Browsing by Subject "OVEREXPRESSION"

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  • Kaprio, Tuomas; Hagstrom, Jaana; Fermer, Christian; Mustonen, Harri; Bockelman, Camilla; Nilsson, Olle; Haglund, Caj (2014)
  • Ma, Cheng; Hao, Zhenyu; Huysmans, Gerard; Lesiuk, Amelia; Bullough, Per; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark; Phillips, Simon E.; Young, James D.; Goldman, Adrian; Baldwin, Stephen A.; Postis, Vincent L. G. (2015)
    Membrane proteins play key roles in many biological processes, from acquisition of nutrients to neurotransmission, and are targets for more than 50% of current therapeutic drugs. However, their investigation is hampered by difficulties in their production and purification on a scale suitable for structural studies. In particular, the nature and location of affinity tags introduced for the purification of recombinant membrane proteins can greatly influence their expression levels by affecting their membrane insertion. The extent of such effects typically depends on the transmembrane topologies of the proteins, which for proteins of unknown structure are usually uncertain. For example, attachment of oligohistidine tags to the periplasmic termini of membrane proteins often interferes with folding and drastically impairs expression in Escherichia coli. To circumvent this problem we have employed a novel strategy to enable the rapid production of constructs bearing a range of different affinity tags compatible with either cytoplasmic or periplasmic attachment. Tags include conventional oligohistidine tags compatible with cytoplasmic attachment and, for attachment to proteins with a periplasmic terminus, either tandem Strep-tag II sequences or oligohistidine tags fused to maltose binding protein and a signal sequence. Inclusion of cleavage sites for TEV or HRV-3C protease enables tag removal prior to crystallisation trials or a second step of purification. Together with the use of bioinformatic approaches to identify members of membrane protein families with topologies favourable to cytoplasmic tagging, this has enabled us to express and purify multiple bacterial membrane transporters. To illustrate this strategy, we describe here its use to purify bacterial homologues of human membrane proteins from the Nramp and ZIP families of divalent metal cation transporters and from the concentrative nucleoside transporter family. The proteins are expressed in E. coli in a correctly folded, functional state and can be purified in amounts suitable for structural investigations.
  • Heby, Margareta; Karnevi, Emelie; Elebro, Jacob; Nodin, Björn; Eberhard, Jakob; Saukkonen, Kapo; Hagström, Jaana; Mustonen, Harri; Seppänen, Hanna; Haglund, Caj; Jirstrom, Karin; Larsson, Anna H. (2020)
    The outcome of periampullary adenocarcinomas remains poor with few treatment options. Podocalyxin-like protein (PODXL) is an anti-adhesive protein, the high expression of which has been shown to confer a poor prognosis in numerous malignancies. A correlation and adverse prognostic synergy between PODXL and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been observed in colorectal cancer. Here, we investigated whether this also applies to periampullary adenocarcinomas. We analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of PODXL and EGFR in tissue microarrays with tumors from two patient cohorts; (Cohort 1, n=175) and (Cohort 2, n=189). The effect of TGF-beta -induced expression and siRNA-mediated knockdown of PODXL and EGFR, were investigated in pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1) in vitro. We found a correlation between PODXL and EGFR in these cancers, and a synergistic adverse effect on survival. Furthermore, silencing PODXL in pancreatic cancer cells resulted in the down-regulation of EGFR, but not vice versa. Consequently, these findings suggest a functional link between PODXL and EGFR, and the potential combined utility as biomarkers possibly improving patient stratification. Further studies examining the mechanistic basis underlying these observations may open new avenues of targeted treatment options for subsets of patients affected by these particularly aggressive cancers.
  • Claassens, Nico J.; Finger-Bou, Max; Scholten, Bart; Muis, Frederieke; de Groot, Jonas J.; de Gier, Jan-Willem; de Vos, Willem M.; van der Oost, John (2019)
    Escherichia coli has been widely used as a platform microorganism for both membrane protein production and cell factory engineering. The current methods to produce membrane proteins in this organism require the induction of target gene expression and often result in unstable, low yields. Here, we present a method combining a constitutive promoter with a library of bicistronic design (BCD) elements, which enables inducer-free, tuned translation initiation for optimal protein production. Our system mediates stable, constitutive production of bacterial membrane proteins at yields that outperform those obtained with E. coli Lemo21(DE3), the current gold standard for bacterial membrane protein production. We envisage that the continuous, fine-tunable, and high-level production of membrane proteins by our method will greatly facilitate their study and their utilization in engineering cell factories.
  • Turconi, Giorgio; Kopra, Jaakko; Võikar, Vootele; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Vilenius, Carolina; Piepponen, T. Petteri; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle (2020)
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) supports function and survival of dopamine neurons that degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). Ectopic delivery of GDNF in clinical trials to treat PD is safe but lacks significant therapeutic effect. In pre-clinical models, ectopic GDNF is effective but causes adverse effects, including downregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, only a transient boost in dopamine metabolism, aberrant neuronal sprouting, and hyperactivity. Hindering development of GDNF mimetic increased signaling via GDNF receptor RET by activating mutations results in cancer. Safe and effective mode of action must be defined first in animal models to develop successful GDNF-based therapies. Previously we showed that about a 2-fold increase in endogenous GDNF expression is safe and results in increased motor and dopaminergic function and protection in a PD model in young animals. Recently, similar results were reported using a novel Gdnf mRNA-targeting strategy. Next, it is important to establish the safety of a long-term increase in endogenous GDNF expression. We report behavioral, dopamine system, and cancer analysis of five cohorts of aged mice with a 2-fold increase in endogenous GDNF. We found a sustained increase in dopamine levels, improvement in motor learning, and no side effects or cancer. These results support the rationale for further development of endogenous GDNF-based treatments and GDNF mimetic.
  • Carnielli, Carolina Moretto; Soares Macedo, Carolina Carneiro; De Rossi, Tatiane; Granato, Daniela Campos; Rivera, Cesar; Domingues, Romenia Ramos; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Yokoo, Sami; Heberle, Henry; Busso-Lopes, Ariane Fidelis; Cervigne, Nilva Karla; Sawazaki-Calone, Iris; Meirelles, Gabriela Vaz; Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Telles, Guilherme Pimentel; Minghim, Rosane; Prado Ribeiro, Ana Carolina; Brandao, Thais Bianca; Castro, Gilberto de; Alejandro Gonzalez-Arriagada, Wilfredo; Gomes, Alexandre; Penteado, Fabio; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Rodrigues, Priscila Campioni; Sundquist, Elias; Salo, Tuula; da Silva, Sabrina Daniela; Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A.; Graner, Edgard; Fox, Jay W.; Della Coletta, Ricardo; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco (2018)
    Different regions of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) have particular histopathological and molecular characteristics limiting the standard tumor-node-metastasis prognosis classification. Therefore, defining biological signatures that allow assessing the prognostic outcomes for OSCC patients would be of great clinical significance. Using histopathology-guided discovery proteomics, we analyze neoplastic islands and stroma from the invasive tumor front (ITF) and inner tumor to identify differentially expressed proteins. Potential signature proteins are prioritized and further investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and targeted proteomics. IHC indicates low expression of cystatin-B in neoplastic islands from the ITF as an independent marker for local recurrence. Targeted proteomics analysis of the prioritized proteins in saliva, combined with machine-learning methods, highlights a peptide-based signature as the most powerful predictor to distinguish patients with and without lymph node metastasis. In summary, we identify a robust signature, which may enhance prognostic decisions in OSCC and better guide treatment to reduce tumor recurrence or lymph node metastasis.
  • Heikkinen, Ilkka; Almangush, Alhadi; Hagström, Jaana; Bello, Ibrahim O.; Kauppila, Joonas H.; Mäkinen, Laura; Haglund, Caj; Nieminen, Pentti; Salo, Tuula; Leivo, Ilmo (2016)
    The proliferation marker, securin, is involved in the progression of many carcinomas. However, its expression in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) has not been previously studied. We examined securin expression by immunohistochemistry in OTSCC. A total of 93 cases treated for OTSCC were included in this study. Expression of securin in OTSCC was studied by immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays (52 cases) and routine tumor sections (41 cases). Securin overexpression is significantly associated with higher tumor grade (P = 0.03). Overexpression of securin was observed more frequently in advanced stages of OTSCC than in earlier stages but the difference was not statistically significant. These findings suggest that overexpression of securin in OTSCC may be important during progression of this cancer. No significant association was found between securin expression and the prognosis of OTSCC.
  • Soini, Tea; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Kyronlahti, Antti; Andersson, Leif C.; Wilson, David B.; Heikinheimo, Markku (2017)
    Hepatoblastoma, the most common type of pediatric liver cancer, is treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. An essential drug in the treatment of hepatoblastoma is doxorubicin, which in high doses is cardiotoxic. This adverse effect is due to downregulation of cardiac expression of transcription factor GATA4, leading in turn to diminished levels of anti-apoptotic BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) protein family members. GATA4 is also expressed in early fetal liver, but absent from normal postnatal hepatocytes. However, GATA4 is highly expressed in hepatoblastoma tissue. In this study, we assessed the role of GATA4 in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of hepatoblastoma cells. Herein, we demonstrate that doxorubicin decreases GATA4 expression and alters the expression pattern of BCL2 family members, most profoundly that of BCL2 and BAK, in the HUH6 hepatoblastoma cell line. Silencing of GATA4 by siRNA prior to doxorubicin treatment sensitizes HUH6 cells to the apoptotic effect of this drug by further shifting the balance of BCL2 family members to the pro-apoptotic direction. Specifically, expression levels of anti-apoptotic BCL2 were decreased and pro-apoptotic BID were increased after GATA4 silencing. On the whole, our results indicate that since high endogenous levels of transcription factor GATA4 likely protect hepatoblastoma cells from doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, these cells can be rendered more sensitive to the drug by downregulation of GATA4.
  • Kujjo, Loro L.; Laine, Tiina; Pereira, Ricardo J. G.; Kagawa, Wataru; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Perez, Gloria I. (2010)
  • Välimäki, Niko; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Karppinen, Atte; Paetau, Anders; Kivipelto, Leena; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Karhu, Auli (2019)
    Somatic driver mechanisms of pituitary adenoma pathogenesis have remained incompletely characterized; apart from mutations in the stimulatory G alpha protein (G alpha(s) encoded by GNAS) causing activated cAMP synthesis, pathogenic variants are rarely found in growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumors (somatotropinomas). The purpose of the current work was to clarify how genetic and epigenetic alterations contribute to the development of somatotropinomas by conducting an integrated copy number alteration, whole-genome and bisulfite sequencing, and transcriptome analysis of 21 tumors. Somatic mutation burden was low, but somatotropinomas formed two subtypes associated with distinct aneuploidy rates and unique transcription profiles. Tumors with recurrent chromosome aneuploidy (CA) were GNAS mutation negative (Gsp(-)). The chromosome stable (CS) -group contained Gsp(+) somatotropinomas and two totally aneuploidy-free Gsp(-) tumors. Genes related to the mitotic G(1)-S-checkpoint transition were differentially expressed in CA- and CS-tumors, indicating difference in mitotic progression. Also, pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG1), a regulator of sister chromatid segregation, showed abundant expression in CA-tumors. Moreover, somatotropinomas displayed distinct Gsp genotypespecific methylation profiles and expression quantitative methylation (eQTM) analysis revealed that inhibitory G alpha (G alpha(i)) signaling is activated in Gsp(+) tumors. These findings suggest that aneuploidy through modulated driver pathways may be a causative mechanism for tumorigenesis in Gsp(-) somatotropinomas, whereas Gsp(+) tumors with constitutively activated cAMP synthesis seem to be characterized by DNA methylation activated G alpha(i) signaling.
  • Huang, Bin; Huang, Zhinuo; Ma, Ruifang; Chen, Jialu; Zhang, Zhijun; Yrjälä, Kim (2021)
    Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) are central elements in the regulatory network that controls plant heat stress response. They are involved in multiple transcriptional regulatory pathways and play important roles in heat stress signaling and responses to a variety of other stresses. We identified 41 members of the HSF gene family in moso bamboo, which were distributed non-uniformly across its 19 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the moso bamboo HSF genes could be divided into three major subfamilies; HSFs from the same subfamily shared relatively conserved gene structures and sequences and encoded similar amino acids. All HSF genes contained HSF signature domains. Subcellular localization prediction indicated that about 80% of the HSF proteins were located in the nucleus, consistent with the results of GO enrichment analysis. A large number of stress response-associated cis-regulatory elements were identified in the HSF upstream promoter sequences. Synteny analysis indicated that the HSFs in the moso bamboo genome had greater collinearity with those of rice and maize than with those of Arabidopsis and pepper. Numerous segmental duplicates were found in the moso bamboo HSF gene family. Transcriptome data indicated that the expression of a number of PeHsfs differed in response to exogenous gibberellin (GA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). A number of HSF genes were highly expressed in the panicles and in young shoots, suggesting that they may have functions in reproductive growth and the early development of rapidly-growing shoots. This study provides fundamental information on members of the bamboo HSF gene family and lays a foundation for further study of their biological functions in the regulation of plant responses to adversity.
  • Huang, Bin; Huang, Zhinuo; Ma, Ruifang; Ramakrishnan, Muthusamy; Chen, Jialu; Zhang, Zhijun; Yrjälä, Kim (2021)
    Background Moso bamboo, the fastest growing plant on earth, is an important source for income in large areas of Asia, mainly cultivated in China. Lateral organ boundaries domain (LBD) proteins, a family of transcription factors unique to plants, are involved in multiple transcriptional regulatory pathways and play important roles in lateral organ development, pathogen response, secondary growth, and hormone response. The LBD gene family has not previously been characterized in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). Results In this study, we identified 55 members of the LBD gene family from moso bamboo and found that they were distributed non-uniformly across its 18 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the moso bamboo LBD genes could be divided into two classes. LBDs from the same class share relatively conserved gene structures and sequences encoding similar amino acids. A large number of hormone response-associated cis-regulatory elements were identified in the LBD upstream promoter sequences. Synteny analysis indicated that LBDs in the moso bamboo genome showed greater collinearity with those of O. sativa (rice) and Zea mays (maize) than with those of Arabidopsis and Capsicum annuum (pepper). Numerous segmental duplicates were found in the moso bamboo LBD gene family. Gene expression profiles in four tissues showed that the LBD genes had different spatial expression patterns. qRT-PCR assays with the Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM) temporal expression analysis demonstrated that six genes (PeLBD20, PeLBD29, PeLBD46, PeLBD10, PeLBD38, and PeLBD06) were consistently up-regulated during the rapid growth and development of bamboo shoots. In addition, 248 candidate target genes that function in a variety of pathways were identified based on consensus LBD binding motifs. Conclusions In the current study, we identified 55 members of the moso bamboo transcription factor LBD and characterized for the first time. Based on the short-time sequence expression software and RNA-seq data, the PeLBD gene expression was analyzed. We also investigated the functional annotation of all PeLBDs, including PPI network, GO, and KEGG enrichment based on String database. These results provide a theoretical basis and candidate genes for studying the molecular breeding mechanism of rapid growth of moso bamboo.
  • Dhandapani, Praveen K.; Begines-Moreno, Isabel M.; Brea-Calvo, Gloria; Gärtner, Ulrich; Graeber, Thomas G.; Javier Sanchez, Gerardo; Morty, Rory E.; Schönig, Kai; ten Hoeve, Johanna; Wietelmann, Astrid; Braun, Thomas; Jacobs, Howard T.; Szibor, Marten (2019)
    Constitutive expression of the chemokine Mcp1 in mouse cardiomyocytes creates a model of inflammatory cardiomyopathy, with death from heart failure at age 7-8 months. A critical pathogenic role has previously been proposed for induced oxidative stress, involving NADPH oxidase activation. To test this idea, we exposed the mice to elevated oxygen levels. Against expectation, this prevented, rather than accelerated, the ultrastructural and functional signs of heart failure. This result suggests that the immune signaling initiated by Mcp1 leads instead to the inhibition of cellular oxygen usage, for which mitochondrial respiration is an obvious target. To address this hypothesis, we combined the Mcp1 model with xenotopic expression of the alternative oxidase (AOX), which provides a sink for electrons blocked from passage to oxygen via respiratory complexes III and IV. Ubiquitous AOX expression provided only a minor delay to cardiac functional deterioration and did not prevent the induction of markers of cardiac and metabolic remodeling considered a hallmark of the model. Moreover, cardiomyocyte-specific AOX expression resulted in exacerbation of Mcp1-induced heart failure, and failed to rescue a second cardiomyopathy model directly involving loss of cIV. Our findings imply that mitochondria! involvement in the pathology of inflammatory cardiomyopathy is multifaceted and complex.
  • Gautam, Prson; Karhinen, Leena; Szwajda, Agnieszka; Jha, Sawan Kumar; Yadav, Bhagwan; Aittokallio, Tero; Wennerberg, Krister (2016)
    Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous and aggressive type of cancer that lacks effective targeted therapy. Despite detailed molecular profiling, no targeted therapy has been established. Hence, with the aim of gaining deeper understanding of the functional differences of TNBC subtypes and how that may relate to potential novel therapeutic strategies, we studied comprehensive anticancer-agent responses among a panel of TNBC cell lines. Method: The responses of 301 approved and investigational oncology compounds were measured in 16 TNBC cell lines applying a functional profiling approach. To go beyond the standard drug viability effect profiling, which has been used in most chemosensitivity studies, we utilized a multiplexed readout for both cell viability and cytotoxicity, allowing us to differentiate between cytostatic and cytotoxic responses. Results: Our approach revealed that most single-agent anti-cancer compounds that showed activity for the viability readout had no or little cytotoxic effects. Major compound classes that exhibited this type of response included anti-mitotics, mTOR, CDK, and metabolic inhibitors, as well as many agents selectively inhibiting oncogene-activated pathways. However, within the broad viability-acting classes of compounds, there were often subsets of cell lines that responded by cell death, suggesting that these cells are particularly vulnerable to the tested substance. In those cases we could identify differential levels of protein markers associated with cytotoxic responses. For example, PAI-1, MAPK phosphatase and Notch-3 levels associated with cytotoxic responses to mitotic and proteasome inhibitors, suggesting that these might serve as markers of response also in clinical settings. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity readout highlighted selective synergistic and synthetic lethal drug combinations that were missed by the cell viability readouts. For instance, the MEK inhibitor trametinib synergized with PARP inhibitors. Similarly, combination of two non-cytotoxic compounds, the rapamycin analog everolimus and an ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor dactolisib, showed synthetic lethality in several mTOR-addicted cell lines. Conclusions: Taken together, by studying the combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic drug responses, we identified a deeper spectrum of cellular responses both to single agents and combinations that may be highly relevant for identifying precision medicine approaches in TNBC as well as in other types of cancers.
  • Shah, Nita R.; Wilkinson, Craig; Harborne, Steven P. D.; Turku, Ainoleena; Li, Kun-Mou; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Harris, Sarah; Goldman, Adrian (2017)
    Membrane-integral pyrophosphatases (mPPases) couple the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate (PPi) to the pumping of Na+, H+, or both these ions across a membrane. Recently solved structures of the Na+-pumping Thermotoga maritima mPPase (TmPPase) and H+-pumping Vigna radiata mPPase revealed the basis of ion selectivity between these enzymes and provided evidence for the mechanisms of substrate hydrolysis and ion-pumping. Our atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of TmPPase demonstrate that loop 5-6 is mobile in the absence of the substrate or substrate-analogue bound to the active site, explaining the lack of electron density for this loop in resting state structures. Furthermore, creating an apo model of TmPPase by removing ligands from the TmPPase: IDP: Na structure in MD simulations resulted in increased dynamics in loop 5-6, which results in this loop moving to uncover the active site, suggesting that interactions between loop 5-6 and the imidodiphosphate and its associated Mg2+ are important for holding a loop-closed conformation. We also provide further evidence for the transport-before-hydrolysis mechanism by showing that the non-hydrolyzable substrate analogue, methylene diphosphonate, induces low levels of proton pumping by VrPPase. (C) 2017 Author(s).
  • Dickinson, Amy; Saraswat, Mayank; Mäkitie, Antti; Silen, Robert; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj; Joenväärä, Sakari; Silen, Suvi (2018)
    Objectives: No prognostic or predictive biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) exist. We aimed to discover novel proteins, altered in OSCC, to be further investigated as potential biomarkers, and to improve understanding about pathways involved in OSCC. Materials and Methods: Proteomic signatures of seven paired healthy and OSCC tissue samples were identified using ultra-definition quantitative mass spectrometry, then analysed and compared using Anova, principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering and OPLS-DA modelling. A selection of significant proteins that were also altered in the serum from a previous study (PMID: 28632724) were validated immunohistochemically on an independent cohort (n = 66) to confirm immunopositivity and location within tumour tissue. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis was employed to identify altered pathways. Results: Of 829 proteins quantified, 257 were significant and 72 were able to classify healthy vs OSCC using OPLS-DA modelling. We identified 19 proteins not previously known to be upregulated in OSCC, including prosaposin and alpha-taxilin. KIAA1217 and NDRG1 were upregulated in stage IVa compared with stage I tumours. Altered pathways included calcium signalling, cellular movement, haematological system development and function, and immune cell trafficking, and involved NF-kappa B and MAPK networks. Conclusions: We found a set of proteins reliably separating OSCC tumour from healthy tissue, and multiple proteins differing between stage I and stage IVa OSCC. These potential biomarkers can be studied and validated in larger cohorts.
  • Merezhko, Maria; Pakarinen, Emmi; Uronen, Riikka-Liisa; Huttunen, Henri J. (2020)
    The plasma membrane consists of a variety of discrete domains differing from the surrounding membrane in composition and properties. Selective partitioning of protein to these microdomains is essential for membrane functioning and integrity. Studying the nanoscale size and dynamic nature of the membrane microdomains requires advanced imaging approaches with a high spatiotemporal resolution and, consequently, expensive and specialized equipment, unavailable for most researchers and unsuited for large-scale studies. Thus, understanding of protein partitioning to the membrane microdomains in health and disease is still hampered by the lack of inexpensive live-cell approaches with an appropriate spatial resolution. Here, we have developed a novel approach based on Gaussia princeps luciferase protein-fragment complementation assay to quantitively investigate protein partitioning to cholesterol and sphingomyelin-rich domains, sometimes called 'lipid rafts', in intact living cells with a high-spatial resolution. In the assay, the reporter construct, carrying one half of the luciferase protein, is targeted to lipid microdomains through the fused acetylation motif from Src-family kinase Fyn. A protein of interest carries the second half of the luciferase protein. Together, this serves as a reversible real-time sensor of raft recruitment for the studied protein. We demonstrated that the assay can efficiently detect the dynamic alterations in raft localization of two disease-associated proteins: Akt and APP. Importantly, this method can be used in high-throughput screenings and other large-scale studies in living cells. This inexpensive, and easy to implement raft localization assay will benefit all researchers interested in protein partitioning in rafts.
  • Zhou, Kecheng; Dichlberger, Andrea; Ikonen, Elina; Blom, Tomas (2020)
    Studies of lysosome associated protein transmembrane 4B (LAPTM4B) have mainly focused on the 35-kDa isoform and its association with poor prognosis in cancers. Here, by employing a novel monoclonal antibody, the authors found that the 24-kDa LAPTM4B isoform predominated in most, both healthy and malignant, human cells and tissues studied. LAPTM4B-24 lacks the extreme N-terminus and, contrary to LAPTM4B-35, failed to promote cell migration. The endogenous LAPTM4B-24 protein was subject to rapid turnover with a t(1/2) of approximately 1 hour. The protein was degraded by both lysosomal and proteasomal pathways, and its levels were increased by the availability of nutrients and lysosomal ceramide. These findings underscore the pathophysiological relevance of the LAPTM4B-24 isoform and identify it as a dynamically regulated effector in lysosomal nutrient signaling.
  • Lyytinen, Outi Leena; Starkova, Daria; Poranen, Minna Marjetta (2019)
    BackgroundCystoviruses have a phospholipid envelope around their nucleocapsid. Such a feature is unique among bacterial viruses (i.e., bacteriophages) and the mechanisms of virion envelopment within a bacterial host are largely unknown. The cystovirus Pseudomonas phage phi6 has an envelope that harbors five viral membrane proteins and phospholipids derived from the cytoplasmic membrane of its Gram-negative host. The phi6 major envelope protein P9 and the non-structural protein P12 are essential for the envelopment of its virions. Co-expression of P9 and P12 in a Pseudomonas host results in the formation of intracellular vesicles that are potential intermediates in the phi6 virion assembly pathway. This study evaluated the minimum requirements for the formation of phi6-specific vesicles and the possibility to localize P9-tagged heterologous proteins into such structures in Escherichia coli.ResultsUsing transmission electron microscopy, we detected membranous structures in the cytoplasm of E. coli cells expressing P9. The density of the P9-specific membrane fraction was lower (approximately 1.13g/cm(3) in sucrose) than the densities of the bacterial cytoplasmic and outer membrane fractions. A P9-GFP fusion protein was used to study the targeting of heterologous proteins into P9 vesicles. Production of the GFP-tagged P9 vesicles required P12, which protected the fusion protein against proteolytic cleavage. Isolated vesicles contained predominantly P9-GFP, suggesting selective incorporation of P9-tagged fusion proteins into the vesicles.ConclusionsOur results demonstrate that the phi6 major envelope protein P9 can trigger formation of cytoplasmic membrane structures in E. coli in the absence of any other viral protein. Intracellular membrane structures are rare in bacteria, thus making them ideal chasses for cell-based vesicle production. The possibility to locate heterologous proteins into the P9-lipid vesicles facilitates the production of vesicular structures with novel properties. Such products have potential use in biotechnology and biomedicine.
  • Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Koponen, Annika; Arora, Amita (2019)
    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related proteins (ORPs) constitute a family of intracellular lipid-binding/transport proteins (LTPs) in eukaryotes. They typically have a modular structure comprising a lipid-binding domain and membrane targeting determinants, being thus suited for function at membrane contact sites. Among the mammalian ORPs, ORP2/OSBPL2 is the only member that only exists as a 'short' variant lacking a membrane-targeting pleckstrin homology domain. ORP2 is expressed ubiquitously and has been assigned a multitude of functions. Its OSBP-related domain binds cholesterol, oxysterols, and phosphoinositides, and its overexpression enhances cellular cholesterol efflux. Consistently, the latest observations suggest a function of ORP2 in cholesterol transport to the plasma membrane (PM) in exchange for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P(2)), with significant impacts on the concentrations of PM cholesterol and PI4,5P(2). On the other hand, ORP2 localizes at the surface of cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) and at endoplasmic-reticulum-LD contact sites, and its depletion modifies cellular triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Study in an adrenocortical cell line further suggested a function of ORP2 in the synthesis of steroid hormones. Our recent knock-out of ORP2 in human hepatoma cells revealed its function in hepatocellular PI3K/Akt signaling, glucose and triglyceride metabolism, as well as in actin cytoskeletal regulation, cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. ORP2 was shown to interact physically with F-actin regulators such as DIAPH1, ARHGAP12, SEPT9 and MLC12, as well as with IQGAP1 and the Cdc37-Hsp90 chaperone complex controlling the activity of Akt. Interestingly, mutations in OSBPL2 encoding ORP2 are associated with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss, and the protein was found to localize in cochlear hair cell stereocilia. The functions assigned to ORP2 suggest that this protein, in concert with other LTPs, controls the subcellular distribution of cholesterol in various cell types and steroid hormone synthesis in adrenocortical cells. However, it also impacts cellular TG and carbohydrate metabolism and F-actin-dependent functions, revealing a bewildering spectrum of activities.