Browsing by Subject "Organic"

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  • Obey, Jackie K.; Ngeiywa, Moses M.; Lehesvaara, Marjatta; Kauhanen, Jussi; von Wright, Atte; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina (2022)
    Extracts of five organic and one conventional honey sources, available in Finnish markets, were tested for antimicrobial activity and inhibitory concentrations against Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, obtained from human specimens. Five (honeys A, B, D, E, F) of the six studied honeys were organic. All the studied honeys had inhibitory activity (zone of inhibition (ZI) > 9.4 ± 0.5 mm) compared to control artificial honey (ZI < 8 mm) against all the studied pathogens. Four organic honeys (B, D, E, F) showed inhibitory activity with ZI > 13.3 mm against all the studied bacteria with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 12.5–50%. Against E. coli, the organic honeys E and F had activity index (AI) of 0.64 and 0.73, respectively, compared to the antibiotic AI of 1.0. Against S. Typhi, the organic honeys D and F had AI of 0.59 and 0.64, respectively. Against P. aeruginosa, the organic honeys D, E, and F had the highest AI of 0.71–0.80, and against S. epidermidis the honeys B, D, E, and F possessed relatively high AI of 0.60, 0.67, 0.73, and 0.78, respectively. Against K. pneumoniae and B. cereus, the detected AI of the organic honeys B, D, E, and F varied between AI of 0.48 and 0.58. The organic honey A and conventionally produced honey C possessed only minor activity with MIC values of 80%. Here, we show that commercially available culinary organic honeys possess remarkable antimicrobial activity against several important human bacterial pathogens.
  • Luomala, Harri; Puska, Petteri; Lähdesmäki, Merja; Siltaoja, Marjo; Kurki, Sami (2020)
    Status considerations have recently been linked to prosocial behaviors. This research shows that even everyday consumer behaviors such as favoring organic foods serve as prosocial status signaling. Key ideas from the continuum model of consumer impression formation and the theories of costly signaling and symbolic consumption are synthetized to make sense of this phenomenon. Two web-surveys (Ns = 187, 259) and a field study (N = 336) following experimental designs are conducted. This approach allows the analysis of both the more and less conscious reactions of consumers. Study 1 shows that the image of consumers favoring organic product versions is marked by characteristics consistent with prosocial status signaling. Study 2 replicates these findings with another sample and a wider range of products and demonstrate that observers’ conservative values influence the image formed of organic food users. Study 3 establishes that similar image effects also emerge through a less conscious formation process and that they extend to how organic food users are socially treated. This research advances the current understanding concerning the interlinkages between organic food usage, prosocial status signaling, consumer impressions and reputation management. Substantively, the studies provide novel compelling empirical evidence for the ability of non-luxurious everyday consumer behaviors to qualify as prosocial status signaling. Conceptually, the integration of evolutionary and sociocultural perspectives represents a major contribution. More specifically, this research yields new understanding as regards the role of individual variation in sensing and interpreting status symbols.
  • Grönroos, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Organic agriculture is growing steadily in Europe. Demand for organic products and pressure from policy changes in the EU have created a need for organic seed material. One of the limiting factors is the lack of organic variety testing. Currently no official organic Value of Cultivation and Use (VCU) trials or standards for organic variety testing excist in the EU. Plant breeding companies like Boreal Plant Breeding want to offer varieties for organic farmers but they lack information on the performance of their varieties in organic conditions. The main objective of this experiment was to determine the most important variety traits in organic agriculture in Finland and which of the Boreal Plant Breeding oat varieties exhibit the most favourable traits for organic growing conditions. Relationships between observed traits were also examined. A wide range of observations and measurements were performed from the trial throughout the growing season. Quality analysis of the yield were performed after harvest. The objects of examination during growing season included growth development, leaf area index (LAI), nutrient status with SPAD (Soil and Plant Analysis Development) measurements, plant height and yield components. Plant height and LAI appeared to be the best indicators for evaluation of performance potential of oat in organic conditions. SPAD value wasn’t found to have a connection to oat yield nor was it an indicator for oat LAI. High LAI increased oat height, yield and yield component shoots/m2 but effected negatively on the yield component panicles/m2 during the end of stem elongation. Plant height was a good indicator of yield level. The number of weeds and LAI value didn’t have a connection in this experiment and neither did weed number and yield. The early and late varieties varied in their reaction to the low-input growing conditions. Early varieties had generally lower yield but better yield quality than the late varieties. ‘Nella’ showed potential to be a variety with good yield quality and high yield in low-input conditions in Southern Finland. Area of cultivation and the end use of the oat are important factors in variety selection.