Browsing by Subject "OSCILLATIONS"

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  • Simola, U.; Bonfanti, A.; Dumusque, X.; Cisewski-Kehe, J.; Kaski, S.; Corander, J. (2022)
    Context. Active regions on the photosphere of a star have been the major obstacle for detecting Earth-like exoplanets using the radial velocity (RV) method. A commonly employed solution for addressing stellar activity is to assume a linear relationship between the RV observations and the activity indicators along the entire time series, and then remove the estimated contribution of activity from the variation in RV data (overall correction method). However, since active regions evolve on the photosphere over time, correlations between the RV observations and the activity indicators will correspondingly be anisotropic. Aims. We present an approach that recognizes the RV locations where the correlations between the RV and the activity indicators significantly change in order to better account for variations in RV caused by stellar activity. Methods. The proposed approach uses a general family of statistical breakpoint methods, often referred to as change point detection (CPD) algorithms; several implementations of which are available in R and python. A thorough comparison is made between the breakpoint-based approach and the overall correction method. To ensure wide representativity, we use measurements from real stars that have different levels of stellar activity and whose spectra have different signal-to-noise ratios. Results. When the corrections for stellar activity are applied separately to each temporal segment identified by the breakpoint method, the corresponding residuals in the RV time series are typically much smaller than those obtained by the overall correction method. Consequently, the generalized Lomb-Scargle periodogram contains a smaller number of peaks caused by active regions. The CPD algorithm is particularly effective when focusing on active stars with long time series, such as alpha Cen B. In that case, we demonstrate that the breakpoint method improves the detection limit of exoplanets by 74% on average with respect to the overall correction method. Conclusions. CPD algorithms provide a useful statistical framework for estimating the presence of change points in a time series. Since the process underlying the RV measurements generates anisotropic data by its intrinsic properties, it is natural to use CPD to obtain cleaner signals from RV data. We anticipate that the improved exoplanet detection limit may lead to a widespread adoption of such an approach. Our test on the HD 192310 planetary system is encouraging, as we confirm the presence of the two hosted exoplanets and we determine orbital parameters consistent with the literature, also providing much more precise estimates for HD 192310 c.
  • Koskinen, Miika; Kurimo, Mikko; Gross, Joachim; Hyvärinen, Aapo; Hari, Riitta (2020)
    Natural speech builds on contextual relations that can prompt predictions of upcoming utterances. To study the neural underpinnings of such predictive processing we asked 10 healthy adults to listen to a 1-h-long audiobook while their magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain activity was recorded. We correlated the MEG signals with acoustic speech envelope, as well as with estimates of Bayesian word probability with and without the contextual word sequence (N-gram and Unigram, respectively), with a focus on time-lags. The MEG signals of auditory and sensorimotor cortices were strongly coupled to the speech envelope at the rates of syllables (4-8 Hz) and of prosody and intonation (0.5-2 Hz). The probability structure of word sequences, independently of the acoustical features, affected the
  • Illman, Mia; Laaksonen, Kristina; Liljeström, Mia; Jousmäki, Veikko; Piitulainen, Harri; Forss, Nina (2020)
    Modulation of the ∼20-Hz brain rhythm has been used to evaluate the functional state of the sensorimotor cortex both in healthy subjects and patients, such as stroke patients. The ∼20-Hz brain rhythm can be detected by both magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), but the comparability of these methods has not been evaluated. Here, we compare these two methods in the evaluating of ∼20-Hz activity modulation to somatosensory stimuli. Rhythmic ∼20-Hz activity during separate tactile and proprioceptive stimulation of the right and left index finger was recorded simultaneously with MEG and EEG in twenty-four healthy participants. Both tactile and proprioceptive stimulus produced a clear suppression at 300–350 ms followed by a subsequent rebound at 700–900 ms after stimulus onset, detected at similar latencies both with MEG and EEG. The relative amplitudes of suppression and rebound correlated strongly between MEG and EEG recordings. However, the relative strength of suppression and rebound in the contralateral hemisphere (with respect to the stimulated hand) was significantly stronger in MEG than in EEG recordings. Our results indicate that MEG recordings produced signals with higher signal-to-noise ratio than EEG, favoring MEG as an optimal tool for studies evaluating sensorimotor cortical functions. However, the strong correlation between MEG and EEG results encourages the use of EEG when translating studies to clinical practice. The clear advantage of EEG is the availability of the method in hospitals and bed-side measurements at the acute phase.
  • Jaiswal, Amit; Nenonen, Jukka; Stenroos, Matti; Gramfort, Alexandre; Dalal, Sarang S.; Westner, Britta U.; Litvak, Vladimir; Mosher, John C.; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Witton, Caroline; Oostenveld, Robert; Parkkonen, Lauri (2020)
    Beamformers are applied for estimating spatiotemporal characteristics of neuronal sources underlying measured MEG/EEG signals. Several MEG analysis toolboxes include an implementation of a linearly constrained minimum-variance (LCMV) beamformer. However, differences in implementations and in their results complicate the selection and application of beamformers and may hinder their wider adoption in research and clinical use. Additionally, combinations of different MEG sensor types (such as magnetometers and planar gradiometers) and application of preprocessing methods for interference suppression, such as signal space separation (SSS), can affect the results in different ways for different implementations. So far, a systematic evaluation of the different implementations has not been performed. Here, we compared the localization performance of the LCMV beamformer pipelines in four widely used open-source toolboxes (MNE-Python, FieldTrip, DAiSS (SPM12), and Brainstorm) using datasets both with and without SSS interference suppression. We analyzed MEG data that were i) simulated, ii) recorded from a static and moving phantom, and iii) recorded from a healthy volunteer receiving auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimulation. We also investigated the effects of SSS and the combination of the magnetometer and gradiometer signals. We quantified how localization error and point-spread volume vary with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in all four toolboxes. When applied carefully to MEG data with a typical SNR (3-15 dB), all four toolboxes localized the sources reliably; however, they differed in their sensitivity to preprocessing parameters. As expected, localizations were highly unreliable at very low SNR, but we found high localization error also at very high SNRs for the first three toolboxes while Brainstorm showed greater robustness but with lower spatial resolution. We also found that the SNR improvement offered by SSS led to more accurate localization.
  • Pauls, K. Amande M.; Korsun, Olesia; Nenonen, Jukka; Nurminen, Jussi; Liljeström, Mia; Kujala, Jan; Pekkonen, Eero; Renvall, Hanna (2022)
    Exaggerated subthalamic beta oscillatory activity and increased beta range cortico-subthalamic synchrony have crystallized as the electrophysiological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. Beta oscillatory activity is not tonic but occurs in 'bursts' of transient amplitude increases. In Parkinson's disease, the characteristics of these bursts are altered especially in the basal ganglia. However, beta oscillatory dynamics at the cortical level and how they compare with healthy brain activity is less well studied. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study sensorimotor cortical beta bursting and its modulation by subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease patients and age-matched healthy controls. We show that the changes in beta bursting amplitude and duration typical of Parkinson's disease can also be observed in the sensorimotor cortex, and that they are modulated by chronic subthalamic deep brain stimulation, which, in turn, is reflected in improved motor function at the behavioural level. In addition to the changes in individual beta bursts, their timing relative to each other was altered in patients compared to controls: bursts were more clustered in untreated Parkinson's disease, occurring in 'bursts of bursts', and re-burst probability was higher for longer compared to shorter bursts. During active deep brain stimulation, the beta bursting in patients resembled healthy controls' data. In summary, both individual bursts' characteristics and burst patterning are affected in Parkinson's disease, and subthalamic deep brain stimulation normalizes some of these changes to resemble healthy controls' beta bursting activity, suggesting a non-invasive biomarker for patient and treatment follow-up.
  • Tokariev, Anton; Oberlander, Victoria C.; Videman, Mari; Vanhatalo, Sampsa (2022)
    Up to five percent of human infants are exposed to maternal antidepressant medication by serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI) during pregnancy, yet the SRI effects on infants' early neurodevelopment are not fully understood. Here, we studied how maternal SRI medication affects cortical frequency-specific and cross-frequency interactions estimated, respectively, by phase-phase correlations (PPC) and phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) in electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. We examined the cortical activity in infants after fetal exposure to SRIs relative to a control group of infants without medical history of any kind. Our findings show that the sleep-related dynamics of PPC networks are selectively affected by in utero SRI exposure, however, those alterations do not correlate to later neurocognitive development as tested by neuropsychological evaluation at two years of age. In turn, phase-amplitude coupling was found to be suppressed in SRI infants across multiple distributed cortical regions and these effects were linked to their neurocognitive outcomes. Our results are compatible with the overall notion that in utero drug exposures may cause subtle, yet measurable changes in the brain structure and function. Our present findings are based on the measures of local and inter-areal neuronal interactions in the cortex which can be readily used across species, as well as between different scales of inspection: from the whole animals to in vitro preparations. Therefore, this work opens a framework to explore the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental SRI effects at all translational levels.
  • Auno, Sami; Lauronen, Leena; Wilenius, Juha; Peltola, Maria; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Palva, Matias (2021)
    Objective: To examine the usability of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in non-invasive localization of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) in refractory parietal lobe epilepsy (RPLE) patients. Methods: We analyzed 10 RPLE patients who had presurgical MEG and underwent epilepsy surgery. We quantified LRTCs with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) at four frequency bands for 200 cortical regions estimated using individual source models. We correlated individually the DFA maps to the distance from the resection area and from cortical locations of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). Additionally, three clinical experts inspected the DFA maps to visually assess the most likely EZ locations. Results: The DFA maps correlated with the distance to resection area in patients with type II focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) (p < 0:05), but not in other etiologies. Similarly, the DFA maps correlated with the IED locations only in the FCD II patients. Visual analysis of the DFA maps showed high interobserver agreement and accuracy in FCD patients in assigning the affected hemisphere and lobe. Conclusions: Aberrant LRTCs correlate with the resection areas and IED locations. Significance: This methodological pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of approximating cortical LRTCs from MEG that may aid in the EZ localization and provide new non-invasive insight into the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. (c) 2021 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Leppaaho, Eemeli; Renvall, Hanna; Salmela, Elina; Kere, Juha; Salmelin, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel (2019)
    Brain structure and many brain functions are known to be genetically controlled, but direct links between neuroimaging measures and their underlying cellular-level determinants remain largely undiscovered. Here, we adopt a novel computational method for examining potential similarities in high-dimensional brain imaging data between siblings. We examine oscillatory brain activity measured with magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 201 healthy siblings and apply Bayesian reduced-rank regression to extract a low-dimensional representation of familial features in the participants' spectral power structure. Our results show that the structure of the overall spectral power at 1-90Hz is a highly conspicuous feature that not only relates siblings to each other but also has very high consistency within participants' own data, irrespective of the exact experimental state of the participant. The analysis is extended by seeking genetic associations for low-dimensional descriptions of the oscillatory brain activity. The observed variability in the MEG spectral power structure was associated with SDK1 (sidekick cell adhesion molecule 1) and suggestively with several other genes that function, for example, in brain development. The current results highlight the potential of sophisticated computational methods in combining molecular and neuroimaging levels for exploring brain functions, even for high-dimensional data limited to a few hundred participants.
  • Noei, Shahryar; Zouridis, Ioannis S.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Panzeri, Stefano; Totah, Nelson K. (2022)
    The noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) is a controller of brain and behavioral states. Activating LC neurons en masse by electrical or optogenetic stimulation promotes a stereotypical "activated" cortical state of high-frequency oscillations. However, it has been recently reported that spontaneous activity of LC cell pairs has sparse yet structured time-averaged cross-correlations, which is unlike the highly synchronous neuronal activity evoked by stimulation. Therefore, LC population activity could consist of distinct multicell ensembles each with unique temporal evolution of activity. We used nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to analyze large populations of simultaneously recorded LC single units in the rat LC. NMF identified ensembles of spontaneously coactive LC neurons and their activation time courses. Since LC neurons selectively project to specific forebrain regions, we hypothesized that distinct ensembles activate during different cortical states. To test this hypothesis, we calculated band-limited power and spectrograms of local field potentials in cortical area 24a aligned to spontaneous activations of distinct LC ensembles. A diversity of state modulations occurred around activation of different LC ensembles, including a typical activated state with increased highfrequency power as well as other states including decreased high-frequency power. Thus-in contrast to the stereotypical activated brain state evoked by en masse LC stimulation-spontaneous activation of distinct LC ensembles is associated with a multitude of cortical states.
  • Leminen, Miika M.; Virkkala, Jussi; Saure, Emma; Paajanen, Teemu; Zee, Phyllis C.; Santostasi, Giovanni; Hublin, Christer; Müller, Kiti; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Huotilainen, Minna; Paunio, Tiina (2017)
    Introduction: Slow-wave sleep (SWS) slow waves and sleep spindle activity have been shown to be crucial for memory consolidation. Recently, memory consolidation has been causally facilitated in human participants via auditory stimuli phase-locked to SWS slow waves. Aims: Here, we aimed to develop a new acoustic stimulus protocol to facilitate learning and to validate it using different memory tasks. Most importantly, the stimulation setup was automated to be applicable for ambulatory home use. Methods: Fifteen healthy participants slept 3 nights in the laboratory. Learning was tested with 4 memory tasks (word pairs, serial finger tapping, picture recognition, and face-name association). Additional questionnaires addressed subjective sleep quality and overnight changes in mood. During the stimulus night, auditory stimuli were adjusted and targeted by an unsupervised algorithm to be phase-locked to the negative peak of slow waves in SWS. During the control night no sounds were presented. Results: Results showed that the sound stimulation increased both slow wave (p =.002) and sleep spindle activity (p Conclusions: We showed that the memory effect of the SWS-targeted individually triggered single-sound stimulation is specific to verbal associative memory. Moreover, the ambulatory and automated sound stimulus setup was promising and allows for a broad range of potential follow-up studies in the future.
  • Anurova, Irina; Vetchinnikova, Svetlana; Dobrego, Aleksandra; Williams, Nitin; Mikusova, Nina; Suni, Antti; Mauranen, Anna; Palva, Satu (2022)
    Chunking language has been proposed to be vital for comprehension enabling the extraction of meaning from a continuous stream of speech. However, neurocognitive mechanisms of chunking are poorly understood. The present study investigated neural correlates of chunk boundaries intuitively identified by listeners in natural speech drawn from linguistic corpora using magneto-and electroencephalography (MEEG). In a behavioral experiment, subjects marked chunk boundaries in the excerpts intuitively, which revealed highly consistent chunk boundary markings across the subjects. We next recorded brain activity to investigate whether chunk boundaries with high and medium agreement rates elicit distinct evoked responses compared to non-boundaries. Pauses placed at chunk boundaries elicited a closure positive shift with the sources over bilateral auditory cortices. In contrast, pauses placed within a chunk were perceived as interruptions and elicited a biphasic emitted potential with sources located in the bilateral primary and non-primary auditory areas with right-hemispheric dominance, and in the right inferior frontal cortex. Furthermore, pauses placed at stronger boundaries elicited earlier and more prominent activation over the left hemisphere suggesting that brain responses to chunk boundaries of natural speech can be modulated by the relative strength of different linguistic cues, such as syntactic structure and prosody.
  • Zhu, Yongjie; Zhang, Chi; Poikonen, Hanna; Toiviainen, Petri; Huotilainen, Minna; Mathiak, Klaus; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Cong, Fengyu (2020)
    Recently, exploring brain activity based on functional networks during naturalistic stimuli especially music and video represents an attractive challenge because of the low signal-to-noise ratio in collected brain data. Although most efforts focusing on exploring the listening brain have been made through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), sensor-level electro- or magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG) technique, little is known about how neural rhythms are involved in the brain network activity under naturalistic stimuli. This study exploited cortical oscillations through analysis of ongoing EEG and musical feature during freely listening to music. We used a data-driven method that combined music information retrieval with spatial Fourier Independent Components Analysis (spatial Fourier-ICA) to probe the interplay between the spatial profiles and the spectral patterns of the brain network emerging from music listening. Correlation analysis was performed between time courses of brain networks extracted from EEG data and musical feature time series extracted from music stimuli to derive the musical feature related oscillatory patterns in the listening brain. We found brain networks of musical feature processing were frequency-dependent. Musical feature time series, especially fluctuation centroid and key feature, were associated with an increased beta activation in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus. An increased alpha oscillation in the bilateral occipital cortex emerged during music listening, which was consistent with alpha functional suppression hypothesis in task-irrelevant regions. We also observed an increased delta-beta oscillatory activity in the prefrontal cortex associated with musical feature processing. In addition to these findings, the proposed method seems valuable for characterizing the large-scale frequency-dependent brain activity engaged in musical feature processing.
  • Harjunen, Ville Johannes; Sjö, Petja; Ahmed, Imtiaj; Saarinen, Aino; Farmer, Harry; Salminen, Mikko; Järvelä, Simo; Ruonala, Antti; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas (2022)
    The tendency to simulate the pain of others within our own sensorimotor systems is a vital component of empathy. However, this sensorimotor resonance is modulated by a multitude of social factors including similarity in bodily appearance, e.g. skin colour. The current study investigated whether increasing self–other similarity via virtual transfer to another colour body reduced ingroup bias in sensorimotor resonance. A sample of 58 white participants was momentarily transferred to either a black or a white body using virtual reality technology. We then employed electroencephalography to examine event-related desynchronization (ERD) in the sensorimotor beta (13–23 Hz) oscillations while they viewed black, white and violet photorealistic virtual agents being touched with a noxious or soft object. While the noxious treatment of a violet agent did not increase beta ERD, amplified beta ERD in response to black agent’s noxious vs soft treatment was found in perceivers transferred to a black body. Transfer to the white body dismissed the effect. Further exploratory analysis implied that the pain-related beta ERD occurred only when the agent and the participant were of the same colour. The results suggest that even short-lasting changes in bodily resemblance can modulate sensorimotor resonance to others’ perceived pain.
  • Moretti, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Waltari, H. (2020)
    We study the possibility of observing lepton number violation in the right-handed sneutrino sector of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric Standard Model extended with right-handed neutrinos. The scalar potential introduces a lepton number violating mass term for the right-handed sneutrinos, which generates a phase difference that results in oscillations between the sneutrino and antisneutrino. If we have light Higgsinos and right-handed sneutrinos, the sneutrino decay width is determined by the tiny Yukawa couplings, which allows the phase difference to accumulate before the sneutrino decays. We investigate the possibilities of producing sneutrino pairs resonantly through a heavy Higgs of such a model and the ability of seeing a lepton number violating signature emerging from sneutrinos at the Large Hadron Collider. We also discuss how a possible future signal of this type could be used to determine the neutrino Yukawa couplings.
  • Cruz, Gabriela; Grent-'t-Jong, Tineke; Krishnadas, Rajeev; Palva, J. Matias; Palva, Satu; Uhlhaas, Peter J. (2021)
    Long-Range Temporal Correlations (LRTCs) index the capacity of the brain to optimally process information. Previous research has shown that patients with chronic schizophrenia present altered LRTCs at alpha and beta oscillations. However, it is currently unclear at which stage of schizophrenia aberrant LRTCs emerge. To address this question, we investigated LRTCs in resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings obtained from patients with affective disorders and substance abuse (clinically at low-risk of psychosis, CHR-N), patients at clinical high-risk of psychosis (CHR-P) (n = 115), as well as patients with a first episode (FEP) (n = 25). Matched healthy controls (n = 47) served as comparison group. LRTCs were obtained for frequencies from 4 to 40 Hz and correlated with clinical and neuropsychological data. In addition, we examined the relationship between LRTCs and transition to psychosis in CHR-P participants, and the relationship between LRTC and antipsychotic medication in FEP participants. Our results show that participants from the clinical groups have similar LRTCs to controls. In addition, LRTCs did not correlate with clinical and neurocognitive variables across participants nor did LRTCs predict transition to psychosis. Therefore, impaired LRTCs do not reflect a feature in the clinical trajectory of psychosis. Nevertheless, reduced LRTCs in the beta-band over posterior sensors of medicated FEP participants indicate that altered LRTCs may appear at the onset of the illness. Future studies are needed to elucidate the role of anti-psychotic medication in altered LRTCs.
  • Fujikawa, Kazuo; Tureanu, Anca (2017)
    We suggest that the Majorana neutrino should be regarded as a Bogoliubov quasiparticle that is consistently understood only by use of a relativistic analogue of the Bogoliubov transformation. The unitary charge conjugation condition C psi C dagger = psi is not maintained in the definition of a quantum Majorana fermion from a Weyl fermion. This is remedied by the Bogoliubov transformation accompanying a redefinition of the charge conjugation properties of vacuum, such that a C-noninvariant fermion number violating term (condensate) is converted to a Dirac mass. We also comment on the chiral symmetry of a Majorana fermion; a massless Majorana fermion is invariant under a global chiral transformation psi -> exp[i alpha gamma(5)]psi and different Majorana fermions are distinguished by different chiral U(1) charge assignments. The reversed process, namely, the definition of a Weyl fermion from a well-defined massless Majorana fermion is also briefly discussed. (c) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Fujikawa, Kazuo; Tureanu, Anca (2018)
    The idea that the Majorana neutrino should be identified as a Bogoliubov quasiparticle is applied to the seesaw mechanism for the three generations of neutrinos in the Standard Model. A relativistic analog of the Bogoliubov transformation in the present context is a CP-preserving canonical transformation but modifies charge conjugation properties in such a way that the C-noninvariant fermion number-violating term (condensate) is converted to a Dirac mass term. Puzzling aspects associated with the charge conjugation of chiral Weyl fermions are clarified.
  • Bruining, Hilgo; Hardstone, Richard; Juarez-Martinez, Erika L.; Sprengers, Jan; Avramiea, Arthur-Ervin; Simpraga, Sonja; Houtman, Simon J.; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Dallares, Eva; Palva, Satu; Oranje, Bob; Matias Palva, J.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus (2020)
    Balance between excitation (E) and inhibition (I) is a key principle for neuronal network organization and information processing. Consistent with this notion, excitation-inhibition imbalances are considered a pathophysiological mechanism in many brain disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, methods to measure E/I ratios in human brain networks are lacking. Here, we present a method to quantify a functional E/I ratio (fE/I) from neuronal oscillations, and validate it in healthy subjects and children with ASD. We define structural E/I ratio in an in silico neuronal network, investigate how it relates to power and long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) of the network's activity, and use these relationships to design the fE/I algorithm. Application of this algorithm to the EEGs of healthy adults showed that fE/I is balanced at the population level and is decreased through GABAergic enforcement. In children with ASD, we observed larger fE/I variability and stronger LRTC compared to typically developing children (TDC). Interestingly, visual grading for EEG abnormalities that are thought to reflect E/I imbalances revealed elevated fE/I and LRTC in ASD children with normal EEG compared to TDC or ASD with abnormal EEG. We speculate that our approach will help understand physiological heterogeneity also in other brain disorders.
  • Korsun, Olesia; Renvall, Hanna; Nurminen, Jussi; Mäkelä, Jyrki P.; Pekkonen, Eero (2022)
    Despite optimal oral drug treatment, about 90% of patients with Parkinson's disease develop motor fluctuation and dyskinesia within 5-10 years from the diagnosis. Moreover, the patients show non-motor symptoms in different sensory domains. Bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) applied to the subthalamic nucleus is considered the most effective treatment in advanced Parkinson's disease, and it has been suggested to affect sensorimotor modulation and relate to motor improvement in patients. However, observations on the relationship between sensorimotor activity and clinical improvement have remained sparse. Here, we studied the somatosensory evoked magnetic fields in 13 right-handed patients with advanced Parkinson's disease before and 7 months after stimulator implantation. Somatosensory processing was addressed with magnetoencephalography during alternated median nerve stimulation at both wrists. The strengths and the latencies of the similar to 60-ms responses at the contralateral primary somatosensory cortices were highly variable but detectable and reliably localized in all patients. The response strengths did not differ between preoperative and postoperative DBSON measurements. The change in the response strength between preoperative and postoperative condition in the dominant left hemisphere of our right-handed patients correlated with the alleviation of their motor symptoms (p = .04). However, the result did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Magnetoencephalography appears an effective tool to explore non-motor effects in patients with Parkinson's disease, and it may help in understanding the neurophysiological basis of DBS. However, the high interindividual variability in the somatosensory responses and poor tolerability of DBSOFF condition warrants larger patient groups and measurements also in non-medicated patients.
  • Järvinen, Heikki; Seitola, Teija; Silen, Johan; Räisänen, Jouni (2016)
    A performance expectation is that Earth system models simulate well the climate mean state and the climate variability. To test this expectation, we decompose two 20th century reanalysis data sets and 12 CMIP5 model simulations for the years 1901-2005 of the monthly mean near-surface air temperature using randomised multi-channel singular spectrum analysis (RMSSA). Due to the relatively short time span, we concentrate on the representation of multi-annual variability which the RMSSA method effectively captures as separate and mutually orthogonal spatio-temporal components. This decomposition is a unique way to separate statistically significant quasi-periodic oscillations from one another in high-dimensional data sets. The main results are as follows. First, the total spectra for the two reanalysis data sets are remarkably similar in all timescales, except that the spectral power in ERA-20C is systematically slightly higher than in 20CR. Apart from the slow components related to multi-decadal periodicities, ENSO oscillations with approximately 3.5- and 5-year periods are the most prominent forms of variability in both reanalyses. In 20CR, these are relatively slightly more pronounced than in ERA-20C. Since about the 1970s, the amplitudes of the 3.5- and 5-year oscillations have increased, presumably due to some combination of forced climate change, intrinsic low-frequency climate variability, or change in global observing network. Second, none of the 12 coupled climate models closely reproduce all aspects of the reanalysis spectra, although some models represent many aspects well. For instance, the GFDL-ESM2M model has two nicely separated ENSO periods although they are relatively too prominent as compared with the reanalyses. There is an extensive Supplement and YouTube videos to illustrate the multi-annual variability of the data sets.