Browsing by Subject "OUTCOMES"

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  • Böttiger, B. W.; Lockey, A.; Aickin, R.; Castren, M.; de Caen, A.; Escalante, R.; Kern, K. B.; Lim, S. H.; Nadkarni, V.; Neumar, R. W.; Nolan, J. P.; Stanton, D.; Wang, T. -L.; Perkins, G. D. (2018)
    "All citizens of the world can save a life". With these words, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) is launching the first global initiative - World Restart a Heart (WRAH) - to increase public awareness and therefore the rates of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for victims of cardiac arrest. In most of the cases, it takes too long for the emergency services to arrive on scene after the victim's collapse. Thus, the most effective way to increase survival and favourable outcome in cardiac arrest by two-to fourfold is early CPR by lay bystanders and by "first responders". Lay bystander resuscitation rates, however, differ significantly across the world, ranging from 5 to 80%. If all countries could have high lay bystander resuscitation rates, this would help to save hundreds of thousands of lives every year. In order to achieve this goal, all seven ILCOR councils have agreed to participate in WRAH 2018. Besides schoolchildren education in CPR ("KIDS SAVE LIVES"), many other initiatives have already been developed in different parts of the world. ILCOR is keen for the WRAH initiative to be as inclusive as possible, and that it should happen every year on 16 October or as close to that day as possible. Besides recommending CPR training for children and adults, it is hoped that a unified global message will enable our policy makers to take action to address the inequalities in patient survival around the world.
  • Kozyrev, Danil; Thiarawat, Peeraphong; Rezai Jahromi, Behnam; Intarakhao, Patcharin; Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Hijaz, Ferzat; Teo, Mario K.; Hernesniemi, Juha (2017)
    Meticulous haemostasis is one of the most important factors during microneurosurgical resection of brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Controlling major arterial feeders and draining veins with clips and bipolar coagulation are well-established techniques, while managing with bleeding from deep tiny vessels still proves to be challenging. This technical note describes a technique used by the senior author in AVM surgery for last 20 years in dealing with the issue highlighted. "Dirty coagulation" is a technique of bipolar coagulation of small feeders carried out together with a thin layer of brain tissue that surrounds these fragile vessels. The senior author uses this technique for achieving permanent haemostasis predominantly in large and/or deep-seated AVMs. To illustrate the efficacy of this technique, we retrospectively reviewed the outcome of Spetzler-Martin (SM) grade III-V AVMs resected by the senior author over the last 5 years (2010-2015). Thirty-five cases of AVM surgeries (14 SM grade III, 15 SM grade IV and 6 SM grade V) in this 5-year period were analysed. No postoperative intracranial haemorrhage was encountered as a result of bleeding from the deep feeders. Postoperative angiograms showed complete resection of all AVMs, except in two cases (SM grade V and grade III). "Dirty coagulation" provides an effective way to secure haemostasis from deep tiny feeders. This cost-effective method could be successfully used for achieving permanent haemostasis and thereby decreasing postoperative haemorrhage in AVM surgery.
  • Herajärvi, Johanna; Jormalainen, Mikko; Mustonen, Caius; Kesävuori, Risto; Raivio, Peter; Biancari, Fausto; Juvonen, Tatu (2022)
    Background. Acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD) is catastrophic event associated with significant mortality and lifelong morbidity. The optimal treatment strategy of TBAD is still controversial. Methods. This analysis includes patients treated for TBAD at the Helsinki University Hospital, Finland in 2007-2019. The endpoints were early and late mortality, and intervention of the aorta. Results. There were 205 consecutive TBAD patients, 59 complicated and 146 uncomplicated patients (mean age of 66 +/- 14, females 27.8%). In-hospital and 30-day mortality rates were higher in complicated patients compared with uncomplicated patients with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.035 and p = 0.015, respectively). After a mean follow-up of 4.9 +/- 3.8 years, 36 (25.0%) and 22 (37.9%) TBAD -related adverse events occurred in the uncomplicated and complicated groups, respectively (p = 0.066). Freedom from composite outcome was 83 +/- 3% and 69 +/- 6% at 1 year, 75 +/- 4% and 63 +/- 7% at 5 years, 70 +/- 5% and 59 +/- 7% at 10 years in the uncomplicated group and in the complicated group, respectively (p = 0.052). There were 25 (39.1%) TBAD-related deaths in the overall series and prior aortic aneurysm was the only risk factor for adverse aortic-related events in multivariate analysis (HR 3.46, 95% CI 1.72-6.96, p < 0.001). Conclusion. TBAD is associated with a significant risk of early and late adverse events. Such a risk tends to be lower among patients with uncomplicated dissection, still one fourth of them experience TBAD-related event. Recognition of risk factors in the uncomplicated group who may benefit from early aortic repair would be beneficial.
  • Lonnrot, Maria; Lynch, Kristian; Larsson, Helena Elding; Lernmark, Ake; Rewers, Marian; Hagopian, William; She, Jin-Xiong; Simell, Olli; Ziegler, Anette-G; Akolkar, Beena; Krischer, Jeffrey; Hyoty, Heikki; TEDDY Study Grp; Knip, Mikael (2015)
    Background: Early childhood environmental exposures, possibly infections, may be responsible for triggering islet autoimmunity and progression to type 1 diabetes (T1D). The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) follows children with increased HLA-related genetic risk for future T1D. TEDDY asks parents to prospectively record the child's infections using a diary book. The present paper shows how these large amounts of partially structured data were reduced into quantitative data-sets and further categorized into system-specific infectious disease episodes. The numbers and frequencies of acute infections and infectious episodes are shown. Methods: Study subjects (n = 3463) included children who had attended study visits every three months from age 3 months to 4 years, without missing two or more consecutive visits during the follow-up. Parents recorded illnesses prospectively in a TEDDY Book at home. The data were entered into the study database during study visits using ICD-10 codes by a research nurse. TEDDY investigators grouped ICD-10 codes and fever reports into infectious disease entities and further arranged them into four main categories of infectious episodes: respiratory, gastrointestinal, other, and unknown febrile episodes. Incidence rate of infections was modeled as function of gender, HLA-DQ genetic risk group and study center using the Poisson regression. Results: A total of 113,884 ICD-10 code reports for infectious diseases recorded in the database were reduced to 71,578 infectious episodes, including 74.0% respiratory, 13.1% gastrointestinal, 5.7% other infectious episodes and 7.2% febrile episodes. Respiratory and gastrointestinal infectious episodes were more frequent during winter. Infectious episode rates peaked at 6 months and began declining after 18 months of age. The overall infectious episode rate was 5.2 episodes per person-year and varied significantly by country of residence, sex and HLA genotype. Conclusions: The data reduction and categorization process developed by TEDDY enables analysis of single infectious agents as well as larger arrays of infectious agents or clinical disease entities. The preliminary descriptive analyses of the incidence of infections among TEDDY participants younger than 4 years fits well with general knowledge of infectious disease epidemiology. This protocol can be used as a template in forthcoming time-dependent TEDDY analyses and in other epidemiological studies.
  • Ronimus, Miia; Eklund, Kenneth; Westerholm, Jari; Ketonen, Ritva; Lyytinen, Heikki (2020)
    We used a randomized controlled trial to investigate if a mobile game, GraphoLearn (GL), could effectively support the learning of first graders (N = 70), who have severe difficulties in reading and spelling. We studied the effects of two versions of the game: GL Reading, which focused on training letter-sound correspondence and word reading; and GL Spelling, which included additional training in phonological skills and spelling. During the spring of first grade, the children trained with tablet computers which they could carry with them during the six-week intervention. The average exposure time to training was 5 hr 44 min. The results revealed no differences in the development of reading or spelling skills between GL players and the control group. However, pre-training self-efficacy moderated the effect among GL Reading players: children with high self-efficacy developed more than the control group in word reading fluency, whereas children with low self-efficacy developed less than the control group in spelling.
  • the OBSERVANT Research Group; Biancari, F; Rosato, S; Costa, G; Barbanti, M; D'Errigo, P; Tamburino, C; Cerza, F; Rosano, A; Seccareccia, F (2021)
    OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop and validate a novel risk assessment tool for the prediction of 30-day mortality after surgical aortic valve replacement incorporating a patient's frailty. METHODS: Overall, 4718 patients from the multicentre study OBSERVANT was divided into derivation (n=3539) and validation (n=1179) cohorts. A stepwise logistic regression procedure and a criterion based on Akaike information criteria index were used to select variables associated with 30-day mortality. The performance of the regression model was compared with that of European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II. RESULTS: At 30 days, 90 (2.54%) and 35 (2.97%) patients died in the development and validation data sets, respectively. Age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, concomitant coronary revascularization, frailty stratified according to the Geriatric Status Scale, urgent procedure and estimated glomerular filtration rate were independent predictors of 30-day mortality. The estimated OBS AVR score showed higher discrimination (area under curve 0.76 vs 0.70, P CONCLUSIONS: The OBS AVR risk score showed high discrimination and calibration abilities in predicting 30-day mortality after surgical aortic valve replacement. The addition of a simplified frailty assessment into the model seems to contribute to an improved predictive ability over the EuroSCORE II. The OBS AVR risk score showed a significant association with long-term mortality.
  • Jääskeläinen, Iiro H.; Hagberg, Lars; Schyman, Tommy; Järvinen, Asko (2018)
    Background: Management practices of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) were compared between two areas with similar healthcare structure and low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.Methods: The high affinity to public health-care in the Nordic countries enabled population-based approach used in this retrospective study. The study population (n=460) consisted of all adult residents from Helsinki (Finland) and Gothenburg (Sweden) treated in hospital due to cSSSI during 2008-2011.Results: The majority of patients in Helsinki (57%) visited more than one ward during their hospital stay while in Gothenburg the majority of patients (85%) were treated in one ward only. Background and disease characteristics were largely similar in both cities but patients in Helsinki were younger [mean(SD) 59(18) versus 63(19) years, p=.0117], and greater proportions had diabetes (50% versus 32%, p
  • MacKay, C.; Webster, F.; Venkataramanan, Natarajan S.; Bytautas, J.; Perruccio, A. V.; Wong, R.; Carlesso, L.; Davis, A. M. (2017)
    Objectives: Studies show limited improvement in the frequency of engaging in life activities after joint replacement. However, there is a paucity of research that has examined factors, including other life events, which influence engagement following total hip replacement (THR). This research sought to identify factors associated with engaging in life activities following THR. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted with 376 people who had a THR for osteoarthritis (OA). Data were collected pre-surgery and 1 year post-surgery. The primary outcome was change in frequency in engagement in life activities (Late Life Disability Index (LLDI): higher scores indicate higher frequency of engagement (range 0e80)). Analyses included multivariable regression. Factors considered included: positive/negative life events, a new comorbidity, another joint replacement and complications post-surgery. Results: Participants' mean age was 64 years; 46% were male. 68% of participants had at least one comorbidity pre-surgery; 36% reported at least one new comorbidity after surgery. The mean change in LLDI frequency was an increase of 6.29 (+/- 8.10). 36% reported one or more positive impact life events in the year following surgery; 63% reported one or more negative life events. The number of positive life events (beta=1.24; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.99) was significantly associated with change in LLDI frequency after adjusting for age, sex, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities pre-surgery, number of symptomatic joints and pre-surgery pain and function, LLDI limitations and depression. Conclusions: These findings highlight the significant influence of social factors and life circumstances on engagement in life activities following THR. (C) 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Wennlund, Klara Torlen; Kurland, Lisa; Olanders, Knut; Castren, Maaret; Bohm, Katarina (2022)
    Background The requirement concerning formal education for emergency medical dispatcher (EMD) is debated and varies, both nationally and internationally. There are few studies on the outcomes of emergency medical dispatching in relation to professional background. This study aimed to compare calls handled by an EMD with and without support by a registered nurse (RN), with respect to priority level, accuracy, and medical condition. Methods A retrospective observational study, performed on registry data from specific regions during 2015. The ambulance personnel's first assessment of the priority level and medical condition was used as the reference standard. Outcomes were: the proportion of calls dispatched with a priority in concordance with the ambulance personnel's assessment; over- and undertriage; the proportion of most adverse over- and undertriage; sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for each of the ambulance priorities; proportion of calls dispatched with a medical condition in concordance with the ambulance personnel's assessment. Proportions were reported with 95% confidence intervals. chi(2)-test was used for comparisons. P-levels < 0.05 were regarded as significant. Results A total of 25,025 calls were included (EMD n = 23,723, EMD + RN n = 1302). Analyses relating to priority and medical condition were performed on 23,503 and 21,881 calls, respectively. A dispatched priority in concordance with the ambulance personnel's assessment were: EMD n = 11,319 (50.7%) and EMD + RN n = 481 (41.5%) (p < 0.01). The proportion of overtriage was equal for both groups: EMD n = 5904, EMD + RN n = 306, (26.4%) p = 0.25). The proportion of undertriage for each group was: EMD n = 5122 (22.9%) and EMD + RN n = 371 (32.0%) (p < 0.01). Sensitivity for the most urgent priority was 54.6% for EMD, compared to 29.6% for EMD + RN (p < 0.01), and specificity was 67.3% and 84.8% (p < 0.01) respectively. A dispatched medical condition in concordance with the ambulance personnel's assessment were: EMD n = 13,785 (66.4%) and EMD + RN n = 697 (62.2%) (p = 0.01). Conclusions A higher precision of emergency medical dispatching was not observed when the EMD was supported by an RN. How patient safety is affected by the observed divergence in dispatched priorities is an area for future research.
  • Canaani, Jonathan; Savani, Bipin N.; Labopin, Myriam; Michallet, Mauricette; Craddock, Charles; Socie, Gerard; Volin, Liisa; Maertens, Johan A.; Crawley, Charles; Blaise, Didier; Ljungman, Per T.; Cornelissen, Jan; Russell, Nigel; Baron, Frederic; Gorin, Norbert; Esteve, Jordi; Ciceri, Fabio; Schmid, Christoph; Giebel, Sebastian; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon (2017)
    ABO incompatibility is commonly observed in stem cell transplantation and its impact in this setting has been extensively investigated. HLA-mismatched unrelated donors (MMURD) are often used as an alternative stem cell source but are associated with increased transplant related complications. Whether ABO incompatibility affects outcome in MMURD transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients is unknown. We evaluated 1,013 AML patients who underwent MMURD transplantation between 2005 and 2014. Engraftment rates were comparable between ABO matched and mismatched patients, as were relapse incidence [34%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 28-39; for ABO matched vs. 36%; 95% CI, 32-40; for ABO mismatched; P=.32], and nonrelapse mortality (28%; 95% CI, 23-33; for ABO matched vs. 25%; 95% CI, 21-29; for ABO mismatched; P=.2). Three year survival was 40% for ABO matched and 43% for ABO mismatched patients (P=.35), Leukemia free survival rates were also comparable between groups (37%; 95% CI, 32-43; for ABO matched vs. 38%; 95% CI, 33-42; for ABO mismatched; P=.87). Incidence of grade II-IV acute graft versus host disease was marginally lower in patients with major ABO mismatching (Hazard ratio of 0.7, 95% CI, 0.5-1; P=.049]. ABO incompatibility probably has no significant clinical implications in MMURD transplantation.
  • Wester, Tomas; Lilja, Helene Engstrand; Stenstrom, Pernilla; Pakarinen, Mikko (2017)
    Background. Serial transverse enteroplasty facilitates weaning from parenteral support in selected patients with short bowel syndrome, although repeated procedure is frequently required. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of a series of patients after serial transverse enteroplasty and define predictors of repeated serial transverse enteroplasty and weaning off parenteral support. Methods. All children who underwent serial transverse enteroplasty at 4 Nordic pediatric surgery centers from 2004-2015 were included in this observational study. Data were collected from the patient records. The study was approved by the local ethics review boards. Results. Twenty-seven children with short bowel with initial median small bowel length of 26 cm (range, 10-100 cm) were included. Eleven patients had the ileocecal valve remaining. Serial transverse enteroplasty was performed at median age of 7.5 months (range, 0.9-224 months). Serial transverse enteroplasty made the small bowel 46% (0-233%) longer. Eleven patients (41 %) underwent a repeated serial transverse enteroplasty 12 months (1.0-72 months) later; 7 patients required additional operative procedures, but none were transplanted. At follow-up, 45.1 months (1.8-126 months) after the first serial transverse enteroplasty, 11 (41 %) patients needed parenteral support. The remaining 16 patients had been weaned off parenteral support. One patient had died. Absence of the ileocecal valve was the only factor, which predicted the need for a repeated serial transverse enteroplasty (odds ratio 16.7, 95 % confidence interval, 1.7-164.8, P =.007). No factor was identified predicting need for parenteral support at follow-up. Conclusion. A majority of children with short bowel syndrome can be weaned from parenteral support after serial transverse enteroplasty. The absence of the ileocecal valve predicts the need for a repeated serial transverse enteroplasty, which was required by 40% of the patients.
  • Heino, Anssi; Björkman, Johannes; Tommila, Miretta; Iirola, Timo; Jäntti, Helena; Nurmi, Jouni (2022)
    Objectives Prehospital critical care physicians regularly attend to patients with poor prognosis and may limit the advanced therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of poor prognosis given by prehospital critical care clinicians. Design Cohort study. Setting We performed a retrospective cohort study using the national helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) quality database. Participants Patients classified by the HEMS clinician to have survived until hospital admission solely because of prehospital interventions but evaluated as having no long-term survival by prehospital clinician, were included. Primary and secondary outcome The survival of the study patients was examined at 30 days, 1 year and 3 years. Results Of 36 715 patients encountered by the HEMS during the study period, 2053 patients were classified as having no long-term survival and included. At 30 days, 713 (35%, 95% CI 33% to 37%) were still alive and 69 were lost to follow-up. Furthermore, at 1 year 524 (26%) and at 3 years 267 (13%) of the patients were still alive. The deceased patients received more often prehospital rapid sequence intubation and vasoactives, compared with patients alive at 30 days. Patients deceased at 30 days were older and had lower initial Glasgow Coma Scores. Otherwise, no clinically relevant difference was found in the prehospital vital parameters between the survivors and non-survivors. Conclusions The prognostication of long-term survival for critically ill patients by a prehospital critical care clinician seems to fulfil only moderately. A prognosis based on clinical judgement must be handled with a great degree of caution and decision on limitation of advanced care should be made cautiously.
  • Azoulay, Elie; Pickkers, Peter; Soares, Marcio; Perner, Anders; Rello, Jordi; Bauer, Philippe R.; van de Louw, Andry; Hemelaar, Pleun; Lemiale, Virginie; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Loeches, Ignacio Martin; Meyhoff, Tine Sylvest; Salluh, Jorge; Schellongowski, Peter; Rusinova, Katerina; Terzi, Nicolas; Mehta, Sangeeta; Antonelli, Massimo; Kouatchet, Achille; Barratt-Due, Andreas; Valkonen, Miia; Landburg, Precious Pearl; Bruneel, Fabrice; Bukan, Ramin Brandt; Pene, Frederic; Metaxa, Victoria; Moreau, Anne Sophie; Souppart, Virginie; Burghi, Gaston; Girault, Christophe; Silva, Ulysses V. A.; Montini, Luca; Barbier, Francois; Nielsen, Lene B.; Gaborit, Benjamin; Mokart, Djamel; Chevret, Sylvie; Efraim Investigators; Nine-I Study Grp (2017)
    In immunocompromised patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (ARF), initial management aims primarily to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). To assess the impact of initial management on IMV and mortality rates, we performed a multinational observational prospective cohort study in 16 countries (68 centers). A total of 1611 patients were enrolled (hematological malignancies 51.9%, solid tumors 35.2%, systemic diseases 17.3%, and solid organ transplantation 8.8%). The main ARF etiologies were bacterial (29.5%), viral (15.4%), and fungal infections (14.7%), or undetermined (13.2%). On admission, 915 (56.8%) patients were not intubated. They received standard oxygen (N = 496, 53.9%), high-flow oxygen (HFNC, N = 187, 20.3%), noninvasive ventilation (NIV, N = 153, 17.2%), and NIV + HFNC (N = 79, 8.6%). Factors associated with IMV included age (hazard ratio = 0.92/year, 95% CI 0.86-0.99), day-1 SOFA (1.09/point, 1.06-1.13), day-1 PaO2/FiO(2) (1.47, 1.05-2.07), ARF etiology (Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (2.11, 1.42-3.14), invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (1.85, 1.21-2.85), and undetermined cause (1.46, 1.09-1.98). After propensity score matching, HFNC, but not NIV, had an effect on IMV rate (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.59-1.00, p = 0.05). ICU, hospital, and day-90 mortality rates were 32.4, 44.1, and 56.4%, respectively. Factors independently associated with hospital mortality included age (odds ratio = 1.18/year, 1.09-1.27), direct admission to the ICU (0.69, 0.54-0.87), day-1 SOFA excluding respiratory score (1.12/point, 1.08-1.16), PaO2/FiO(2) <100 (1.60, 1.03-2.48), and undetermined ARF etiology (1.43, 1.04-1.97). Initial oxygenation strategy did not affect mortality; however, IMV was associated with mortality, the odds ratio depending on IMV conditions: NIV + HFNC failure (2.31, 1.09-4.91), first-line IMV (2.55, 1.94-3.29), NIV failure (3.65, 2.05-6.53), standard oxygen failure (4.16, 2.91-5.93), and HFNC failure (5.54, 3.27-9.38). HFNC has an effect on intubation but not on mortality rates. Failure to identify ARF etiology is associated with higher rates of both intubation and mortality. This suggests that in addition to selecting the appropriate oxygenation device, clinicians should strive to identify the etiology of ARF.
  • Petaja, Liisa; Vaara, Suvi; Liuhanen, Sasu; Suojaranta-Ylinen, Raili; Mildh, Leena; Nisula, Sara; Korhonen, Anna-Maija; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Salmenpera, Markku; Pettila, Ville (2017)
    Objectives: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery and is associated with increased mortality. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria for diagnosing AKI include creatinine and urine output values. However, the value of the latter is debated. The authors aimed to evaluate the incidence of AKI after cardiac surgery and the independent association of KDIGO criteria, especially the urine output criterion, and 2.5-year mortality. Design: Prospective, observational, cohort study. Setting: Single-center study in a university hospital. Participants: The study comprised 638 cardiac surgical patients from September 1, 2011, to June 20, 2012. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Hourly urine output, daily plasma creatinine, risk factors for AKI, and variables for EuroSCORE II were recorded. AKI occurred in 183 (28.7%) patients. Patients with AKI diagnosed using only urine output had higher 2.5-year mortality than did patients without AKI (9/53 [17.0%] v 23/455 [5.1%], p = 0.001). AKI was associated with mortality (hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals]: 3.3 [1.8-6.1] for KDIGO I; 5.8 [2.7-12.1] for KDIGO 2; and 7.9 [3.5-17.6]) for KDIGO 3. KDIGO stages and AKI diagnosed using urine output were associated with mortality even after adjusting for mortality risk assessed using EuroSCORE II and risk factors for AKI. Conclusions: AKI diagnosed using only the urine output criterion without fulfilling the creatinine criterion and all stages of AKI were associated with long-term mortality. Preoperatively assessed mortality risk using EuroSCORE II did not predict this AKI-associated mortality. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Blaser, Cornelia; Klein, Matthias; Grandgirard, Denis; Wittwer, Matthias; Peltola, Heikki; Weigand, Michael; Koedel, Uwe; Leib, Stephen L. (2010)
  • Raaska, Hanna; Elovainio, Marko; Sinkkonen, Jari; Stolt, Suvi; Jalonen, Iina; Matomaki, Jaakko; Makipaa, Sanna; Lapinleimu, Helena (2013)
  • Viukari, Marianna; Kokko, Eeva; Pörsti, Ilkka; Leijon, Helena; Vesterinen, Tiina; Hinkka, Tero; Soinio, Minna; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Matikainen, Niina; Nevalainen, Pasi (2022)
    Objective We examined if measurement of adrenal androgens adds to subtype diagnostics of primary aldosteronism (PA) under cosyntropin-stimulated adrenal venous sampling (AVS). Design A prospective pre-specified secondary endpoint analysis of 49 patients with confirmed PA, of whom 29 underwent unilateral adrenalectomy with long-term follow-up. Methods Concentrations of androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) were measured during AVS in addition to aldosterone and cortisol. Subjects with lateralisation index (LI) of >= 4 were treated with unilateral adrenalectomy, and the immunohistochemical subtype was determined with CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 stains. The performance of adrenal androgens was evaluated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses in adrenalectomy and medical therapy groups. Results During AVS, the correlations between cortisol and androstenedione, DHEA and DHEAS for LI and selectivity index (SI) were highly significant. The right and left side SIs for androstenedione and DHEA were higher (p < .001) than for cortisol. In ROC analysis, the optimal LI cut-off values for androstenedione, DHEA and DHEAS were 4.2, 4.5 and 4.6, respectively. The performance of these LIs for adrenal androgens did not differ from that of cortisol. Conclusions Under cosyntropin-stimulated AVS, the measurement of androstenedione and DHEA did not improve the cannulation selectivity. The performance of cortisol and adrenal androgens are confirmatory but not superior to cortisol-based results in lateralisation diagnostics of PA.
  • Tirkkonen, Joonas; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Tamminen, Tero; Parr, Michael J. A.; Hillman, Ken; Efendijev, Ilmar; Aneman, Anders (2020)
    Aim: The efficiency of rapid response teams (RRTs) is decreased by delays in activation of RRT (afferent limb failure, ALF). We categorized ALF by organ systems and investigated correlations with the vital signs subsequently observed by the RRT and associations with mortality. Methods: International, multicentre, retrospective cohort study including adult RRT patients without treatment limitations in 2017-2018 in one Australian and two Finnish tertiary hospitals. Results: A total of 5,568 RRT patients' first RRT activations were included. In 927 patients (17%) ALF was present within 4 h before the RRT call, most commonly for respiratory criteria (419 patients, 7.5%). In 3516 patients (63%) overall, and in 756 (82%) of ALF patients, the RRT observed abnormal vital signs upon arrival. The organ-specific ALF corresponded to the RRT observations in 52% of cases for respiratory criteria, in 60% for haemodynamic criteria, in 55% for neurological criteria and in 52% of cases for multiple organ criteria. Only ALF for respiratory criteria was associated with increased hospital mortality (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.29-2.27), whereas all, except haemodynamic, criteria at the time of RRT review were associated with increased hospital mortality. Conclusions: Vital signs were rarely normal upon RRT arrival in patients with ALF, while organ-specific ALF corresponded to subsequent RRT observations in just over half of cases. Our results suggest that systems mandating timely responses to abnormal respiratory criteria in particular may have potential to improve deteriorating patient outcomes.
  • Vehkalahti, M. M.; Palotie, U.; Valaste, Maria (2020)
    Aim To evaluate age-specific aspects and changes in volume and content of endodontic treatment for adults visiting private dentists in Finland in 2012 and 2017. Methodology This study utilized register-based data of private dental care. The observation unit of the aggregated macro-level data was age group, with 5-year age groups from 20 to 24 years onwards and the oldest group combining all patients aged 90 years and over. Data from years 2012 and 2017 included all the oral health care of 2.04 million patients receiving reimbursement for treatment by private dentists; a total of 183 932 patients received at least one endodontic treatment and were analysed. The number of teeth receiving endodontic treatment was counted separately as pulp cappings, pulpotomies and root canal fillings according to number of canals filled per tooth. Statistical associations were assessed as correlation coefficients. Results The mean age of endodontic patients was 53.6 years in 2012 and 55.9 years in 2017. In both years, 38% were aged from 50 to 64 years. In 2012, 9.9%, and in 2017, 8.0% of patients received at least one endodontic treatment; the older the patients, the fewer received endodontic treatment (r = -0.9). From 2012 to 2017, numbers of all patients and treatments decreased, endodontic patients and treatments even more notably, and in all age groups. Per thousand patients in 2017, 62.1 teeth received root canal treatment and 14.9 pulp capping. Pulp capping comprised 19.2%, pulpotomies 0.8% and root canal fillings 80.0% of teeth receiving endodontic treatment. Of root filled teeth, 45.1% received filling in one canal, 17.0% in two and 37.9% in three or more canals, multi-canal options being less frequent in older patients (r = -0.94). Conclusions Endodontic treatment, received by 9% of adult patients visiting private dentists in Finland, was strongly age-dependent, showing a decreasing trend with age and time.