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  • Yao, Lei; Garmash, Olga; Bianchi, Federico; Zheng, Jun; Yan, Chao; Kontkanen, Jenni; Junninen, Heikki; Mazon, Stephany Buenrostro; Ehn, Mikael; Paasonen, Pauli; Sipilä, Mikko; Wang, Mingyi; Wang, Xinke; Xiao, Shan; Chen, Hangfei; Lu, Yiqun; Zhang, Bowen; Wang, Dongfang; Fu, Qingyan; Geng, Fuhai; Li, Li; Wang, Hongli; Qiao, Liping; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jianmin; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, Markku; Wang, Lin (2018)
    Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is an important global phenomenon that is nevertheless sensitive to ambient conditions. According to both observation and theoretical arguments, NPF usually requires a relatively high sulfuric acid (H2SO4) concentration to promote the formation of new particles and a low preexisting aerosol loading to minimize the sink of new particles. We investigated NPF in Shanghai and were able to observe both precursor vapors (H2SO4) and initial clusters at a molecular level in a megacity. High NPF rates were observed to coincide with several familiar markers suggestive of H2SO4-dimethylamine (DMA)water (H2O) nucleation, including sulfuric acid dimers and H2SO4-DMA clusters. In a cluster kinetics simulation, the observed concentration of sulfuric acid was high enough to explain the particle growth to similar to 3 nanometers under the very high condensation sink, whereas the subsequent higher growth rate beyond this size is believed to result fromthe added contribution of condensing organic species. These findings will help in understanding urban NPF and its air quality and climate effects, as well as in formulating policies to mitigate secondary particle formation in China.
  • Olenius, Tinja; Halonen, Roope; Kurten, Theo; Henschel, Henning; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Ortega, Ismael K.; Jen, Coty N.; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Riipinen, Ilona (2017)
    Amines are bases that originate from both anthropogenic and natural sources, and they are recognized as candidates to participate in atmospheric aerosol particle formation together with sulfuric acid. Monomethylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine (MMA, DMA, and TMA, respectively) have been shown to enhance sulfuric acid-driven particle formation more efficiently than ammonia, but both theory and laboratory experiments suggest that there are differences in their enhancing potentials. However, as quantitative concentrations and thermochemical properties of different amines remain relatively uncertain, and also for computational reasons, the compounds have been treated as a single surrogate amine species in large-scale modeling studies. In this work, the differences and similarities of MMA, DMA, and TMA are studied by simulations of molecular cluster formation from sulfuric acid, water, and each of the three amines. Quantum chemistry-based cluster evaporation rate constants are applied in a cluster population dynamics model to yield cluster concentrations and formation rates at boundary layer conditions. While there are differences, for instance, in the clustering mechanisms and cluster hygroscopicity for the three amines, DMA and TMA can be approximated as a lumped species. Formation of nanometer-sized particles and its dependence on ambient conditions is roughly similar for these two: both efficiently form clusters with sulfuric acid, and cluster formation is rather insensitive to changes in temperature and relative humidity. Particle formation from sulfuric acid and MMA is weaker and significantly more sensitive to ambient conditions. Therefore, merging MMA together with DMA and TMA introduces inaccuracies in sulfuric acid-amine particle formation schemes.