Browsing by Subject "OSBPL2"

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  • Kentala, Henriikka; Koponen, Annika; Kivelä, Annukka M.; Andrews, Robert; Li, ChunHei; Zhou, You; Olkkonen, Vesa M. (2018)
    ORP2 is implicated in cholesterol transport, triglyceride metabolism, and adrenocortical steroid hormone production. We addressed ORP2 function in hepatocytes by generating ORP2-knockout (KO) HuH7 cells by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, followed by analyses of transcriptome, F-actin morphology, migration, adhesion, and proliferation. RNA sequencing of ORP2-KO cells revealed >2-fold changes in 579 mRNAs. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) uncovered alterations in the following functional categories: cellular movement, cell-cell signaling and interaction, cellular development, cellular function and maintenance, cellular growth and proliferation, and cell morphology. Many pathways in these categories involved actin cytoskeleton, cell migration, adhesion, or proliferation. Analysis of the ORP2 interactome uncovered 109 putative new partners. Their IPA analysis revealed Ras homolog A (RhoA) signaling as the most significant pathway. Interactions of ORP2 with SEPT9, MLC12, and ARHGAP12 were validated by independent assays. ORP2-KO resulted in abnormal F-actin morphology characterized by impaired capacity to form lamellipodia, migration defect, and impaired adhesion and proliferation. Rescue of the migration phenotype and generation of typical cell surface morphology required an intact ORP2 phosphoinositide binding site, suggesting that ORP2 function involves phosphoinositide binding and transport. The results point at a novel function of ORP2 as a lipid-sensing regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, with impacts on hepatocellular migration, adhesion, and proliferation.-Kentala, H., Koponen, A., Kivela, A. M., Andrews, R., Li, C., Zhou, Y., Olkkonen, V. M. Analysis of ORP2-knockout hepatocytes uncovers a novel function in actin cytoskeletal regulation.
  • Takahashi, Kohta; Kanerva, Kristiina; Vanharanta, Lauri; Almeida-Souza, Leonardo; Lietha, Daniel; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Ikonen, Elina (2021)
    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol delivery from late endosomes to the plasma membrane regulates focal adhesion dynamics and cell migration, but the mechanisms controlling it are poorly characterized. Here, we employed auxin-inducible rapid degradation of oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 2 (ORP2/OSBPL2) to show that endogenous ORP2 mediates the transfer of LDL-derived cholesterol from late endosomes to focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-/integrin-positive recycling endosomes in human cells. In vitro, cholesterol enhances membrane association of FAK to PI(4,5)P-2-containing lipid bilayers. In cells, ORP2 stimulates FAK activation and PI(4,5)P-2 generation in endomembranes, enhancing cell adhesion. Moreover, ORP2 increases PI(4,5)P-2 in NPC1-containing late endosomes in a FAK-dependent manner, controlling their tubulovesicular trafficking. Together, these results provide evidence that ORP2 controls FAK activation and LDL-cholesterol plasma membrane delivery by promoting bidirectional cholesterol/PI(4,5)P-2 exchange between late and recycling endosomes.
  • Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Koponen, Annika; Arora, Amita (2019)
    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related proteins (ORPs) constitute a family of intracellular lipid-binding/transport proteins (LTPs) in eukaryotes. They typically have a modular structure comprising a lipid-binding domain and membrane targeting determinants, being thus suited for function at membrane contact sites. Among the mammalian ORPs, ORP2/OSBPL2 is the only member that only exists as a 'short' variant lacking a membrane-targeting pleckstrin homology domain. ORP2 is expressed ubiquitously and has been assigned a multitude of functions. Its OSBP-related domain binds cholesterol, oxysterols, and phosphoinositides, and its overexpression enhances cellular cholesterol efflux. Consistently, the latest observations suggest a function of ORP2 in cholesterol transport to the plasma membrane (PM) in exchange for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P(2)), with significant impacts on the concentrations of PM cholesterol and PI4,5P(2). On the other hand, ORP2 localizes at the surface of cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) and at endoplasmic-reticulum-LD contact sites, and its depletion modifies cellular triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Study in an adrenocortical cell line further suggested a function of ORP2 in the synthesis of steroid hormones. Our recent knock-out of ORP2 in human hepatoma cells revealed its function in hepatocellular PI3K/Akt signaling, glucose and triglyceride metabolism, as well as in actin cytoskeletal regulation, cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. ORP2 was shown to interact physically with F-actin regulators such as DIAPH1, ARHGAP12, SEPT9 and MLC12, as well as with IQGAP1 and the Cdc37-Hsp90 chaperone complex controlling the activity of Akt. Interestingly, mutations in OSBPL2 encoding ORP2 are associated with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss, and the protein was found to localize in cochlear hair cell stereocilia. The functions assigned to ORP2 suggest that this protein, in concert with other LTPs, controls the subcellular distribution of cholesterol in various cell types and steroid hormone synthesis in adrenocortical cells. However, it also impacts cellular TG and carbohydrate metabolism and F-actin-dependent functions, revealing a bewildering spectrum of activities.
  • Kentala, Henriikka; Koponen, Annika; Vihinen, Helena; Pirhonen, Juho; Liebisch, Gerhard; Pataj, Zoltan; Kivelä, Annukka; Li, Shiqian; Karhinen, Leena; Jääskeläinen, Eeva; Andrews, Robert; Meriläinen, Leena; Matysik, Silke; Ikonen, Elina; Zhou, You; Jokitalo, Eija; Olkkonen, Vesa M. (2018)
    ORP2 is a ubiquitously expressed OSBP-related protein previously implicated in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)lipid droplet (LD) contacts, triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism, cholesterol transport, adrenocortical steroidogenesis, and actin-dependent cell dynamics. Here, we characterize the role of ORP2 in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by employing ORP2-knockout (KO) hepatoma cells (HuH7) generated by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. The ORP2-KO and control HuH7 cells were subjected to RNA sequencing, analyses of Akt signaling, carbohydrate and TG metabolism, the extracellular acidification rate, and the lipidome, as well as to transmission electron microscopy. The loss of ORP2 resulted in a marked reduction of active phosphorylated Akt(Ser473) and its target Glycogen synthase kinase 3(Ser9), consistent with defective Akt signaling. ORP2 was found to form a physical complex with the key controllers of Akt activity, Cdc37, and Hsp90, and to co-localize with Cdc37 and active Akt(Ser473) at lamellipodial plasma membrane regions, in addition to the previously reported ER-LD localization. ORP2-KO reduced glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, glycolysis, mRNA-encoding glycolytic enzymes, and SREBP-1 target gene expression, and led to defective TG synthesis and storage. ORP2-KO did not reduce but rather increased ER-LD contacts under basal culture conditions and interfered with their expansion upon fatty acid loading. Together with our recently published work (Kentala et al. in FASEB J 32:1281-1295, 2018), this study identifies ORP2 as a new regulatory nexus of Akt signaling, cellular energy metabolism, actin cytoskeletal function, cell migration, and proliferation.