Browsing by Subject "Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest"

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  • Sunde, Geir Arne; Heltne, Jon-Kenneth; Lockey, David; Burns, Brian; Sandberg, Marten; Fredriksen, Knut; Hufthammer, Karl Ove; Soti, Akos; Lyon, Richard; Jantti, Helena; Kamarainen, Antti; Reid, Bjorn Ole; Silfvast, Tom; Harm, Falko; Sollid, Stephen J. M.; Airport Study Grp (2015)
    Background: Despite numerous studies on prehospital airway management, results are difficult to compare due to inconsistent or heterogeneous data. The objective of this study was to assess advanced airway management from international physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical services. Methods: We collected airway data from 21 helicopter emergency medical services in Australia, England, Finland, Hungary, Norway and Switzerland over a 12-month period. A uniform Utstein-style airway template was used for collecting data. Results: The participating services attended 14,703 patients on primary missions during the study period, and 2,327 (16 %) required advanced prehospital airway interventions. Of these, tracheal intubation was attempted in 92 % of the cases. The rest were managed with supraglottic airway devices (5 %), bag-valve-mask ventilation (2 %) or continuous positive airway pressure (0.2 %). Intubation failure rates were 14.5 % (first-attempt) and 1.2 % (overall). Cardiac arrest patients showed significantly higher first-attempt intubation failure rates (odds ratio: 2.0; 95 % CI: 1.5-2.6; p <0.001) compared to non-cardiac arrest patients. Complications were recorded in 13 %, with recognised oesophageal intubation being the most frequent (25 % of all patients with complications). For non-cardiac arrest patients, important risk predictors for first-attempt failure were patient age (a non-linear association) and administration of sedatives (reduced failure risk). The patient's sex, provider's intubation experience, trauma type (patient category), indication for airway intervention and use of neuromuscular blocking agents were not risk factors for first-attempt intubation failure. Conclusions: Advanced airway management in physician-staffed prehospital services was performed frequently, with high intubation success rates and low complication rates overall. However, cardiac arrest patients showed significantly higher first-attempt failure rates compared to non-cardiac arrest patients. All failed intubations were handled successfully with a rescue device or surgical airway.
  • Hiltunen, Pamela; Jantti, Helena; Silfvast, Tom; Kuisma, Markku; Kurola, Jouni; FINNRESUSCI Prehosp Study Grp (2016)
    Background: Though airway management methods during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remain controversial, no studies on the topic from Finland have examined adherence to OHCA recommendations in real life. In response, the aim of this study was to document the interventions, success rates, and adverse events in airway management processes in OHCA, as well as to analyse survival at hospital discharge and at follow-up a year later. Methods: During a 6-month study period in 2010, data regarding all patients with OHCA and attempted resuscitation in southern and eastern Finland were prospectively collected. Emergency medical services (EMS) documented the airway techniques used and all adverse events related to the process. Study endpoints included the frequency of different techniques used, their success rates, methods used to verify the correct placement of the endotracheal tube, overall adverse events, and survival at hospital discharge and at follow-up a year later. Results: A total of 614 patients were included in the study. The incidence of EMS-attempted resuscitation was determined to be 51/100,000 inhabitants per year. The final airway technique was endotracheal intubation (ETI) in 413 patients (67.3 %) and supraglottic airway device (SAD) in 188 patients (30.2 %). The overall success rate of ETI was 92.5 %, whereas that of SAD was 85.0 %. Adverse events were reported in 167 of the patients (27.2 %). Having a prehospital EMS physician on the scene (p Conclusions: This study showed acceptable ETI and SAD success rates among Finnish patients with OHCA. Adverse events related to airway management were observed in more than 25 % of patients, and overall survival was 17.8 % at hospital discharge and 14.0 % after 1 year.
  • Laurikkala, Johanna; Aneman, Anders; Peng, Alexander; Reinikainen, Matti; Pham, Paul; Jakkula, Pekka; Hästbacka, Johanna; Wilkman, Erika; Loisa, Pekka; Toppila, Jussi; Birkelund, Thomas; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2021)
    Background: Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is one feature of post cardiac arrest encephalopathy. We studied the incidence and features of CVR by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and associations with outcome and biomarkers of brain injury. Methods: A post-hoc analysis of 120 comatose OHCA patients continuously monitored with NIRS and randomised to low- or high-normal oxygen, carbon dioxide and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) targets for 48 h. The tissue oximetry index-(TOx) generated by the moving correlation coefficient between cerebral tissue oxygenation measured by NIRS and MAP was used as a dynamic index of CVR with-TOx > 0 indicating impaired reactivity and TOx > 0.3 used to delineate the lower and upper MAP bounds for disrupted CVR. TOx was analysed in the 0-12, 12-24, 24-48 h timeperiods and integrated over 0-48 h. The primary outcome was the association between TOx and six-month functional outcome dichotomised by the cerebral performance category (CPC1-2 good vs. 3-5 poor). Secondary outcomes included associations with MAP bounds for CVR and biomarkers of brain injury. Results: In 108 patients with sufficient data to calculate TOx, 76 patients (70%) had impaired CVR and among these, chronic hypertension was more common (58% vs. 31%, p = 0.002). Integrated TOx for 0-48 h was higher in patients with poor outcome than in patients with good outcome (0.89 95% CI [- 1.17 to 2.94] vs. - 2.71 95% CI [- 4.16 to - 1.26], p = 0.05). Patients with poor outcomes had a decreased upper MAP bound of CVR over time (p = 0.001), including the high-normal oxygen (p = 0.002), carbon dioxide (p = 0.012) and MAP (p = 0.001) groups. The MAP range of maintained CVR was narrower in all time intervals and intervention groups (p < 0.05). NfL concentrations were higher in patients with impaired CVR compared to those with intact CVR (43 IQR [15-650] vs 20 IQR [13-199] pg/ml, p = 0.042). Conclusion: Impaired CVR over 48 h was more common in patients with chronic hypertension and associated with poor outcome. Decreased upper MAP bound and a narrower MAP range for maintained CVR were associated with poor outcome and more severe brain injury assessed with NfL.
  • Basic Life Support BLS; Pediatric Life Support PLS; Drennan, Ian R.; Geri, Guillaume; Brooks, Steve; Couper, Keith; Hatanaka, Tetsuo; Kudenchuk, Peter; Olasveengen, Theresa; Pellegrino, Jeffrey; Schexnayder, Stephen M.; Morley, Peter; Castren, Maaret (2021)
    Introduction: Cardiac arrest is a time-sensitive condition requiring urgent intervention. Prompt and accurate recognition of cardiac arrest by emergency medical dispatchers at the time of the emergency call is a critical early step in cardiac arrest management allowing for initiation of dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR and appropriate and timely emergency response. The overall accuracy of dispatchers in recognizing cardiac arrest is not known. It is also not known if there are specific call characteristics that impact the ability to recognize cardiac arrest. Methods: We performed a systematic review to examine dispatcher recognition of cardiac arrest as well as to identify call characteristics that may affect their ability to recognize cardiac arrest at the time of emergency call. We searched electronic databases for terms related to "emergency medical dispatcher", "cardiac arrest", and "diagnosis", among others, with a focus on studies that allowed for calculating diagnostic test characteristics (e.g. sensitivity and specificity). The review was consistent with Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method for evidence evaluation. Results: We screened 2520 article titles, resulting in 47 studies included in this review. There was significant heterogeneity between studies with a high risk of bias in 18 of the 47 which precluded performing meta-analyses. The reported sensitivities for cardiac arrest recognition ranged from 0.46 to 0.98 whereas specificities ranged from 0.32 to 1.00. There were no obvious differences in diagnostic accuracy between different dispatching criteria/algorithms or with the level of education of dispatchers. Conclusion: The sensitivity and specificity of cardiac arrest recognition at the time of emergency call varied across dispatch centres and did not appear to differ by dispatch algorithm/criteria used or education of the dispatcher, although comparisons were hampered by heterogeneity across studies. Future efforts should focus on ways to improve sensitivity of cardiac arrest recognition to optimize patient care and ensure appropriate and timely resource utilization.
  • COMACARE Study Groups; Humaloja, Jaana J; Lähde, Marika; Ashton, Nicholas J.; Reinikainen, Matti; Hästbacka, Johanna; Jakkula, Pekka; Friberg, Hans; Cronberg, Tobias; Pettilä, Ville; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Skrifvars, Markus (2022)
    Aim: To determine the ability of serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp) and tau protein to predict neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods: We measured plasma concentrations of GFAp and tau of patients included in the previously published COMACARE trial (NCT02698917) on intensive care unit admission and at 24, 48, and 72 h after OHCA, and compared them to neuron specific enolase (NSE). NSE concentrations were determined already during the original trial. We defined unfavourable outcome as a cerebral performance category (CPC) score of 3-5 six months after OHCA. We determined the prognostic accuracy of GFAp and tau using the receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve (AUROC). Results: Overall, 39/112 (35%) patients had unfavourable outcomes. Over time, both markers were evidently higher in the unfavourable outcome group (p < 0.001). At 48 h, the median (interquartile range) GFAp concentration was 1514 (886-4995) in the unfavourable versus 238 (135-463) pg/ ml in the favourable outcome group (p < 0.001). The corresponding tau concentrations were 99.6 (14.5-352) and 3.0 (2.2-4.8) pg/ml (p < 0.001). AUROCs at 48 and 72 h were 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.97) and 0.91 (0.85-0.96) for GFAp and 0.93 (0.86-0.99) and 0.95 (0.89-1.00) for tau. Corresponding AUROCs for NSE were 0.86 (0.79-0.94) and 0.90 (0.82-0.97). The difference between the prognostic accuracies of GFAp or tau and NSE were not statistically significant. Conclusions: At 48 and 72 h, serum both GFAp and tau demonstrated excellent accuracy in predicting outcomes after OHCA but were not superior to NSE. Clinical trial registration: NCT02698917 (
  • Nelskylä, Annika I; Skrifvars, Markus; Ångerman, Susanne; Nurmi, Jouni (2022)
    Background: High oxygen levels may worsen cardiac arrest reperfusion injury. We determined the incidence of hyperoxia during and immediately after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation and identified factors associated with intra-arrest cerebral oxygenation measured with near-infrared Methods: A prospective observational study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients treated by a physician-staffed helicopter unit. Collected data included intra-arrest brain regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) with NIRS, invasive blood pressures, end-tidal CO2 (etCO2) and arterial blood gas samples. Moderate and severe hyperoxia were defined as arterial oxygen partial pressure (paO2) 20.0-39.9 and 40 kPa, respectively. Intra-arrest factors correlated with the NIRS value, rSO2, were assessed with the Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of 80 recruited patients, 73 (91%) patients had rSO2 recorded during CPR, and 46 had an intra-arrest paO2 analysed. ROSC was achieved in 28 patients, of whom 20 had paO2 analysed. Moderate hyperoxia was seen in one patient during CPR and in four patients (20%, 95% CI 7-42%) after ROSC. None had severe hyperoxia during CPR, and one patient (5%, 95% 0-25%) immediately after ROSC. The rSO2 during CPR was correlated with intra-arrest systolic (r = 0.28, p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.32, p < 0.001) but not with paO2 (r = 0.13, p = 0.41), paCO2 (r = 0.18, p = 0.22) or etCO2 (r = 0.008, p = 0.9). Conclusion: Hyperoxia during or immediately after CPR is rare in patients treated by physician-staffed helicopter units. Cerebral oxygenation during CPR appears more dependent, albeit weakly, on hemodynamics than arterial oxygen concentration.
  • Dyson, Kylie; Brown, Siobhan P.; May, Susanne; Smith, Karen; Koster, Rudolph W.; Beesems, Stefanie G.; Kuisma, Markku; Salo, Ari; Finn, Judith; Sterz, Fritz; Nuernberger, Alexander; Morrison, Laurie J.; Olasveengen, Theresa M.; Callaway, Clifton W.; Shin, Sang Do; Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Daya, Mohamud; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Herlitz, Johan; Stromsöe, Anneli; Aufderheide, Tom P.; Masterson, Siobhan; Wang, Henry; Christenson, Jim; Stiell, Ian; Vilke, Gary M.; Idris, Ahamed; Nishiyama, Chika; Iwami, Taku; Nichol, Graham (2019)
    Introduction: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival varies greatly between communities. The Utstein template was developed and promulgated to improve the comparability of OHCA outcome reports, but it has undergone limited empiric validation. We sought to assess how much of the variation in OHCA survival between emergency medical services (EMS) across the globe is explained by differences in the Utstein factors. We also assessed how accurately the Utstein factors predict OHCA survival. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patient-level prospectively collected data from 12 OHCA registries from 12 countries for the period 1 Jan 2006 through 31 Dec 2011. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the variation in survival between EMS agencies (n = 232). Results: Twelve registries contributed 86,759 cases. Patient arrest characteristics, EMS treatment and patient outcomes varied across registries. Overall survival to hospital discharge was 10% (range, 6% to 22%). Overall survival with Cerebral Performance Category of 1 or 2 (available for 8/12 registries) was 8%(range, 2% to 20%). The area-under-the-curve for the Utstein model was 0.85 (Wald CI: 0.85-0.85). The Utstein factors explained 51% of the EMS agency variation in OHCA survival. Conclusions: The Utstein factors explained 51%. of the variation in survival to hospital discharge among multiple large geographically separate EMS agencies. This suggests that quality improvement and public health efforts should continue to target modifiable Utstein factors to improve OHCA survival. Further study is required to identify the reasons for the variation that is incompletely understood.
  • Wihersaari, L.; Reinikainen, M.; Furlan, R.; Mandelli, A.; Vaahersalo, J.; Kurola, J.; Tiainen, M.; Pettilä, V.; Bendel, S.; Varpula, T.; Latini, R.; Ristagno, G.; Skrifvars, M. B. (2022)
    Aim: We compared the prognostic abilities of neurofilament light (NfL) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in patients resuscitated from out-ofhospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of various aetiologies. Methods: We analysed frozen blood samples obtained at 24 and 48 hours from OHCA patients treated in 21 Finnish intensive care units in 2010 and 2011. We defined unfavourable outcome as Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) 3-5 at 12 months after OHCA. We evaluated the prognostic ability of the biomarkers by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs [95% confidence intervals]) and compared these with a bootstrap method. Results: Out of 248 adult patients, 12-month outcome was unfavourable in 120 (48.4%). The median (interquartile range) NfL concentrations for patients with unfavourable and those with favourable outcome, respectively, were 689 (146-1804) pg/mL vs. 31 (17-61) pg/mL at 24 h and 1162 (147-4360) pg/mL vs. 36 (21-87) pg/mL at 48 h, p < 0.001 for both. The corresponding NSE concentrations were 13.3 (7.2-27.3) mg/L vs. 8.5 (5.8- 13.2) mg/L at 24 h and 20.4 (8.1-56.6) mg/L vs. 8.2 (5.9-12.1) mg/L at 48 h, p < 0.001 for both. The AUROCs to predict an unfavourable outcome were 0.90 (0.86-0.94) for NfL vs. 0.65 (0.58-0.72) for NSE at 24 h, p < 0.001 and 0.88 (0.83-0.93) for NfL and 0.73 (0.66-0.81) for NSE at 48 h, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Compared to NSE, NfL demonstrated superior accuracy in predicting long-term unfavourable outcome after OHCA.
  • Kiguchi, Tekeyuki; Okubo, Masashi; Nishiyama, Chika; Maconochie, Ian; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Kern, Karl B.; Wyckoff, Myra H.; McNally, Bryan; Christensen, Erika; Tjelmeland, Ingvild; Herlitz, Johan; Perkins, Gavin D.; Booth, Scott; Finn, Judith; Shahidah, Nur; Shin, Sang Do; Bobrow, Bentley J.; Morrison, Laurie J.; Salo, Ari; Baldi, Enrico; Burkart, Roman; Lin, Chih-Hao; Jouven, Xavier; Soar, Jasmeet; Nolan, Jerry P.; Iwami, Taku (2020)
    Background Since development of the Utstein style recommendations for the uniform reporting of cardiac arrest, increasing numbers of national and regional out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) registries have been established worldwide. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) created the Research and Registries Working Group and aimed to systematically report data collected from these registries. Methods We conducted two surveys of voluntarily participating national and regional registries. The first survey aimed to identify which core elements of the current Utstein style for OHCA were collected by each registry. The second survey collected descriptive summary data from each registry. We chose the data collected for the second survey based on the availability of core elements identified by the first survey. Results Seven national and four regional registries were included in the first survey and nine national and seven regional registries in the second survey. The estimated annual incidence of emergency medical services (EMS)-treated OHCA was 30.0 to 97.1 individuals per 100,000 population. The combined data showed the median age varied from 64 to 79 years and more than half were male in all 16 registries. The provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and bystander automated external defibrillator (AED) use was 19.1% to 79.0% in all registries and 2.0% to 37.4% among 11 registries, respectively. Survival to hospital discharge or 30-day survival after EMS-treated OHCA was 3.1% to 20.4% across all registries. Favourable neurological outcome at hospital discharge or 30 days after EMS-treated OHCA was 2.8% to 18.2%. Survival to hospital discharge or 30-day survival after bystander witnessed shockable OHCA ranged from 11.7% to 47.4% and favourable neurological outcome from 9.9% to 33.3%. Conclusion This report from ILCOR describes data on systems of care and outcomes following OHCA from nine national and seven regional registries across the world. We found variation in reported survival outcomes and other core elements of the current Utstein style recommendations for OHCA across nations and regions.
  • Int Liaison Comm Resuscitation; Buick, Jason E.; Wallner, Clare; Aickin, Richard; Meaney, Peter A.; de Caen, Allan; Maconochie, Ian; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Welsford, Michelle (2019)
    Introduction: The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation prioritized the need to update the review on the use of targeted temperature management (TTM) in paediatric post cardiac arrest care. In this meta-analysis, the effectiveness of TTM at 32-36 degrees C was compared with no target or a different target for comatose children who achieve a return of sustained circulation after cardiac arrest. Methods: Electronic databases were searched from inception to December 13, 2018. Randomized controlled trials and non-randomized studies with a comparator group that evaluated TTM in children were included. Pairs of independent reviewers extracted the demographic and outcome data, appraised risk of bias, and assessed GRADE certainty of effects. A random effects meta-analysis was undertaken where possible. Results: Twelve studies involving 2060 patients were included. Two randomized controlled trials provided the evidence that TTM at 32-34 degrees C compared with a target at 36-37.5 degrees C did not statistically improve long-term good neurobehavioural survival (risk ratio: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.69-1.93), long-term survival (RR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.93-1.39), or short-term survival (risk ratio: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.96-1.36). TTM at 32-34 degrees C did not show statistically increased risks of infection, recurrent cardiac arrest, serious bleeding, or arrhythmias. A novel analysis suggests that another small RCT might provide enough evidence to show benefit for TTM in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Conclusion: There is currently inconclusive evidence to either support or refute the use of TTM at 32-34 degrees C for comatose children who achieve return of sustained circulation after cardiac arrest. Future trials should focus on children with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
  • Hästbacka, Johanna; Kirkegaard, Hans; Soreide, Eldar; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen; Storm, Christian; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Laitio, Timo; Duez, Christophe Henri Valdemar; Jeppesen, Anni N.; Grejs, Anders M.; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2021)
    Purpose: We explored whether severe or critical hypotension can be predicted, based on patient and resuscitation characteristics in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. We also explored the association of hypotension with mortality and neurological outcome. Materials and methods: We conducted a post hoc analysis of the TTH48 study (NCT01689077), where 355 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients were randomized to targeted temperature management (TTM) treatment at 33 degrees C for either 24 or 48 h. We recorded hypotension, according to four severity categories, within four days from admission. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to test association of admission data with severe or critical hypotension. Results: Diabetes mellitus (OR 3.715, 95% CI 1.180-11.692), longer ROSC delay (OR 1.064, 95% CI 1.022-1.108), admission MAP (OR 0.960, 95% CI 0.929-0.991) and non-shockable rhythm (OR 5.307, 95% CI 1.604-17.557) were associated with severe or critical hypotension. Severe or critical hypotension was associated with increased mortality and poor neurological outcome at 6 months. Conclusions: Diabetes, non-shockable rhythm, longer delay to ROSC and lower admission MAP were predictors of severe or critical hypotension. Severe or critical hypotension was associated with poor outcome. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Kirkegaard, Hans; Rasmussen, Bodil S.; de Haas, Inge; Nielsen, Jorgen Feldbaek; Ilkjaer, Susanne; Kaltoft, Anne; Jeppesen, Anni Norregaard; Grejs, Anders; Duez, Christophe Henri Valdemar; Larsen, Alf Inge; Pettila, Ville; Toome, Valdo; Arus, Urmet; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Storm, Christian; Skrifvars, Markus; Soreide, Eldar (2016)
    Background: The application of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for 12 to 24 hours following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has been associated with decreased mortality and improved neurological function. However, the optimal duration of cooling is not known. We aimed to investigate whether targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33 +/- 1 degrees C for 48 hours compared to 24 hours results in a better long-term neurological outcome. Methods: The TTH48 trial is an investigator-initiated pragmatic international trial in which patients resuscitated from OHCA are randomised to TTM at 33 +/- 1 degrees C for either 24 or 48 hours. Inclusion criteria are: age older than 17 and below 80 years; presumed cardiac origin of arrest; and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) <8, on admission. The primary outcome is neurological outcome at 6 months using the Cerebral Performance Category score (CPC) by an assessor blinded to treatment allocation and dichotomised to good (CPC 1-2) or poor (CPC 3-5) outcome. Secondary outcomes are: 6-month mortality, incidence of infection, bleeding and organ failure and CPC at hospital discharge, at day 28 and at day 90 following OHCA. Assuming that 50 % of the patients treated for 24 hours will have a poor outcome at 6 months, a study including 350 patients (175/arm) will have 80 % power (with a significance level of 5 %) to detect an absolute 15 % difference in primary outcome between treatment groups. A safety interim analysis was performed after the inclusion of 175 patients. Discussion: This is the first randomised trial to investigate the effect of the duration of TTM at 33 +/- 1 degrees C in adult OHCA patients. We anticipate that the results of this trial will add significant knowledge regarding the management of cooling procedures in OHCA patients.