworth, Sally; Wall, Tamara L.; Silberg, Judy L.; Miller, Allison; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Havdahl, Alexandra; Magnus, Per; Raitakari, Olli T.; Perry, John R. B.; Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Sunyer, Jordi; Lehtimaki, Terho; Arseneault, Louise; Standl, Marie; Heinrich, Joachim; Boden, Joseph; Pearson, John; Horwood, L. John; Kennedy, Martin; Poulton, Richie; Eaves, Lindon J.; Maes, Hermine H.; Hewitt, John; Copeland, William E.; Costello, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Gail M.; Wray, Naomi; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Whitehouse, Andrew; Pennell, Craig E.; Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Dick, Danielle M.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tiemeier, Henning; Davey Smith, George; Hartman, Catharina A.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Casas, Miquel; Ribases, Marta; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lundstrom, Sebastian; Plomin, Robert; Bartels, Meike; Nivard, Michel G.; Boomsma, Dorret I. (2021)
    Childhood aggressive behavior (AGG) has a substantial heritability of around 50%. Here we present a genome-wide association metaanalysis (GWAMA) of childhood AGG, in which all phenotype measures across childhood ages from multiple assessors were included. We analyzed phenotype assessments for a total of 328 935 observations from 87 485 children aged between 1.5 and 18 years, while accounting for sample overlap. We also meta-analyzed within subsets of the data, i.e., within rater, instrument and age. SNP-heritability for the overall meta-analysis (AGGoverall) was 3.31% (SE= 0.0038). We found no genome-wide significant SNPs for AGG(overall). The gene-based analysis returned three significant genes: ST3GAL3 (P= 1.6E-06), PCDH7 (P= 2.0E-06), and IPO13 (P= 2.5E-06). All three genes have previously been associated with educational traits. Polygenic scores based on our GWAMA significantly predicted aggression in a holdout sample of children (variance explained = 0.44%) and in retrospectively assessed childhood aggression (variance explained = 0.20%). Genetic correlations (rg) among rater-specific assessment of AGG ranged from r(g)= 0.46 between self- and teacher-assessment to r(g)d= 0.81 between mother- and teacher-assessment. We obtained moderate-to-strong rgs with selected phenotypes from multiple domains, but hardly with any of the classical biomarkers thought to be associated with AGG. Significant genetic correlations were observed with most psychiatric and psychological traits (range r(g): 0.19-1.00), except for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Aggression had a negative genetic correlation (r(g)=-0.5) with cognitive traits and age at first birth. Aggression was strongly genetically correlated with smoking phenotypes (range |r(g)| : 0.46-0.60). The genetic correlations between aggression and psychiatric disorders were weaker for teacher-reported AGG than for mother- and self-reported AGG. The current GWAMA of childhood aggression provides a powerful tool to interrogate the rater-specific genetic etiology of AGG.
  • Qvist, Laura; Niskanen, Markku; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Wutke, Saskia; Aspi, Jouni (2019)
    Background: The Finnhorse was established as a breed more than 110 years ago by combining local Finnish landraces. Since its foundation, the breed has experienced both strong directional selection, especially for size and colour, and severe population bottlenecks that are connected with its initial foundation and subsequent changes in agricultural and forestry practices. Here, we used sequences of the mitochondrial control region and genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the genetic diversity and differentiation of the four Finnhorse breeding sections: trotters, pony-sized horses, draught horses and riding horses. Furthermore, we estimated inbreeding and effective population sizes over time to infer the history of this breed. Results: We found a high level of mitochondrial genetic variation and identified 16 of the 18 haplogroups described in present-day horses. Interestingly, one of these detected haplogroups was previously reported only in the Przewalski’s horse. Female effective population sizes were in the thousands, but declines were evident at the times when the breed and its breeding sections were founded. By contrast, nuclear variation and effective population sizes were small (approximately 50). Nevertheless, inbreeding in Finnhorses was lower than in many other horse breeds. Based on nuclear SNP data, genetic differentiation among the four breeding sections was strongest between the draught horses and the three other sections (FST=0.007–0.018), whereas based on mitochondrial DNA data, it was strongest between the trotters and the pony-sized and riding horses (ΦST= 0.054–0.068). Conclusions: The existence of a Przewalski’s horse haplogroup in the Finnhorse provides new insights into the domestication of the horse, and this finding supports previous suggestions of a close relationship between the Finnhorse and eastern primitive breeds. The high level of mitochondrial DNA variation in the Finnhorse supports its domestication from a large number of mares but also reflects that its founding depended on many local landraces. Although inbreeding in Finnhorses was lower than in many other horse breeds, the small nuclear effective popula- tion sizes of each of its breeding sections can be considered as a warning sign, which warrants changes in breeding practices.
  • Sessa, Emily B.; Juslen, Aino; Väre, Henry; Chambers, Sally M. (2017)
    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Our goal was to infer the phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of the genus Dryopteris with a focus on taxa in sub-Saharan Africa and neighboring islands. In general, little is known about the relationships between African fern species and their congeners in other geographic regions, and our aim was to determine whether the sub-Saharan African species of Dryopteris are monophyletic and evolved within Africa or arrived there via repeated dispersals into Africa from other regions. METHODS: We obtained sequence data for five chloroplast markers from 214 species of Dryopteris and 18 outgroups. We performed phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses using a Bayesian relaxed clock method in BEAST with fossil and secondary calibration points and estimated ancestral ranges for the genus globally by comparing multiple models in BioGeoBEARS. KEY RESULTS: We found that 22 of 27 accessions of sub-Saharan African Dryopteris belong to a large clade of 31 accessions that also includes taxa from Indian and Atlantic Ocean islands. Additional accessions of taxa from our regions of interest have Asian, Hawaiian, European, or North American species as their closest relatives. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of sub-Saharan African Dryopteris species are descended from a shared common ancestor that dispersed to Africa from Asia approximately 10 Ma. There have been subsequent dispersal events from the African mainland to islands in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, including Madagascar. Several additional species are estimated to have descended from ancestors that reached Africa via separate events over the last roughly 20 million years.
  • Miyauchi, Shingo; Kiss, Eniko; Kuo, Alan; Drula, Elodie; Kohler, Annegret; Sanchez-Garcia, Marisol; Morin, Emmanuelle; Andreopoulos, Bill; Barry, Kerrie W.; Bonito, Gregory; Buee, Marc; Carver, Akiko; Chen, Cindy; Cichocki, Nicolas; Clum, Alicia; Culley, David; Crous, Pedro W.; Fauchery, Laure; Girlanda, Mariangela; Hayes, Richard D.; Keri, Zsofia; LaButti, Kurt; Lipzen, Anna; Lombard, Vincent; Magnuson, Jon; Maillard, Francois; Murat, Claude; Nolan, Matt; Ohm, Robin A.; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Pereira, Maira de Freitas; Perotto, Silvia; Peter, Martina; Pfister, Stephanie; Riley, Robert; Sitrit, Yaron; Stielow, J. Benjamin; Szoellosi, Gergely; Zifcakova, Lucia; Stursova, Martina; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Tedersoo, Leho; Vaario, Lu-Min; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Yan, Mi; Wang, Pengfei; Xu, Jianping; Bruns, Tom; Baldrian, Petr; Vilgalys, Rytas; Dunand, Christophe; Henrissat, Bernard; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Martin, Francis M. (2020)
    Mycorrhizal fungi are mutualists that play crucial roles in nutrient acquisition in terrestrial ecosystems. Mycorrhizal symbioses arose repeatedly across multiple lineages of Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Considerable variation exists in the capacity of mycorrhizal fungi to acquire carbon from soil organic matter. Here, we present a combined analysis of 135 fungal genomes from 73 saprotrophic, endophytic and pathogenic species, and 62 mycorrhizal species, including 29 new mycorrhizal genomes. This study samples ecologically dominant fungal guilds for which there were previously no symbiotic genomes available, including ectomycorrhizal Russulales, Thelephorales and Cantharellales. Our analyses show that transitions from saprotrophy to symbiosis involve (1) widespread losses of degrading enzymes acting on lignin and cellulose, (2) co-option of genes present in saprotrophic ancestors to fulfill new symbiotic functions, (3) diversification of novel, lineage-specific symbiosis-induced genes, (4) proliferation of transposable elements and (5) divergent genetic innovations underlying the convergent origins of the ectomycorrhizal guild. Mycorrhizal symbioses have evolved repeatedly in diverse fungal lineages. A large phylogenomic analysis sheds light on genomic changes associated with transitions from saprotrophy to symbiosis, including divergent genetic innovations underlying the convergent origins of the ectomycorrhizal guild.
  • EGG Consortium (2019)
    Birth weight variation is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors, and has been reproducibly associated with future cardio-metabolic health outcomes. In expanded genome-wide association analyses of own birth weight (n = 321,223) and offspring birth weight (n = 230,069 mothers), we identified 190 independent association signals (129 of which are novel). We used structural equation modeling to decompose the contributions of direct fetal and indirect maternal genetic effects, then applied Mendelian randomization to illuminate causal pathways. For example, both indirect maternal and direct fetal genetic effects drive the observational relationship between lower birth weight and higher later blood pressure: maternal blood pressure-raising alleles reduce offspring birth weight, but only direct fetal effects of these alleles, once inherited, increase later offspring blood pressure. Using maternal birth weight-lowering genotypes to proxy for an adverse intrauterine environment provided no evidence that it causally raises offspring blood pressure, indicating that the inverse birth weight-blood pressure association is attributable to genetic effects, and not to intrauterine programming.
  • Ćwiek, Aleksandra; Fuchs, Susanne; Draxler, Christoph; Asu, Eva Liina; Dediu, Dan; Hiovain, Katri; Kawahara, Shigeto; Koutalidis, Sofia; Krifka, Manfred; Lippus, Pärtel; Lupyan, Gary; Oh, Grace E.; Paul, Jing; Petrone, Caterina; Ridouane, Rachid; Reiter, Sabine; Schümchen, Nathalie; Szalontai, Ádám; Ünal-Logacev, Özlem; Zeller, Jochen; Winter, Bodo; Perlman, Marcus (2021)
    Linguistic communication requires speakers to mutually agree on the meanings of words, but how does such a system first get off the ground? One solution is to rely on iconic gestures: visual signs whose form directly resembles or otherwise cues their meaning without any previously established correspondence. However, it is debated whether vocalizations could have played a similar role. We report the first extensive cross-cultural study investigating whether people from diverse linguistic backgrounds can understand novel vocalizations for a range of meanings. In two comprehension experiments, we tested whether vocalizations produced by English speakers could be understood by listeners from 28 languages from 12 language families. Listeners from each language were more accurate than chance at guessing the intended referent of the vocalizations for each of the meanings tested. Our findings challenge the often-cited idea that vocalizations have limited potential for iconic representation, demonstrating that in the absence of words people can use vocalizations to communicate a variety of meanings.
  • Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus; Gelfand, Michele; Wu, Junhui; Abernathy, Jered; Akotia, Charity S.; Aldashev, Alisher; Andersson, Per A.; Andrighetto, Giulia; Anum, Adote; Arikan, Gizem; Aycan, Zeynep; Bagherian, Fatemeh; Barrera, Davide; Basnight-Brown, Dana; Batkeyev, Birzhan; Belaus, Anabel; Berezina, Elizaveta; Björnstjerna, Marie; Blumen, Sheyla; Boski, Paweł; Bou Zeineddine, Fouad; Bovina, Inna; Huyen, Bui Thi Thu; Cardenas, Juan Camilo; Čekrlija, Đorđe; Choi, Hoon Seok; Contreras-Ibáñez, Carlos C.; Costa-Lopes, Rui; de Barra, Mícheál; de Zoysa, Piyanjali; Dorrough, Angela; Dvoryanchikov, Nikolay; Eller, Anja; Engelmann, Jan B.; Euh, Hyun; Fang, Xia; Fiedler, Susann; Foster-Gimbel, Olivia A.; Fülöp, Márta; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B.; Gill, C. M.Hew D.; Glöckner, Andreas; Graf, Sylvie; Grigoryan, Ani; Gritskov, Vladimir; Growiec, Katarzyna; Halama, Peter; Hartanto, Andree; Hopthrow, Tim; Hřebíčková, Martina; Iliško, Dzintra; Imada, Hirotaka; Kapoor, Hansika; Kawakami, Kerry; Khachatryan, Narine; Kharchenko, Natalia; Khoury, Ninetta; Kiyonari, Toko; Kohút, Michal; Linh, Lê Thuỳ; Leslie, Lisa M.; Li, Yang; Li, Norman P.; Li, Zhuo; Liik, Kadi; Maitner, Angela T.; Manhique, Bernardo; Manley, Harry; Medhioub, Imed; Mentser, Sari; Mohammed, Linda; Nejat, Pegah; Nipassa, Orlando; Nussinson, Ravit; Onyedire, Nneoma G.; Onyishi, Ike E.; Özden, Seniha; Panagiotopoulou, Penny; Perez-Floriano, Lorena R.; Persson, Minna S.; Pheko, Mpho; Pirttilä-Backman, Anna Maija; Pogosyan, Marianna; Raver, Jana; Reyna, Cecilia; Rodrigues, Ricardo Borges; Romanò, Sara; Romero, Pedro P.; Sakki, Inari; San Martin, Alvaro; Sherbaji, Sara; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Simpson, Brent; Szabo, Erna; Takemura, Kosuke; Tieffi, Hassan; Mendes Teixeira, Maria Luisa; Thanomkul, Napoj; Tiliouine, Habib; Travaglino, Giovanni A.; Tsirbas, Yannis; Wan, Richard; Widodo, Sita; Zein, Rizqy; Zhang, Qing peng; Zirganou-Kazolea, Lina; Van Lange, Paul A.M. (2021)
    Norm enforcement may be important for resolving conflicts and promoting cooperation. However, little is known about how preferred responses to norm violations vary across cultures and across domains. In a preregistered study of 57 countries (using convenience samples of 22,863 students and non-students), we measured perceptions of the appropriateness of various responses to a violation of a cooperative norm and to atypical social behaviors. Our findings highlight both cultural universals and cultural variation. We find a universal negative relation between appropriateness ratings of norm violations and appropriateness ratings of responses in the form of confrontation, social ostracism and gossip. Moreover, we find the country variation in the appropriateness of sanctions to be consistent across different norm violations but not across different sanctions. Specifically, in those countries where use of physical confrontation and social ostracism is rated as less appropriate, gossip is rated as more appropriate.
  • Sävilammi, Tiina; Primmer, Craig R.; Varadharajan, Srinidhi; Guyomard, Rene; Guiguen, Yann; Sandve, Simen R.; Vollestad, L. Asbjorn; Papakostas, Spiros; Lien, Sigbjorn (2019)
    Salmonids represent an intriguing taxonomical group for investigating genome evolution in vertebrates due to their relatively recent last common whole genome duplication event, which occurred between 80 and 100 million years ago. Here, we report on the chromosome-level genome assembly of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus), which represents one of the earliest diverged salmonid subfamilies. To achieve this, we first generated relatively long genomic scaffolds by using a previously published draft genome assembly along with long-read sequencing data and a linkage map. We then merged those scaffolds by applying synteny evidence from the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) genome. Comparisons of the European grayling genome assembly to the genomes of Atlantic salmon and Northern pike (Esox lucius), the latter used as a nonduplicated outgroup, detailed aspects of the characteristic chromosome evolution process that has taken place in European grayling. While Atlantic salmon and other salmonid genomes are portrayed by the typical occurrence of numerous chromosomal fusions, European grayling chromosomes were confirmed to be fusion-free and were characterized by a relatively large proportion of paracentric and pericentric inversions. We further reported on transposable elements specific to either the European grayling or Atlantic salmon genome, on the male-specific sdY gene in the European grayling chromosome 11A, and on regions under residual tetrasomy in the homeologous European grayling chromosome pairs 9A-9B and 25A-25B. The same chromosome pairs have been observed under residual tetrasomy in Atlantic salmon and in other salmonids, suggesting that this feature has been conserved since the subfamily split.
  • Freney, Evelyn; Zhang, Yunjiang; Croteau, Philip; Amodeo, Tanguy; Williams, Leah; Truong, François; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Sciare, Jean; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Arumae, Tarvo; Aurela, Minna; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Coz, Esther; Artinano, Begoña; Crenn, Vincent; Elste, Thomas; Heikkinen, Liine; Poulain, Laurent; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Herrmann, Hartmut; Priestman, Max; Alastuey, Andres; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Tobler, Anna; Vasilescu, Jeni; Zanca, Nicola; Canagaratna, Manjula; Carbone, Claudio; Flentje, Harald; Priestman, Max; Maasikmets, Marek; Marmureanu, Luminita; Minguillon, Maria Cruz; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Gros, Valerie; Jayne, John; Favez, Olivier (2019)
    AbstractThis work describes results obtained from the 2016 Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) intercomparison exercise performed at the Aerosol Chemical Monitor Calibration Center (ACMCC, France). Fifteen quadrupole ACSMs (Q_ACSM) from the European Research Infrastructure for the observation of Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases (ACTRIS) network were calibrated using a new procedure that acquires calibration data under the same operating conditions as those used during sampling and hence gets information representative of instrument performance. The new calibration procedure notably resulted in a decrease in the spread of the measured sulfate mass concentrations, improving the reproducibility of inorganic species measurements between ACSMs as well as the consistency with co-located independent instruments. Tested calibration procedures also allowed for the investigation of artifacts in individual instruments, such as the overestimation of m/z 44 from organic aerosol. This effect was quantified by the m/z (mass-to-charge) 44 to nitrate ratio measured during ammonium nitrate calibrations, with values ranging from 0.03 to 0.26, showing that it can be significant for some instruments. The fragmentation table correction previously proposed to account for this artifact was applied to the measurements acquired during this study. For some instruments (those with high artifacts), this fragmentation table adjustment led to an ?overcorrection? of the f44 (m/z 44/Org) signal. This correction based on measurements made with pure NH4NO3, assumes that the magnitude of the artifact is independent of chemical composition. Using data acquired at different NH4NO3 mixing ratios (from solutions of NH4NO3 and (NH4)2SO4) we observe that the magnitude of the artifact varies as a function of composition. Here we applied an updated correction, dependent on the ambient NO3 mass fraction, which resulted in an improved agreement in organic signal among instruments. This work illustrates the benefits of integrating new calibration procedures and artifact corrections, but also highlights the benefits of these intercomparison exercises to continue to improve our knowledge of how these instruments operate, and assist us in interpreting atmospheric chemistry.
  • D'Amato, Dalia; Veijonaho, Simo; Toppinen, Anne (2020)
    In line with the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda, the circular bioeconomy concept is gaining greater political momentum and research interest. A circular bioeconomy implies a more efficient resource management of bio-based renewable resources by integrating circular economy principles into the bioeconomy. These ideas have been well received at industry level since they are deemed to foster cost reductions, innovation and competitiveness. While recent scientific literature has dwelt on sustainability-related circular business models, empirical research on company-level implementation is only just emerging. Our study contributes to addressing this research lacuna by seeking answers to two questions: 1. How do small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) propose, create and deliver, and capture value through circular bioeconomy business models?; and 2. What are the business challenges and opportunities related to the operationalization of such business models? To this end, we employed content analysis on interview data gathered from managers in Finnish SME companies from the field of packaging, textiles, composite materials, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. We outlined the main business model archetypes, and identified the key characteristics that enable value capture and delivery for various stakeholders. The contribution of this study is duly two-fold. From the perspective of a theoretical contribution, we expand and refine the conceptualization of sustainable circular bioeconomy and related business models. In addition, based on our findings, we provide insights and recommendations for researchers and policy-makers to advance the sustainability transition to a circular bioeconomy in the context of the forest-based industry, and for the management of SMEs to reflect on company viability and growth.
  • Neuvonen, Anu M.; Putkonen, Mikko Tapani; Oversti, Sanni; Sundell, Tarja; Onkamo, Päivi; Sajantila, Antti; Palo, Jukka U. (2015)
    It has previously been demonstrated that the advance of the Neolithic Revolution from the Near East through Europe was decelerated in the northernmost confines of the continent, possibly as a result of space and resource competition with lingering Mesolithic populations. Finland was among the last domains to adopt a farming lifestyle, and is characterized by substructuring in the form of a distinct genetic border dividing the northeastern and southwestern regions of the country. To explore the origins of this divergence, the geographical patterns of mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups of Neolithic and Mesolithic ancestry were assessed in Finnish populations. The distribution of these uniparental markers revealed a northeastern bias for hunter-gatherer haplogroups, while haplogroups associated with the farming lifestyle clustered in the southwest. In addition, a correlation could be observed between more ancient mitochondrial haplogroup age and eastern concentration. These results coupled with prior archeological evidence suggest the genetic northeast/southwest division observed in contemporary Finland represents an ancient vestigial border between Mesolithic and Neolithic populations undetectable in most other regions of Europe.