Browsing by Subject "Opioid maintenance treatment"

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  • Launonen, Essiina; Wallace, Isla; Kotovirta, Elina; Alho, Hannu; Simojoki, Kaarlo (2016)
    Background: The intravenous (IV) use of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) medications and other intoxicating drugs among OMT patients is a challenge for many OMT units and affects treatment outcomes. The aim of this study is to examine factors associated with IV use of OMT medications and other intoxicating drugs among Finnish OMT patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among all Finnish OMT patients of whom 60% (n = 1508) participated. The data were collected by anonymous questionnaire. Binominal regression analysis with unadjusted and adjusted ORs was conducted to evaluate predictors for IV use. Findings: Factors associated with the injection of a patient's own OMT medication were: being treated with buprenorphine-naloxone (BNX) (OR 2.60, p = 0.005) with a low dose ( Conclusions: More effort should be made to reduce concurrent injecting use during OMT. This may be done by addressing concurrent substance use orders more effectively, by ensuring that patients receive an optimal BNX dose and by providing more psychosocial support. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kriikku, Pirkko; Hakkinen, Margareeta; Ojanpera, Ilkka (2018)
    Sublingual buprenorphine is used in opioid maintenance treatment but buprenorphine is also widely abused and causes fatal poisonings. The aim of this study was to investigate buprenorphine-positive fatalities in order to gain novel information on the magnitude and nature of buprenorphine abuse. All post-mortem toxicology cases positive for urinary buprenorphine, including fatal poisonings caused by buprenorphine and fatalities in which the cause of death was unrelated to buprenorphine, in the five year period of 2010-2014 in Finland were characterized according to urine buprenorphine and naloxone concentrations (n = 775). Urine concentrations were used to assess which buprenorphine preparation had been used; mono-buprenorphine or a buprenorphine-naloxone combination, and whether they had been administered parenterally. In at least 28.8% of the buprenorphine-positive cases the drug had been administered parenterally. The majority of the parenteral users (68.6%) had taken mono-buprenorphine. Fatal poisoning was significantly more common among the identified parenteral users (65.5%) than among other users of buprenorphine products (45.3%). The proportion of buprenorphine-related poisoning was similar in identified parenteral users of mono-buprenorphine (68.6%) and buprenorphine-naloxone (64.1%). In nearly all of the fatal poisoningss the deceased had used other drugs and/or alcohol along with buprenorphine (98.7%). The median age of the deceased increased significantly over the study period, from 32 to 38 years. Our results show that there is ongoing parenteral abuse of both mono-buprenorphine and buprenorphine-naloxone combination. Parenteral users of buprenorphine put themselves into a great risk of fatal poisoning or other accidental injury death which is further exacerbated by the frequent polydrug use. (c) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Heikman, Pertti Kalevi; Muhonen, Leea Hellevi; Ojanpera, Ilkka Antero (2017)
    Background: Polydrug abuse is a known problem among opioid-dependent patients receiving opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). However, improved laboratory diagnostics is required to reveal polydrug abuse in its current scope. Furthermore, there are few studies focusing on the relationship between polydrug abuse and adequacy of the dose of OMT medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the polydrug abuse among opioid-dependent patients receiving OMT with inadequate (Group IA) and adequate (Group A) doses of OMT medicine as experienced by the patients. Craving for opioids and withdrawal symptoms were evaluated as indicators of the adequacy rating. Methods: This is a retrospective register-based study of 60 OMT patients on either methadone or sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone medication, whose polydrug abuse was studied from urine samples by means of a comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometry method. Results: Inadequate doses of the OMT medicines were associated with higher subjective withdrawal scores and craving for opioids. Six groups of abused substances (benzodiazepines, amphetamines, opioids, cannabis, new psychoactive substances, and non-prescribed psychotropic medicines) were found among OMT patients. Group IA patients showed significantly more abuse of benzodiazepines and amphetamines than the Group A patients. All the new psychoactive substances and most of the non-prescribed psychotropic medicines were detected from the Group IA patients. There was no difference in the doses of the OMT medicine between Groups IA and A patients. Conclusions: Polydrug abuse, detected by definitive laboratory methods, was widespread and more common among Group IA than Group A patients, emphasizing the requirement for individual OMT medicine dose adjustment.
  • Heikman, Pertti K; Muhonen, Leea H; Ojanperä, Ilkka A (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Polydrug abuse is a known problem among opioid-dependent patients receiving opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). However, improved laboratory diagnostics is required to reveal polydrug abuse in its current scope. Furthermore, there are few studies focusing on the relationship between polydrug abuse and adequacy of the dose of OMT medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the polydrug abuse among opioid-dependent patients receiving OMT with inadequate (Group IA) and adequate (Group A) doses of OMT medicine as experienced by the patients. Craving for opioids and withdrawal symptoms were evaluated as indicators of the adequacy rating. Methods This is a retrospective register-based study of 60 OMT patients on either methadone or sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone medication, whose polydrug abuse was studied from urine samples by means of a comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometry method. Results Inadequate doses of the OMT medicines were associated with higher subjective withdrawal scores and craving for opioids. Six groups of abused substances (benzodiazepines, amphetamines, opioids, cannabis, new psychoactive substances, and non-prescribed psychotropic medicines) were found among OMT patients. Group IA patients showed significantly more abuse of benzodiazepines and amphetamines than the Group A patients. All the new psychoactive substances and most of the non-prescribed psychotropic medicines were detected from the Group IA patients. There was no difference in the doses of the OMT medicine between Groups IA and A patients. Conclusions Polydrug abuse, detected by definitive laboratory methods, was widespread and more common among Group IA than Group A patients, emphasizing the requirement for individual OMT medicine dose adjustment.