Browsing by Subject "OUTOKUMPU"

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  • Heinonen, Suvi; Malinowski, Michal; Hlousek, Felix; Gislason, Gardar; Buske, Stefan; Koivisto, Emilia Anna-Liisa; Wojdyla, Marek (2019)
    We show that by using an advanced pre-stack depth imaging algorithm it is possible to retrieve meaningful and robust seismic images with sparse shot points, using only 3-4 source points per kilometer along a seismic profile. Our results encourage the use of 2D seismic reflection profiling as a reconnaissance tool for mineral exploration in areas with limited access for active seismic surveys. We used the seismic data acquired within the COGITO-MIN project comprising two approximately 6 km long seismic reflection profiles at the polymetallic Kylylahti massive sulfide mine site in eastern Finland. The 2D seismic data acquisition utilized both Vibroseis and dynamite sources with 20 m spacing and wireless receivers spaced every 10 m. For both source types, the recorded data show clear first breaks over all offsets and reflectors in the raw shot gathers. The Kylylahti area is characterized by folded and faulted, steeply dipping geological contacts and structures. We discuss post-stack and pre-stack data processing and compare time and depth imaging techniques in this geologically complex Precambrian hardrock area. The seismic reflection profiles show prominent reflectors at 4.5-8 km depth utilizing different migration routines. In the shallow subsurface, steep reflectors are imaged, and within and underneath the known Kylylahti ultramafic body reflectivity is prominent but discontinuous.
  • Nuppunen-Puputti, Maija; Kietaevaeinen, Riikka; Raulio, Mari; Soro, Aino; Purkamo, Lotta; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Bomberg, Malin (2022)
    The deep terrestrial biosphere hosts vast sessile rock surface communities and biofilms, but thus far, mostly planktic communities have been studied. We enriched deep subsurface microbial communities on mica schist in microcosms containing bedrock groundwater from the depth of 500 m from Outokumpu, Finland. The biofilms were visualized using scanning electron microscopy, revealing numerous different microbial cell morphologies and attachment strategies on the mica schist surface, e.g., bacteria with outer membrane vesicle-like structures, hair-like extracellular extensions, and long tubular cell structures expanding over hundreds of micrometers over mica schist surfaces. Bacterial communities were analyzed with amplicon sequencing showing that Pseudomonas, Desulfosporosinus, Hydrogenophaga, and Brevundimonas genera dominated communities after 8-40 months of incubation. A total of 21 metagenome assembled genomes from sessile rock surface metagenomes identified genes involved in biofilm formation, as well as a wide variety of metabolic traits indicating a high degree of environmental adaptivity to oligotrophic environment and potential for shifting between multiple energy or carbon sources. In addition, we detected ubiquitous organic carbon oxidation and capacity for arsenate and selenate reduction within our rocky MAGs. Our results agree with the previously suggested interaction between the deep subsurface microbial communities and the rock surfaces, and that this interaction could be crucial for sustaining life in the harsh anoxic and oligotrophic deep subsurface of crystalline bedrock environment.
  • Singh, Brij; Malinowski, Michal; Hlousek, Felix; Koivisto, Emilia; Heinonen, Suvi; Hellwig, Olaf; Buske, Stefan; Chamarczuk, Michal; Juurela, Sanna (2019)
    A 10.5 km(2) 3D seismic survey was acquired over the Kylylahti mine area (Outokumpu mineral district, eastern Finland) as a part of the COGITO-MIN (COst-effective Geophysical Imaging Techniques for supporting Ongoing MINeral exploration in Europe) project, which aimed at the development of cost-effective geophysical imaging methods for mineral exploration. The cost-effectiveness in our case was related to the fact that an active-source 3D seismic survey was accomplished by using the receiver spread originally designed for a 3D passive survey. The 3D array recorded Vibroseis and dynamite shots from an active-source 2D seismic survey, from a vertical seismic profiling experiment survey, as well as some additional "random" Vibroseis and dynamite shots made to complement the 3D source distribution. The resulting 3D survey was characterized by irregular shooting geometry and relatively large receiver intervals (50 m). Using this dataset, we evaluate the effectiveness of the standard time-imaging approach (post-stack and pre-stack time migration) compared to depth imaging (standard and specialized Kirchhoff pre-stack depth migration, KPreSDM). Standard time-domain processing and imaging failed to convincingly portray the first 1500 m of the subsurface, which was the primary interest of the survey. With a standard KPreSDM, we managed to obtain a good image of the base of the Kylylahti formation bordering the extent of the mineralization-hosting Outokumpu assemblage rocks, but otherwise the image was very noisy in the shallower section. The specialized KPreSDM approach (i.e., coherency-based Fresnel volume migration) resulted in a much cleaner image of the shallow, steeply dipping events, as well as some additional deeper reflectors, possibly representing repetition of the contact between the Outokumpu assemblage and the surrounding Kalevian metasediments at depth.
  • Riedel, Marko; Cosma, Calin; Enescu, Nicoleta; Koivisto, Emilia; Komminaho, Kari; Vaittinen, Katri; Malinowski, Michal (2018)
    Seismic reflection methods have been used for the exploration of mineral resources for several decades. However, despite their unmatched spatial resolution and depth penetration, they only have played a minor role in mineral discoveries so far. Instead, mining and exploration companies have traditionally focused more on the use of potential field, electric and electromagnetic methods. In this context, we present a case study of an underground Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) experiment, which was designed to image a (semi-)massive sulfide deposit located in the Kylylahti polymetallic mine in eastern Finland. For the measurement, we used a conventional VSP with three-component geophones and a novel fiber-optic Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) system. Both systems were deployed in boreholes located nearby the target sulfide deposit, and used in combination with an active seismic source that was fired from within the underground tunnels. With this setup, we successfully recorded seismic reflections from the deposit and its nearby geological contrasts. The recording systems provided data with a good signal-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution. In addition to the measurements, we generated a realistic synthetic dataset based on a detailed geological model derived from extensive drilling data and petrophysical laboratory analysis. Specific processing and imaging of the acquired and synthetic datasets yielded high-resolution reflectivity images. Joint analysis of these images and cross-validation with lithological logging data from 135 nearby boreholes led to successful interpretation of key geological contacts including the target sulfide mineralization. In conclusion, our experiment demonstrates the value of in-mine VSP measurements for detailed resource delineation in a complex geological setting. In particular, we emphasize the potential benefit of using fiber-optic DAS systems, which provide reflection data at sufficient quality with less logistical effort and a higher acquisition rate. This amounts to a lower total acquisition cost, which makes DAS a valuable tool for future mineral exploration activities.