Browsing by Subject "OVERWEIGHT"

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  • Stahlmann, Katharina; Hebestreit, Antje; DeHenauw, Stefaan; Hunsberger, Monica; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lissner, Lauren; Molnar, Denes; Ayala-Marin, Aleli M.; Reisch, Lucia A.; Russo, Paola; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Bogl, Leonie H. (2020)
    Background There has been an increase in children growing up in non-traditional families, such as single-parent and blended families. Children from such families have a higher prevalence of obesity and poorer health outcomes, but research on the relationship with obesogenic behaviours is limited. Objectives Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether there are associations between family structures and obesogenic behaviours and related family rules in European children and adolescents. Methods The sample included 7664 children (mean age +/- SD: 10.9 +/- 2.9) from 4923 families who were participants of the multi-centre I.Family study (2013/2014) conducted in 8 European countries. Family structure was assessed by a detailed interview on kinship and household. Obesogenic behaviours (screen time, sleep duration, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)) and family rules (rules for computer and television, bedtime routine, availability of SSBs during meals) were determined by standardized questionnaires. Multilevel mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models were used to model the associations of family structure with obesogenic behaviours and family rules. Sex, age, parental education level, number of children and adults in the household and BMI z-score were covariates in the models. Two-parent biological families were set as the reference category. Results Children from single-parent families were less likely to have family rules regarding screen time (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.40-0.94, p = 0.026) with higher reported hours of screen time per week (beta = 2.70 h/week, 95% CI: 1.39-4.00, p <0.001). The frequency of weekly SSB consumption differed by family structure in a sex-specific manner: girls from single-parent (beta = 3.19 frequency/week, 95% CI: 0.91-5.47, p = 0.006) and boys from blended/adoptive families (beta = 3.01 frequency/week, 95% CI: 0.99-5.03, p = 0.004) consumed more SSBs. Sleep duration, bedtime routines and availability of SSBs during meals did not differ between children from these family structures. Parental education did not modify any of these associations. Conclusions Parents in non-traditional family structures appear to experience more difficulties in restricting screen time and the intake of SSBs in their children than parents in traditional two-parent family structures. Our findings therefore suggest that additional support and effective strategies for parents in non-traditional families may help to reduce obesogenic behaviours in children from such family types.
  • I Family consortium; Bogl, L. H.; Mehlig, K.; Intemann, T.; Masip, G.; Keski-Rahkonen, A.; Kaprio, J.; Hebestreit, A. (2019)
    Background and aims: By investigating differences in lifestyle behaviours and BMI in sibling pairs, family-level confounding is minimized and causal inference is improved, compared to cross-sectional studies of unrelated children. Thus, we aimed to investigate within-sibling pair differences in different lifestyle behaviours and differences in BMI z-scores in children and adolesents. Methods and results: We examined three groups of sibling pairs 1) all same-sex sibling pairs with maximum 4 years age difference (n = 1209 pairs from 1072 families in 8 countries, mean age 10.7 years, standard deviation 2.4 years), 2) sibling pairs discordant for overweight (n = 262) and 3) twin pairs (n = 85). Usual dietary intake was estimated by 24-h recalls and time spent in light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured by accelerometers. Screen time, sleep and dieting for weight loss were assessed by questionnaires. Within all 3 groups of sibling pairs, more time in MVPA was associated with lower BMI z-score. Higher energy intake was associated with higher BMI z-score within twin pairs and within all sibling pairs who were not currently dieting for weight loss. Regarding LPA, screen time or sleep duration, no or inconsistent associations were observed for the three groups of sibling pairs. Conclusions: MVPA and energy intake were associated with BMI differences within sibling and twin pairs growing up in the same home, thus independent of family-level confounding factors. Future studies should explore whether genetic variants regulating appetite or energy expenditure behaviours account for weight differences in sibling pairs. (C) 2019 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Ooki, Syuichi; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Heikkila, Kauko; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Tarnoki, Adam D.; LTarnoki, David; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Harris, Jennifer R.; Brandt, Lngunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Saffery, Richard; Rasmussen, Finn; Tynelius, Per; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Plomin, Robert; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rebato, Esther; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri (2017)
    Background: There is evidence that birthweight is positively associated with body mass index (BMI) in later life, but it remains unclear whether this is explained by genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. We analysed the association between birthweight and BMI from infancy to adulthood within twin pairs, which provides insights into the role of genetic and environmental individual-specific factors. Methods: This study is based on the data from 27 twin cohorts in 17 countries. The pooled data included 78 642 twin individuals (20 635 monozygotic and 18 686 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs) with information on birthweight and a total of 214 930 BMI measurements at ages ranging from 1 to 49 years. The association between birthweight and BMI was analysed at both the individual and within-pair levels using linear regression analyses. Results: At the individual level, a 1-kg increase in birthweight was linearly associated with up to 0.9 kg/m(2) higher BMI (P <0.001). Within twin pairs, regression coefficients were generally greater (up to 1.2 kg/m(2) per kg birthweight, P <0.001) than those from the individual-level analyses. Intra-pair associations between birthweight and later BMI were similar in both zygosity groups and sexes and were lower in adulthood. Conclusions: These findings indicate that environmental factors unique to each individual have an important role in the positive association between birthweight and later BMI, at least until young adulthood.
  • Takatalo, Jani; Karppinen, Jaro; Taimela, Simo; Niinimaki, Jaakko; Laitinen, Jaana; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco; Samartzis, Dino; Korpelainen, Raija; Nayha, Simo; Remes, Jouko; Tervonen, Osmo (2013)
  • Haapala, Eero A.; Gao, Ying; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Vanhala, Anssi; Tompuri, Tuomo; Lakka, Timo A.; Finni, Taija (2021)
    We investigated the associations of motor competence (MC) with peak oxygen uptake (V.O-2peak), peak power output (W-max), and body fat percentage (BF%) and whether measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) modify the associations between MC and BF%. Altogether, 35 children (aged 7-11 years) in the CHIPASE Study and 297 in PANIC Study (aged 9-11 years) participated in the study. MC was assessed using KTK and modified Eurofit tests. V.O-2peak and W-max were measured by maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer and scaled by lean mass (LM) or body mass (BM). BF% was assessed either by bioimpedance (CHIPASE) or DXA (PANIC). MC was not associated with V.O-2peak/LM (standardized regression coefficient beta = 0.073-0.188, P > .083). V.O-2peak/BM and W-max/LM and BM were positively associated with MC (beta = 0.158-0.610, P < .05). MC ( = -0.186 to -0.665, P < .01), but not V.O-2peak/LM ( = -0.169-0.035, P > .381), was inversely associated with BF%. Furthermore, the associations of MC with BF% were not modified by CRF. These results suggest that the positive associations between MC and CRF scaled by BM are a function of adiposity and not peak aerobic power and that CRF is not modifying factor in the associations of MC and BF%.
  • Løhmann, Ditte J. A.; Asdahl, Peter H.; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin; Jónsson, Ólafur G.; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Koskenvuo, Minna; Lausen, Birgitte; De Moerloose, Barbara; Palle, Josefine; Zeller, Bernward; Sung, Lillian; Hasle, Henrik (2019)
    Background Associations between body mass index (BMI), outcome, and leukemia-related factors in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain unclear. We investigated associations between pretherapeutic BMI, cytogenetic abnormalities, and outcome in a large multinational cohort of children with AML. Methods We included patients, age 2-17 years, diagnosed with de novo AML from the five Nordic countries (2004-2016), Hong Kong (2007-2016), the Netherlands and Belgium (2010-2016), and Canada and USA (1995-2012). BMI standard deviations score for age and sex was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization. Cumulative incidence functions, Kaplan-Meier estimator, Cox regression, and logistic regression were used to investigate associations. Results In total, 867 patients were included. The median age was 10 years (range 2-17 years). At diagnosis, 32 (4%) were underweight, 632 (73%) were healthy weight, 127 (15%) were overweight, and 76 (9%) were obese. There was no difference in relapse risk, treatment-related mortality or overall mortality across BMI groups. The frequency of t(8;21) and inv(16) increased with increasing BMI. For obese patients, the sex, age, and country adjusted odds ratio of having t(8;21) or inv(16) were 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.4) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-5.8), respectively, compared to healthy weight patients. Conclusions This study did not confirm previous reports of associations between overweight and increased treatment-related or overall mortality in children. Obesity was associated with a higher frequency of t(8;21) and inv(16). AML cytogenetics appear to differ by BMI status.
  • IDEFICS and I. Family Consortia; Thumann, Barbara F.; Michels, Nathalie; Felső, Regina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Börnhorst, Claudia (2020)
    Background Short sleep duration has been suggested to lead to insulin resistance both directly by altering glucose metabolism and indirectly through obesity. This study aims to investigate associations between nocturnal sleep duration and insulin resistance considering abdominal obesity as a mediator. Methods We analysed data of 3 900 children aged 2–15 years participating in the second (2009/10) and third (2013/14) examination wave of the European IDEFICS/I.Family study (hereafter referred to as baseline and follow-up). Information on nocturnal sleep duration was collected by questionnaires and age-standardised (SLEEP z-score). The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was calculated from fasting insulin and fasting glucose obtained from blood samples; waist circumference (WAIST) was measured with an inelastic tape. HOMA and WAIST were used as indicators for insulin resistance and abdominal obesity, respectively, and transformed to age- and sex-specific z-scores. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between SLEEP z-score and HOMA z-score were investigated based on a path model considering WAIST z-score as a mediator adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Cross-sectionally, baseline SLEEP z-score was negatively associated with baseline WAIST z-score (unstandardised effect estimate -0.120, 95% confidence interval [-0.167; -0.073]). We observed no direct effect of baseline SLEEP z-score on baseline HOMA z-score but a negative indirect effect through baseline WAIST z-score (-0.042 [-0.058; -0.025]). Longitudinally, there was no direct effect of baseline SLEEP z-score on HOMA z-score at follow-up but a negative indirect effect through both baseline WAIST z-score and WAIST z-score at follow-up (-0.028 [-0.040; -0.016]). Conclusions Our results do not support the hypothesis of an association between short sleep duration and insulin resistance independent of abdominal obesity. However, longer sleep duration may exert short and long term beneficial effects on insulin resistance through its beneficial effects on abdominal obesity.
  • Makinen, Mauno; Puukko-Viertomies, Leena-Riitta; Lindberg, Nina; Siimes, Martti A.; Aalberg, Veikko (2012)
  • Finndiane Study Grp; Dahlström, Emma H.; Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol M.; Thorn, Lena M.; Jansson, Fanny J.; Harjutsalo, Valma; Groop, Per-Henrik (2019)
    Context: The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality may differ between patients with type 1 diabetes and the general population; it is not known which clinical characteristics modify the relationship. Objective: Our aim was to assess the relationship between BMI and mortality and the interaction with clinically meaningful factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective study included 5836 individuals with type 1 diabetes from the FinnDiane study. Main Outcome Measure and Methods: We retrieved death data for all participants on 31 December 2015. We estimated the effect of BMI on the risk of mortality using a Cox proportional hazards model with BMI as a restricted cubic spline as well as effect modification by adding interaction terms to the spline. Results: During a median of 13.7 years, 876 individuals died. The relationship between baseline BMI and all-cause mortality was reverse J-shaped. When analyses were restricted to those with normal albumin excretion rate, the relationship was U-shaped. The nadir BMI (BMI with the lowest mortality) was in the normal weight region (24.3 to 24.8 kg/m(2)); however, among individuals with diabetic nephropathy, the nadir BMI was in the overweight region (25.9 to 26.1 kg/m(2)). Diabetic nephropathy, diabetes-onset age, and sex modified the relationship between BMI and mortality (P-interaction <0 . 05). Conclusions: Normal weight is optimal for individuals with type 1 diabetes to delay mortality, whereas underweight might be an indication of underlying complications. Maintaining normal weight may translate into reduced risk of mortality in type 1 diabetes, particularly for individuals of male sex, later diabetes-onset age, and normal albumin excretion rate.
  • Stenholm, S.; Head, J.; Aalto, V.; Kivimaki, M.; Kawachi, I.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.; Platts, L. G.; Zaninotto, P.; Hanson, L. L. Magnusson; Westerlund, H.; Vahtera, J. (2017)
    BACKGROUND: While many studies have shown associations between obesity and increased risk of morbidity and mortality, little comparable information is available on how body mass index (BMI) impacts health expectancy. We examined associations of BMI with healthy and chronic disease-free life expectancy in four European cohort studies. METHODS: Data were drawn from repeated waves of cohort studies in England, Finland, France and Sweden. BMI was categorized into four groups from normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg m(-2)) to obesity class II (>= 35 kg m(-2)). Health expectancy was estimated with two health indicators: sub-optimal self-rated health and having a chronic disease (cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease and diabetes). Multistate life table models were used to estimate sex-specific healthy life expectancy and chronic disease-free life expectancy from ages 50 to 75 years for each BMI category. RESULTS: The proportion of life spent in good perceived health between ages 50 and 75 progressively decreased with increasing BMI from 81% in normal weight men and women to 53% in men and women with class II obesity which corresponds to an average 7-year difference in absolute terms. The proportion of life between ages 50 and 75 years without chronic diseases decreased from 62 and 65% in normal weight men and women and to 29 and 36% in men and women with class II obesity, respectively. This corresponds to an average 9 more years without chronic diseases in normal weight men and 7 more years in normal weight women between ages 50 and 75 years compared to class II obese men and women. No consistent differences were observed between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Excess BMI is associated with substantially shorter healthy and chronic disease-free life expectancy, suggesting that tackling obesity would increase years lived in good health in populations.
  • GBD 2015 Eastern Mediterranean Reg; Mokdad, Ali H.; Shiri, Rahman (2018)
    We used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015 study results to explore the burden of high body mass index (BMI) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). We estimated the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children (2-19 years) and adults (20 years) in 1980 and 2015. The burden of disease related to high BMI was calculated using the GBD comparative risk assessment approach. The prevalence of obesity increased for adults from 15.1% (95% UI 13.4-16.9) in 1980 to 20.7% (95% UI 18.8-22.8) in 2015. It increased from 4.1% (95% UI 2.9-5.5) to 4.9% (95% UI 3.6-6.4) for the same period among children. In 2015, there were 417,115 deaths and 14,448,548 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to high BMI in EMR, which constitute about 10 and 6.3% of total deaths and DALYs, respectively, for all ages. This is the first study to estimate trends in obesity burden for the EMR from 1980 to 2015. We call for EMR countries to invest more resources in prevention and health promotion efforts to reduce this burden.
  • Korpela, K.; Zijlmans, M. A. C.; Kuitunen, M.; Kukkonen, K.; Savilahti, E.; Salonen, Anne; de Weerth, C.; de Vos, W. M. (2017)
    Background: Children with high body mass index (BMI) at preschool age are at risk of developing obesity. Early identification of factors that increase the risk of excessive weight gain could help direct preventive actions. The intestinal microbiota and antibiotic use have been identified as potential modulators of early metabolic programming and weight development. To test if the early microbiota composition is associated with later BMI, and if antibiotic use modifies this association, we analysed the faecal microbiota composition at 3 months and the BMI at 5-6 years in two cohorts of healthy children born vaginally at term in the Netherlands (N = 87) and Finland (N = 75). We obtained lifetime antibiotic use records and measured weight and height of all children. Results: The relative abundance of streptococci was positively and the relative abundance of bifidobacteria negatively associated with the BMI outcome. The association was especially strong among children with a history of antibiotic use. Bacteroides relative abundance was associated with BMI only in the children with minimal lifetime antibiotic exposure. Conclusions: The intestinal microbiota of infants are predictive of later BMI and may serve as an early indicator of obesity risk. Bifidobacteria and streptococci, which are indicators of microbiota maturation in infants, are likely candidates for metabolic programming of infants, and their influence on BMI appears to depend on later a\ntibiotic use.
  • Sebert, Sylvain; Lowry, Estelle; Aumuller, Nicole; Bermudez, Mercedes G.; Bjerregaard, Lise G.; de Rooij, Susanne R.; De Silva, Maneka; El Marroun, Hanan; Hummel, Nadine; Juola, Teija; Mason, Giacomo; Much, Daniela; Oliveros, Elena; Poupakis, Stavros; Rautio, Nina; Schwarzfischer, Phillipp; Tzala, Evangelia; Uhl, Olaf; van de Beek, Cornelieke; Vehmeijer, Florianne; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Wasenius, Niko; Webster, Claire; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Miettunen, Jouko; Baker, Jennifer L.; Campoy, Cristina; Conti, Gabriella; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hummel, Sandra; Jaddoe, Vincent; Koletzko, Berthold; Lewin, Alex; Rodriguez-Palermo, Maria; Roseboom, Tessa; Rueda, Ricardo; Evans, Jayne; Felix, Janine F.; Prokopenko, Inga; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta (2019)
  • Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta de Oliveira; Simola-Ström, Sabina; Rounge, Trine B.; Viljakainen, Heli; Eriksson, Johan G.; Roos, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete (2019)
  • Leppänen, Marja H.; Ray, Carola; Wennman, Heini; Alexandrou, Christina; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Koivusilta, Leena; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Background: Recent 24-h movement guidelines for the early years established recommendations for physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and sleep. To date, few studies have focused on compliance with meeting the guidelines and their associations with health outcomes. Thus, we aimed to investigate: 1) compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, and 2) associations between compliance and anthropometry in Finnish preschoolers. Methods: We utilized DAGIS survey data that were collected in 2015-2016 (N = 864). PA was assessed 24 h/day over 7 days using a waist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer. ST and sleep were reported by the parents during the same 7 days. Anthropometry was assessed using body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (WC, cm). Children were classified as meeting the guidelines if they averaged >= 180 min/day of PA, which consisted of >= 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity; Results: Children were physically active on average 390 (+/- 46.2) min/day and spent 86 (+/- 25.5) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA. They spent 76 (+/- 37.4) min/day on ST and had on average 10:21 (+/- 0:33) h:min/day of sleep. The compliance rate in meeting all three movement guidelines overall was 24%. The highest compliance rate was found for PA (85%), followed by sleep (76%) and ST (35%). Meeting guidelines separately for PA or sleep, or for both, were associated with lower WC (PA: B = -1.37, p <0.001; Sleep: B = -0.72, p = 0.009; PA + Sleep: B = -1.03, p <0.001). In addition, meeting guidelines for sleep or for both PA and sleep were associated with lower BMI (Sleep: B = -0.26, p = 0.027; PA + Sleep: B = -0.30, p = 0.007). There were no significant associations found regarding ST. Conclusions: Meeting recommendations for PA and sleep may have an important role in supporting a healthy weight status in young children. However, there is still a need to improve compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, especially for ST.
  • Halonen, Jaana; Pulakka, Anna; Pentti, Jaana; Kallio, Minna; Koskela, Sofia; Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (2020)
    Objective Neighbourhood characteristics may affect the level of physical activity (PA) of the residents. Few studies have examined the combined effects of distinctive neighbourhood characteristics on PA using objective data or differentiated between activity during working or non-working days. We examined the associations of socioeconomic disadvantage and greenness with accelerometer-measured leisure-time PA during working and non-working days. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Finnish Retirement and Aging (FIREA) study. Participants 708 workers (604 women, mean age 62.4 ranging from 58 to 64 years,) participating in the FIREA study who provided PA measurement data for at least 1 working and non-working day. Primary and secondary outcomes PA was measured with wrist-worn accelerometer on average of 4 working and 2 non-working days. Outcomes were total PA, light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). These measurements were linked to data on neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and greenness within the home neighbourhood (750x750 m). Generalised linear models were adjusted for possible confounders. Results On non-working days, higher neighbourhood disadvantage associated with lower levels of total PA (p value=0.07) and higher level of neighbourhood greenness associated with higher level of total PA (p value=0.04). Neighbourhood disadvantage and greenness had an interaction (p value=0.02); in areas of low disadvantage higher greenness did not associate with the level of total PA. However, in areas of high disadvantage, 2 SD higher greenness associated with 46 min/day (95% CI 8.4 to 85) higher total PA. Slightly stronger interaction was observed for LPA (p=0.03) than for the MVPA (p=0.09). During working days, there were no associations between neighbourhood characteristics and leisure-time total PA. Conclusions Of the disadvantaged neighbourhoods, those characterised by high levels of greenness seem to associate with higher levels of leisure-time PA during non-working days. These findings suggest that efforts to add greenness to socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods might reduce inequalities in PA.
  • Vaara, Jani P.; Vasankari, Tommi; Fogelholm, Mikael; Koski, Harri; Kyrolainen, Heikki (2020)
    IntroductionActive commuting is an inexpensive and accessible form of physical activity and may be beneficial to health. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of active commuting and its subcomponents, cycling and walking, with cardiometabolic risk factors, physical fitness and body composition in young men.MethodsParticipants were 776 Finnish young (267 years), healthy adult men. Active commuting was measured with self-report. Waist circumference was measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Aerobic fitness was measured with bicycle ergometer and muscular fitness with maximal leg and bench press, sit-ups, push-ups and standing long jump. Cardiometabolic risk factors were analysed from blood samples and selected variables (glucose, insulin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure) were further converted to z-score to form clustered cardiometabolic risk.ResultsA total of 24% used active commuting consisting of 10% of walkers and 14% of cyclists. After adjustments for age, smoking, time of year, leisure-time and occupational physical activities, cycling was inversely associated with the clustered cardiometabolic risk (beta=-0.11, 95% CI -0.22 to -0.01), while walking was not (beta=-0.04, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.08). However, further adjustment for waist circumference attenuated the associations to non-significant. Moreover, cycling but not walking was inversely associated with BMI, waist circumference and maximal strength, while a positive association was observed with aerobic fitness (p
  • Mendelian Randomization Dairy Cons; CHARGE Consortium; Huang, Tao; Kahonen, Mika; Mikkilä, Vera; Havulinna, Aki S.; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimäki, Terho; Helminen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Associations between dairy intake and body composition and cardiometabolic traits have been inconsistently observed in epidemiological studies, and the causal relationship remains ill-defined. METHODS: We performed Mendelian randomization analysis using an established genetic variant located upstream of the lactase gene (LCT- 13910 C/T, rs4988235) associated with dairy intake as an instrumental variable (IV). The causal effects of dairy intake on body composition and cardiometabolic traits (lipids, glycemic traits, and inflammatory factors) were quantified by IV estimators among 182041 participants from 18 studies. RESULTS: Each 1 serving/day higher dairy intake was associated with higher lean mass [beta (SE) = 0.117 kg (0.035); P = 0.001], higher hemoglobin A(1c) [0.009% (0.002); P <0.001], lower LDL [-0.014 mmol/L (0.006); P = 0.013], total cholesterol (TC) [-0.012 mmol/L (0.005); P = 0.023], and non-HDL [- 0.012 mmol/L (0.005); P = 0.028]. The LCT- 13910 C/T CT + TT genotype was associated with 0.214 more dairy servings/day (SE = 0.047; P = 0.001), 0.284 cm higher waist circumference (SE = 0.118; P = 0.017), 0.112 kg higher lean mass (SE = 0.027; P = 3.8 X 10(-5)), 0.032 mmol/L lower LDL (SE = 0.009; P = 0.001), and 0.032 mmol/L lower TC (SE = 0.010; P = 0.001). Genetically higher dairy intake was associated with increased lean mass [0.523 kg per serving/day (0.170); P = 0.002] after correction for multiple testing (0.05/18). However, we find that genetically higher dairy intake was not associated with lipids and glycemic traits. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides evidence to support a potential causal effect of higher dairy intake on increased lean mass among adults. Our findings suggest that the observational associations of dairy intake with lipids and glycemic traits may be the result of confounding. (C) 2019 American Association for Clinical Chemistry
  • Dubois, Lise; Diasparra, Maikol; Bogl, Leonie-Helen; Fontaine-Bisson, Benedicte; Bedard, Brigitte; Tremblay, Richard E.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boivin, Michel (2016)
    There is a lack of evidence pointing to specific dietary elements related to weight gain and obesity prevention in childhood and adulthood. Dietary intake and obesity are both inherited and culturally transmitted, but most prospective studies on the association between diet and weight status do not take genetics into consideration. The objective of this study was to document the association between dietary intake at 9 years and subsequent Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescent monozygotic boy and girl twin pairs. This research used data from 152 twin pairs. Dietary data were collected from two 24-hour-recall interviews with a parent and the child aged 9 years. Height and weight were obtained when the twins were aged 9, 12, 13, and 14 years. Intrapair variability analysis was performed to identify dietary elements related to BMI changes in subsequent years. BMI-discordant monozygotic twin pairs were also identified to analyze the dietary constituents that may have generated the discordance. After eliminating potential confounding genetic factors, pre-adolescent boys who ate fewer grain products and fruit and consumed more high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence; pre-adolescent girls who consumed more grain products and high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence. Energy intake (EI) at 9 years was not related to BMI in subsequent years. Our study suggests that messages and interventions directed at obesity prevention could take advantage of sex-specific designs and, eventually, genetic information.
  • Vepsalainen, Henna; Korkalo, Liisa; Mikkila, Vera; Lehto, Reetta; Ray, Carola; Nissinen, Kaija; Skaffari, Essi; Fogelholm, Mikael; Koivusilta, Leena; Roos, Eva; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2018)
    Objective: To study the associations between home food availability and dietary patterns among pre-school children. Design: Cross-sectional study in which parents of the participating children filled in an FFQ and reported how often they had certain foods in their homes. We derived dietary pattern scores using principal component analysis, and composite scores describing the availability of fruits and vegetables as well as sugar-enriched foods in the home were created for each participant. We used multilevel models to investigate the associations between availability and dietary pattern scores. Setting: The DAGIS study, Finland. Subjects: The participants were 864 Finnish 3-6-year-old children recruited from sixty-six pre-schools. The analyses included 711 children with sufficient data. Results: We identified three dietary patterns explaining 16.7% of the variance. The patterns were named 'sweets-and-treats' (high loadings of e.g. sweet biscuits, chocolate, ice cream), 'health-conscious' (high loadings of e.g. nuts, natural yoghurt, berries) and 'vegetables-and-processed meats' (high loadings of e.g. vegetables, cold cuts, fruit). In multivariate models, the availability of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with the sweets-and-treats pattern (beta = -0.05, P <0.01) and positively associated with the health-conscious (beta = 0.07, P <0.01) and vegetables-and-processed meats patterns (beta = 0.06, P <0.01). The availability of sugar-enriched foods was positively associated with the sweets-and-treats pattern (beta = 0.10, P <0.01) and inversely associated with the health-conscious pattern (beta = -0.03, P <0.01). Conclusions: Considering dietary patterns, the availability of sugar-enriched foods in the home seems to have a stronger role than that of fruits and vegetables. Parents should restrict the availability of unhealthy foods in the home.