Browsing by Subject "Ottoman Empire"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-6 of 6
  • Ertem, Özge (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences ; 22
    This article analyzes the Ottoman famines of the 1870s – that killed tens of thousands of people in Anatolia due to starvation and disease – from a global comparative perspective. It focuses on two famines in particular that struck the central and eastern provinces of the empire in 1873-75 and 1879-1881 (just following the Russo-Ottoman War of 1877-78), respectively. They were triggered by climatic causes, yet their devastating effects were also a product of the global and domestic economic and political environment of the decade. Local, imperial and global man-made reasons exacerbated the severe impacts of nature and climate. The article addresses these famines as significant traumatic disasters, the memories of which were overshadowed by later catastrophic events in Ottoman history and historiography, and which have been almost invisible in European and global famine historiography of the nineteenth century. It summarizes the political-economic environment of the decade, attempts to investigate Ottoman famines in a global historical context and outline a comparative research agenda for an Ottoman history of famine and empire in the late nineteenth century.
  • Aguilera López, A. Jorge; Chamorro Esteban, Alfredo (Museu Marítim de Barcelona, 2022)
  • Green, Sarah (Manchester University Press, 2021)
    Rethinking Borders
    When governments have to decide what to do about the threat of infection or contagion, their political concerns and, in particular, their understanding of the relationship between territory and people, are bound to inform their decisions. Drawing on accounts of how different political regimes responded to outbreaks of infectious disease in the Mediterranean region in the past, this chapter focuses on how different regimes understand the spread of the disease: its movement across space. The rapid spread of COVID-19 during 2020 and the highly diverse political responses to it have demonstrated the importance of this point. Close the borders or not? Quarantine the population or not? The issue here is how people understand, organize and structure spatial relations and separations, as well as how they understand the disease in itself. Given that the spread of a disease involves movement across space, including the crossing of political borders, the way that location is understood and organized is important to how diverse peoples and regimes respond to the spread of disease. The question the chapter deals with is how diseases are located – in the Mediterranean region, in this case.
  • Lindstedt, Jouko (University of Helsinki, Department of Modern Languages, 2016)
    Slavica Helsingiensia
  • ARI, Melis (2008)
    Unbearable Burden of Forgetting is about emergence of Turkish Nationalism. In the official history writings of Turkey, M. Kemal Ataturk is regarded as the father of Turkish Nation, thus nationalism. However defining the concept of nationalism for the Kemalist Period is not so easy, as Ataturk in 1923 when introducing the concept to Turkish nation regarded it as a self evident principle. During 1920s and 1930s M. Kemal emphasized common history and common will to stay together as constituting a nation. He saw reaching the highest level of civilizations as the ultimate aim. In practice, however, religious, lingual and ethnic elements played a greater role in defining Turkish nationalism. The thesis aims to clarify this ambiguity created. Hence turns to 19th century Ottoman Era when nationalism started to flourish. In the Ottomans the principles Ottomanism, Islamism and Turkism came to compensate the sentiment of nationalism. Thus through analysing what these principles meant and what the circumstances that gave rise to them were, how 19th century came to shape Kemalist nationalism is studied. The question thesis puts forward is: Can the late Ottoman history provide reasons why Mustafa Kemal emphasized on different elements of what constituted a nation at different times and why his understanding of nationalism provides space for ambiguity, or is there simply an inconsistency in the early Republican politics on nationalism? The research is done based on a selected literature review of first hand sources; M. Kemal's speeches and writings as well as Ziya Gökalp's and Yusuf Akcura's books on Turkism and on secondary sources; contemporary studies on Turkish History and on the concept nationalism. Chapter 2 provides pieces from M. Kemal's speeches to clarify the inconsistency of emphasis over different elements. Chapter 3 describes the general situation in 19th century Ottomans in order to understand the circumstances when and how nationalism flourished. Chapter 4 introduces Ottomanism, Islamism and Turkism, three ideologies that have tried to create a common identity to prevent the empire from breaking apart. Chapter 5 analyses further the ideology surrounding Turkism from Gökalp's and Akcura's points of view. Chapter 6 focuses on early 20th century, how Turkism came to be used by Union and Progress Party and how Turkish Houses shaped the notion. Chapter 7 briefly looks at post WWI Anatolia in order to understand the circumstances of the time Republic declared its independence. The thesis at the end comes to the solution that there is a historical reason why Ataturk had the need to emphasize on different elements. Traditionally religion had defined Turkishness and had come to shape policies as well as relations. Only Ottomanism had solely emphasized on subjective elements; that is history and will. Once it failed there was evident need in emphasizing on traceable elements. This is very similar to what Kemalist nationalism did. Although Ataturk rejected the Ottoman past and disregarded any connections to it, the continuity in nationalism is clear. Studying Kemalist nationalism within the historical context that includes late Ottoman era helps one understand better nationalism in Kemalist period.
  • Lindstedt, Jouko (University of Helsinki, Department of Modern Languages, 2012)
    Slavica Helsingiensia