Browsing by Subject "Ocular pharmacokinetics"

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  • Lamminsalo, Marko; Karvinen, Timo; Subrizi, Astrid; Urtti, Arto; Ranta, Veli-Pekka (2020)
    Purpose To estimate the diffusion coefficients of an IgG antibody (150 kDa) and its antigen-binding fragment (Fab; 50 kDa) in the neural retina (D-ret) and the combined retinal pigment epithelium-choroid (DRPE-cho) with a 3-dimensional (3D) ocular pharmacokinetic (PK) model of the rabbit eye. Methods Vitreous, retina, and aqueous humor concentrations of IgG and Fab after intravitreal injection in rabbits were taken from Gadkar et al. (2015). A least-squares method was used to estimate D(ret)and D(RPE-cho)with the 3D finite element model where mass transport was defined with diffusion and convection. Different intraocular pressures (IOP), initial distribution volumes (V-init), and neural retina/vitreous partition coefficients (K-ret/vit) were tested. Sensitivity analysis was performed for the final model. Results With the final IgG model (IOP 10.1 Torr, V(init)400 mu l, K(ret/vit)0.5), the estimated D(ret)and D(RPE-cho)were 36.8 x 10(-9)cm(2)s(-1)and 4.11 x 10(-9)cm(2)s(-1), respectively, and 76% of the dose was eliminated via the anterior chamber. Modeling of Fab revealed that a physiological model parameter "aqueous humor formation rate" sets constraints that need to be considered in the parameter estimation. Conclusions This study extends the use of 3D ocular PK models for parameter estimation using simultaneously macromolecule concentrations in three ocular tissues.
  • Bahrpeyma, Sina; Reinisalo, Mika; Hellinen, Laura; Auriola, Seppo; Amo, Eva M. del; Urtti, Arto (2022)
    Melanin binding of drugs is known to increase drug concentrations and retention in pigmented eye tissues. Even though the correlation between melanin binding in vitro and exposure to pigmented eye in vivo has been shown, there is a discrepancy between rapid drug release from melanin particles in vitro and the long in vivo retention in the pigmented tissues. We investigated mechanisms and kinetics of pigment-related drug retention experimentally using isolated melanin particles from porcine retinal pigment epithelium and choroid, isolated porcine eye melanosomes, and re-pigmented ARPE-19 cells in a dynamic flow system. The experimental studies were supplemented with kinetic simulations. Affinity and capacity of levofloxacin, terazosin, papaverine, and timolol binding to melanin revealed Kd values of asymptotic to 50-150 mu M and B-max asymptotic to 40-112 The drugs were released from melanin in < 1 h (timolol) or in 6-12 h (other drugs). The drugs were released slower from the melanosomes than from melanin; the experimental differences ranged from 1.2-fold (papaverine) to 7.4-fold (timolol). Kinetic simulations supported the role of the melanosomal membrane in slowing down the release of melanin binders. In release studies from the pigmented ARPE-19 cells, drugs were released from the cellular melanin to the extra -cellular space in asymptotic to 1 day (timolol) and asymptotic to 11 days (levofloxacin), i.e., much slower than the release from melanin or melanosomes. Simulations of drug release from pigmented cells in the flow system matched the experimental data and enabled further sensitivity analyses. The simulations demonstrated a significant prolongation of drug retention in the cells as a function of decreasing drug permeability in the melanosomal membranes and increasing melanin content in the cells. Overall, we report the impact of cellular factors in prolonging drug retention and release from melanin-containing cells. These data and simulations will facilitate the design of melanin binding drugs with prolonged ocular actions.
  • del Amo, Eva M.; Hammid, Anam; Tausch, Melanie; Toropainen, Elisa; Sadeghi, Amir; Valtari, Annika; Puranen, Jooseppi; Reinisalo, Mika; Ruponen, Marika; Urtti, Arto; Sauer, Achim; Honkakoski, Paavo (2022)
    Quantitation of ocular drug metabolism is important, but only sparse data is currently available. Herein, the pharmacokinetics of four drugs, substrates of metabolizing enzymes, was investigated in albino rabbit eyes after intracameral and intravitreal administrations. Acetaminophen, brimonidine, cefuroxime axetil, and sunitinib and their corresponding metabolites were quantitated in the cornea, iris-ciliary body, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor, and neural retina with LC-MS/MS analytics. Non-compartmental analysis was employed to estimate the pharmacokinetic parameters of the parent drugs and metabolites. The area under the curve (AUC) values of metabolites were 12-70 times lower than the AUC values of the parent drugs in the tissues with the highest enzymatic activity. The ester prodrug cefuroxime axetil was an exception because it was efficiently and quantitatively converted to cefuroxime in the ocular tissues. In contrast to the liver, sulfotransferases, aldehyde oxidase, and cytochrome P450 3A activities were low in the eye and they had negligible impact on ocular drug clearance. With the exception of esterase substrates, metabolism seems to be a minor player in ocular pharmacokinetics. However, metabolites might contribute to ocular toxicity, and drug metabolism in various eye tissues should be investigated and understood thoroughly.
  • Fayyaz, Anam; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Toropainen, Elisa; Reinisalo, Mika; Valtari, Annika; Puranen, Jooseppi; Ricci, Giuseppe D'Amico; Heikkinen, Emma M.; Gardner, Iain; Ruponen, Marika; Urtti, Arto; Jamei, Masoud; Amo, Eva M. del (2021)
    Quantitative understanding of pharmacokinetics of topically applied ocular drugs requires more research to further understanding and to eventually allow predictive in silico models to be developed. To this end, a topical cocktail of betaxolol, timolol and atenolol was instilled on albino rabbit eyes. Tear fluid, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma with endothelium, bulbar conjunctiva, anterior sclera, iris-ciliary body, lens and vitreous samples were collected and analysed using LC-MS/MS. Iris-ciliary body was also analysed after intracameral cocktail injection. Non-compartmental analysis was utilized to estimate the pharmacokinetics parameters. The most lipophilic drug, betaxolol, presented the highest exposure in all tissues except for tear fluid after topical administration, followed by timolol and atenolol. For all drugs, iris-ciliary body concentrations were higher than that of the aqueous humor. After topical instillation the most hydrophilic drug, atenolol, had 3.7 times higher AUCiris-ciliary body than AUCaqueous humor, whereas the difference was 1.4 and 1.6 times for timolol and betaxolol, respectively. This suggests that the non-corneal route (conjunctival-scleral) was dominating the absorption of atenolol, while the corneal route was more important for timolol and betaxolol. The presented data increase understanding of ocular pharmacokinetics of a cocktail of drugs and provide data that can be used for quantitative modeling and simulation.
  • Lamminsalo, Marko; Urtti, Arto; Ranta, Veli-Pekka (2022)
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of the anterior elimination route for four anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) macromolecules (aflibercept, bevacizumab, pegaptanib and ranibizumab) after intravitreal injection using published human and rabbit data and three previously described pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling methods. A PubMed search was used to identify published studies with concentration-time data. The data were utilized only if the intravitreally injected drugs were used as plain solutions and several criteria for a well-performed PK study were fulfilled. The three methods to analyze rabbit data were (1) the equation for vitreal elimination halflife based molecular size assuming anterior elimination, (2) Maurice equation and plot for the ratio of aqueous humor (AH) to vitreal concentration assuming anterior elimination, and (3) the equation for amount of macromolecule eliminated anteriorly based on the area under the curve in AH. The first and third methods were used for human data. In the second and third methods, AH flow rate is a key model parameter, and it was varied between 2 and 3 ill/min. The methods were applied to data from 9 rabbit studies (1 for aflibercept, 5 for bevacizumab, and 3 for ranibizumab) and 5 human studies (1 for aflibercept, 3 for bevacizumab, and 1 for ranibizumab). Experimental half-lives of anti-VEGF macromolecules in both vitreous and aqueous humor were close to those calculated with the equations for vitreal elimination half-life in humans and rabbits. Rabbit data analyzed with Maurice plot indicated that the contribution of anterior elimination was usually at least 75%. In most human and rabbit studies, the calculated percentage of anterior elimination was at least 51%. Variability between studies was extensive for bevacizumab and ranibizumab. The results suggest that the anterior elimination route dominates after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF macromolecules. However, the clinical data are sparse and variability is extensive, the latter emphasizing the need of proper experimental design.
  • del Amo, Eva M.; Urtti, Arto (2015)
    Intravitreal administration is the method of choice in drug delivery to the retina and/or choroid. Rabbit is the most commonly used animal species in intravitreal pharmacokinetics, but it has been criticized as being a poor model of human eye. The critique is based on some anatomical differences, properties of the vitreous humor, and observed differences in drug concentrations in the anterior chamber after intravitreal injections. We have systematically analyzed all published information on intravitreal pharmacokinetics in the rabbit and human eye. The analysis revealed major problems in the design of the pharmacokinetic studies. In this review we provide advice for study design. Overall, the pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance, volume of distribution, half-life) in the human and rabbit eye have good correlation and comparable absolute values. Therefore, reliable rabbit-to-man translation of intravitreal pharmacokinetics should be feasible. The relevant anatomical and physiological parameters in rabbit and man show only small differences. Furthermore, the claimed discrepancy between drug concentrations in the human and rabbit aqueous humor is not supported by the data analysis. Based on the available and properly conducted pharmacokinetic studies, the differences in the vitreous structure in rabbits and human patients do not lead to significant pharmacokinetic differences. This review is the first step towards inter-species translation of intravitreal pharmacokinetics. More information is still needed to dissect the roles of drug delivery systems, disease states, age and ocular manipulation on the intravitreal pharmacokinetics in rabbit and man. Anyway, the published data and the derived pharmacokinetic parameters indicate that the rabbit is a useful animal model in intravitreal pharmacokinetics. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Ramsay, Eva; Hagström, Marja; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Boman, Susanna; Toropainen, Elisa; del Amo, Eva M.; Kidron, Heidi; Urtti, Arto; Ruponen, Marika (2019)
    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major part of blood-retinal barrier that affects drug elimination from the vitreous to the blood and drug distribution from blood circulation into the eye. Even though drug clearance from the vitreous has been well studied, the role of RPE in the process has not been quantified. The aim of this work was to study the role of RPE clearance (CLRpE) as part of drug elimination from the vitreous and ocular drug distribution from the systemic blood circulation. We determined the bidirectional permeability of eight small molecular weight drugs and bevacizumab antibody across isolated bovine RPE-choroid. Permeability of small molecules was 10(-6) -10(-5)cm/s showing 13-15 fold range of outward and inward permeation, while permeability of bevacizumab was lower by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Most small molecular weight drugs showed comparable outward (vitreous-to-choroid) and inward (choroid-to-vitreous) permeability across the RPEchoroid, except ciprofloxacin and ketorolac that had an over 6 and 14-fold higher outward than inward permeability, respectively, possibly indicating active transport, Six of seven tested small molecular weight drugs had outward CLRPE values that were comparable with their intravitreal clearance (CLIvr) values (0.84-2.6 fold difference). On the contrary, bevacizumab had an outward CLRPE that was only 3.5% of the CLIvt, proving that its main route of elimination (after intravitreal injection) is not RPE permeation. Experimental values were used in pharmacokinetic simulations to assess the role of the RPE in drug transfer from the systemic blood circulation to the vitreous (CLBv). We conclude that for small molecular weight drugs the RPE is an important route in drug transfer between the vitreal cavity and blood, whereas it effectively hinders the movement of bevacizumab from the vitreous to the systemic circulation.
  • Fayyaz, Anam; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Toropainen, Elisa; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Valtari, Annika; Puranen, Jooseppi; Ruponen, Marika; Gardner, Iain; Urtti, Arto; Jamei, Masoud; del Amo, Eva M. (2020)
    Ocular bioavailability after eye drops administration is an important, but rarely determined, pharmacokinetic parameter. In this study, we measured the pharmacokinetics of a cocktail of three beta blockers after their topical administration into the albino rabbit eye. Samples from aqueous humour were analysed with LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using compartmental and non-compartmental analyses. The ocular bioavailability was covering broad range of values: atenolol (0.07 %), timolol (1.22%, 1.51%) and betaxolol (3.82%, 4.31%). Absolute ocular bioavailability presented a positive trend with lipophilicity and the values showed approximately 60-fold range. The generated data enhances our understanding for ocular pharmacokinetics of drugs and may be utilized in pharmacokinetic model building in ophthalmic drug development.