Browsing by Subject "Optimism"

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  • Serlachius, Anna; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Elovainio, Marko (2017)
    Objective: The transmission of overweight from one generation to the next is well established, however little is known about what psychosocial factors may protect against this familial risk. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimism plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Methods: Our sample included 1043 participants from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young FINNS Study. Optimism was measured in early adulthood (2001) when the cohort was aged 24-39 years. BMI was measured in 2001 (baseline) and 2012 when they were aged 35-50 years. Parental BMI was measured in 1980. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression were used to examine the association between optimism and future BMI/obesity, and whether an interaction existed between optimism and parental BMI when predicting BMI/obesity 11 years later. Results: High optimism in young adulthood demonstrated a negative relationship with high BMI in mid-adulthood, but only in women (beta = - 0.127, p = 0.001). The optimism x maternal BMI interaction term was a significant predictor of future BMI in women (beta = 0.588, p = 0.036). The logistic regression results confirmed that high optimism predicted reduced obesity in women (OR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.55-0.86), however the optimism x maternal obesity interaction term was not a significant predictor (OR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.10-2.48). Conclusions: Our findings supported our hypothesis that high optimism mitigated the intergenerational transmission of high BMI, but only in women. These findings also provided evidence that positive psychosocial factors such as optimism are associated with long-term protective effects on BMI in women.
  • Appelqvist-Schmidlechner, Kaija; Tuisku, Katinka; Tamminen, Nina; Nordling, Esa; Solin, Pia (2016)
    Mielen­terveys on osa hyvin­vointia, ja posi­tii­vinen mielen­terveys on voima­vara, jol­la si­tä voi­daan edistää. Posi­tii­vista mielen­ter­veyttä voi­daan vah­vistaa toi­mimaan suo­jana sai­rauksia vas­taan, selviy­tymään nii­den kans­sa ja edis­tämään toipu­mista. Väes­tön ter­veyttä koske­vissa tutki­muk­sissa on keski­tytty pääa­siassa mielen­ter­veyden oi­reisiin, häi­riöihin ja sai­rauksiin. Sen si­jaan posi­tii­vinen ulot­tuvuus on jää­nyt vähem­mälle huo­miolle. Posi­tii­visen mielen­ter­veyden mittaa­misen vaikeu­tena on ol­lut kä­sitteen moni­muo­toisuus ja toi­saalta so­pivien mit­tarien puuttu­minen. Posi­tii­vista mielen­ter­veyttä voi­daan mi­tata esi­mer­kiksi suo­meksi käänne­tyllä Warwick-Edinburgh men­tal well-being scale (WEMWBS) -mit­ta­rilla.
  • Pänkäläinen, Mikko; Fogelholm, Mikael; Valve, Raisa; Kampman, Olli; Kauppi, Markku; Lappalainen, Erja; Hintikka, Jukka (2018)
    BackgroundDietary habits have a great influence on physiological health. Even though this fact is generally recognized, people do not eat as healthily as they know they should. The factors that support a healthy diet, on the other hand, are not well known. It is supposed that there is a link between personal traits and dietary habits. Personal traits may also partially explain why some people manage to make healthy dietary changes while some fail to do so or are not able to try to make changes even when they desire to do so. There is some information suggesting that dispositional optimism plays a role in succeeding in improving dietary habits. The aim of this study was to determine the role of optimism and pessimism in the process of dietary changes.MethodsDispositional optimism and pessimism were determined using the revised Life Orientation Test in 2815 individuals (aged 52-76years) participating in the GOAL study in the region of Lahti, Finland. The dietary habits of the study subjects were analysed. After 3years, the subjects' dietary habits and their possible improvements were registered. The associations between dispositional optimism and pessimism, dietary habits at baseline, and possible changes in dietary habits during the follow-up were studied with logistic regression. We also studied if the dietary habits or certain lifestyle factors (e.g. physical exercising and smoking) at baseline predicted success in improving the diet.ResultsPessimism seemed to correlate clearly negatively with the healthiness of the dietary habits at baseline - i.e. the higher the level of pessimism, the unhealthier the diet. Optimism also showed a correlation with dietary habits at baseline, although to a lesser extent. Those who managed to improve their dietary habits during follow-up or regarded their dietary habits as healthy enough even without a change were less pessimistic at baseline than those who failed in their attempts to improve their diet or did not even try, even when they recognized the need for a change.ConclusionsPessimistic people are more likely to eat an unhealthy diet than others. Pessimism reduces independently the possibilities to improve dietary patterns.
  • Pänkäläinen, Mikko; Fogelholm, Mikael; Valve, Raisa; Kampman, Olli; Kauppi, Markku; Lappalainen, Erja; Hintikka, Jukka (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Dietary habits have a great influence on physiological health. Even though this fact is generally recognized, people do not eat as healthily as they know they should. The factors that support a healthy diet, on the other hand, are not well known. It is supposed that there is a link between personal traits and dietary habits. Personal traits may also partially explain why some people manage to make healthy dietary changes while some fail to do so or are not able to try to make changes even when they desire to do so. There is some information suggesting that dispositional optimism plays a role in succeeding in improving dietary habits. The aim of this study was to determine the role of optimism and pessimism in the process of dietary changes. Methods Dispositional optimism and pessimism were determined using the revised Life Orientation Test in 2815 individuals (aged 52–76 years) participating in the GOAL study in the region of Lahti, Finland. The dietary habits of the study subjects were analysed. After 3 years, the subjects’ dietary habits and their possible improvements were registered. The associations between dispositional optimism and pessimism, dietary habits at baseline, and possible changes in dietary habits during the follow-up were studied with logistic regression. We also studied if the dietary habits or certain lifestyle factors (e.g. physical exercising and smoking) at baseline predicted success in improving the diet. Results Pessimism seemed to correlate clearly negatively with the healthiness of the dietary habits at baseline – i.e. the higher the level of pessimism, the unhealthier the diet. Optimism also showed a correlation with dietary habits at baseline, although to a lesser extent. Those who managed to improve their dietary habits during follow-up or regarded their dietary habits as healthy enough even without a change were less pessimistic at baseline than those who failed in their attempts to improve their diet or did not even try, even when they recognized the need for a change. Conclusions Pessimistic people are more likely to eat an unhealthy diet than others. Pessimism reduces independently the possibilities to improve dietary patterns.