Browsing by Subject "Occupational stress"

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  • Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Virtanen, Marianna; Rod, Naja H.; Steptoe, Andrew; Head, Jenny; Batty, G. D.; Kivimäki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo (2019)
    Objective: Inflammation may underlie the association between psychological stress and cardiometabolic diseases, but this proposition has not been tested longitudinally. We investigated whether the circulating inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) mediate the relationship between psychosocial work characteristics and diabetes. Methods: We used three phases of data at 5 years intervals from the Whitehall II cohort study, originally recruiting 10,308 civil service employees aged 35-55 years. The data included repeat self-reports of job demands, control and social support, IL-6 from plasma samples, CRP from serum samples, and diabetes, ascertained through oral glucose tolerance test, medications, and self-reports of doctor-diagnosed diabetes. Results: Structural equation models with age, sex and occupational position considering men and women combined, showed that low social support at work, but not high job demands or low job control, was prospectively associated with diabetes (standardized beta = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.09) and higher levels of IL-6 (beta = 0.03, CI 0.00-0.06). The inflammatory markers and diabetes were bidirectionally associated over time. A mediation model including workplace social support, IL-6 and diabetes further showed that 10% of the association between social support and diabetes over the three repeat examinations (total effect beta = 0.08, CI 0.01-0.15) was attributable to a weak indirect effect through IL-6 (beta = 0.01, CI 0.00-0.02). A similar indirect effect was observed for CRP in men only, while job control was prospectively associated with IL-6 among women. Conclusions: This study indicates an association between poor workplace support and diabetes that is partially ascribed to an inflammatory response.
  • Ericsson, Christoffer R.; Nordquist, Hilla; Lindström, Veronica; Rudman, Ann (2021)
    Background Paramedics experience traumatic events and social emergencies during assignments while also being subjected to verbal and physical threats. Consequently, they are at risk for burnout and secondary traumatic stress, factors inherent to professional quality of life. Defusing and peer-support potentially decrease such symptoms; however, perceived defusing needs and use are not always balanced. Our aim was to explore Finnish paramedics' professional quality of life, using the Professional Quality of Life Scale, with associations to EMS assignment experiences as well as formal and informal defusing need and use over a 12-month period. Methods A quantitative study of 257 Finnish paramedics using a cross-sectional design. Study outcomes were secondary traumatic stress (STS), compassion satisfaction (CS), and burnout (BO) scores using the modified 9-item Short Professional Quality of Life scale (ProQOL). Likert-type scales were used to collect participants' recollections of assignment experiences and defusing from a 12-month period. Associations were explored using Spearman's correlation coefficients. Results Short ProQOL score medians were STS 4.00 (IQR 3), BO 6.00 (IQR 3) and CS 13.00 (IQR 3). STS and BO correlated to experiences of social emergencies and traumatic events while BO correlated to experiences of threat situations (r = 0.206, p = .001). Paramedics perceived a need for defusing in general associated with STS (r = 0.178, p < .001) and participated in informal defusing. Participation in defusing of any form did not associate with ProQOL scores. Conclusions Finnish paramedics' more frequent experiences of social emergencies, traumatic events, and paramedic-directed threat situations were associated with higher levels of STS and BO. STS was also associated with paramedics' increased need for defusing and use of informal peer defusing, although neither STS, BO or CS scores associated to any defusing form. Managing paramedics STS and BO, while fostering CS, could therefore be a future research focus.