Browsing by Subject "Outcome"

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  • Radujkovic, Aleksandar; Dietrich, Sascha; Blok, Henric-Jan; Nagler, Arnon; Ayuk, Francis; Finke, Juergen; Tischer, Johanna; Mayer, Jiri; Koc, Yener; Sora, Federica; Passweg, Jakob; Byrne, Jenny L.; Jindra, Pavel; Veelken, Joan Hendrik; Socie, Gerard; Maertens, Johan; Schaap, Nicolaas; Stadler, Michael; Itälä-Remes, Maija; Tholouli, Eleni; Arat, Mutlu; Rocha, Vanderson; Ljungman, Per; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Kroeger, Nicolaus; Chalandon, Yves (2019)
    The prognosis of patients with blast crisis (BC) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is still dismal. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation represents the only curative treatment option, but data on transplant outcomes are scarce. We therefore conducted a retrospective, registry-based study of adult patients allografted for BC CML, focusing on patients with active disease at transplant and pretransplant prognostic factors. One hundred seventy patients allografted for BC CML after tyrosine kinase inhibitor pretreatment between 2004 and 2016 were analyzed. Before transplant, 95 patients were in remission, whereas 75 patients had active BC. In multivariable analysis of the entire cohort, active BC at transplant was the strongest factor associated with decreased overall survival (hazrd ratio, 1.87; P = .010) and shorter leukemia-free survival (LFS; hazard ratio, 1.69; P= .017). For patients with BC in remission at transplant, advanced age (>= 45 years), lower performance status (12 months), myeloablative conditioning, and unrelated donor (UD) transplant were risk factors for inferior survival. In patients with active BC, only UD transplant was significantly associated with prolonged LFS and trended toward improved overall survival. In summary, survival of patients allografted for BC CML was strongly dependent on pretransplant remission status. In patients with remission of BC, conventional prognostic factors remained the major determinants of outcome, whereas in those with active BC at transplant, UD transplant was associated with prolonged LFS in our study. (C) 2019 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Ponkilainen, Ville T.; Tukiainen, Erkki J.; Uimonen, Mikko M.; Häkkinen, Arja H.; Repo, Jussi P. (2020)
    Background: The structural validity of the Lower extremity functional scale (LEFS), the Visual analogue scale foot and ankle (VAS-FA), and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) has not been compared earlier in patients after foot and ankle surgery. Methods: Altogether 165 previously operated patients completed the foot and ankle specific instruments, the 15D health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, and general health (VAS). Results: The LEFS, the VAS-FA and the WOMAC had slight differences in their measurement properties. The VAS-FA had the best targeting and coverage. All three foot and ankle measures accounted for mobility and usual activities when compared to the different aspects of generic HRQoL. Conclusions: The LEFS, the VAS-FA and the WOMAC have relatively similar psychometric properties among foot and ankle patients, yet the VAS-FA provides the best targeting and coverage. (C) 2019 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Pekkarinen, Pirkka T.; Bäcklund, Minna; Efendijev, Ilmar; Raj, Rahul; Folger, Daniel; Litonius, Erik; Laitio, Ruut; Bendel, Stepani; Hoppu, Sanna; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Reinikainen, Matti; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2019)
    BackgroundOrgan dysfunction is common after cardiac arrest and associated with worse short-term outcome, but its impact on long-term outcome and treatment costs is unknown.MethodsWe used nationwide registry data from the intensive care units (ICU) of the five Finnish university hospitals to evaluate the association of 24-h extracerebral Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (24h-EC-SOFA) score with 1-year survival and healthcare-associated costs after cardiac arrest. We included adult cardiac arrest patients treated in the participating ICUs between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. We acquired the confirmed date of death from the Finnish Population Register Centre database and gross 1-year healthcare-associated costs from the hospital billing records and the database of the Finnish Social Insurance Institution.ResultsA total of 5814 patients were included in the study, and 2401 were alive 1year after cardiac arrest. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) 24h-EC-SOFA score was 6 (5-8) in 1-year survivors and 7 (5-10) in non-survivors. In multivariate regression analysis, adjusting for age and prior independency in self-care, the 24h-EC-SOFA score had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.18) per point for 1-year mortality.Median (IQR) healthcare-associated costs in the year after cardiac arrest were Euro47,000 (Euro28,000-75,000) in 1-year survivors and Euro12,000 (Euro6600-25,000) in non-survivors. In a multivariate linear regression model adjusting for age and prior independency in self-care, an increase of one point in the 24h-EC-SOFA score was associated with an increase of Euro170 (95% CI Euro150-190) in the cost per day alive in the year after cardiac arrest. In the same model, an increase of one point in the 24h-EC-SOFA score was associated with an increase of Euro4400 (95% CI Euro3300-5500) in the total healthcare-associated costs in 1-year survivors.ConclusionsExtracerebral organ dysfunction is associated with long-term outcome and gross healthcare-associated costs of ICU-treated cardiac arrest patients. It should be considered when assessing interventions to improve outcomes and optimize the use of resources in these patients.
  • Pekkarinen, Pirkka T; Bäcklund, Minna; Efendijev, Ilmar; Raj, Rahul; Folger, Daniel; Litonius, Erik; Laitio, Ruut; Bendel, Stepani; Hoppu, Sanna; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Reinikainen, Matti; Skrifvars, Markus B (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Organ dysfunction is common after cardiac arrest and associated with worse short-term outcome, but its impact on long-term outcome and treatment costs is unknown. Methods We used nationwide registry data from the intensive care units (ICU) of the five Finnish university hospitals to evaluate the association of 24-h extracerebral Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (24h-EC-SOFA) score with 1-year survival and healthcare-associated costs after cardiac arrest. We included adult cardiac arrest patients treated in the participating ICUs between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. We acquired the confirmed date of death from the Finnish Population Register Centre database and gross 1-year healthcare-associated costs from the hospital billing records and the database of the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Results A total of 5814 patients were included in the study, and 2401 were alive 1 year after cardiac arrest. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) 24h-EC-SOFA score was 6 (5–8) in 1-year survivors and 7 (5–10) in non-survivors. In multivariate regression analysis, adjusting for age and prior independency in self-care, the 24h-EC-SOFA score had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14–1.18) per point for 1-year mortality. Median (IQR) healthcare-associated costs in the year after cardiac arrest were €47,000 (€28,000–75,000) in 1-year survivors and €12,000 (€6600–25,000) in non-survivors. In a multivariate linear regression model adjusting for age and prior independency in self-care, an increase of one point in the 24h-EC-SOFA score was associated with an increase of €170 (95% CI €150–190) in the cost per day alive in the year after cardiac arrest. In the same model, an increase of one point in the 24h-EC-SOFA score was associated with an increase of €4400 (95% CI €3300–5500) in the total healthcare-associated costs in 1-year survivors. Conclusions Extracerebral organ dysfunction is associated with long-term outcome and gross healthcare-associated costs of ICU-treated cardiac arrest patients. It should be considered when assessing interventions to improve outcomes and optimize the use of resources in these patients.
  • German HNPCC Consortium; Dutch Lynch Syndrome Collaborative; Finnish Lynch Syndrome Registry; Engel, Christoph; Ahadova, Aysel; Seppälä, Toni T.; Lepistö, Anna; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Vasen, Hans F. (2020)
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lynch syndrome is caused by variants in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In patients with Lynch syndrome, CRCs can develop via different pathways. We studied associations between Lynch syndrome-associated variants in MMR genes and risks of adenoma and CRC and somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1 in tumors in an international cohort of patients. METHODS: We combined clinical and molecular data from 3 studies. We obtained clinical data from 2747 patients with Lynch syndrome associated with variants in MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 from Germany, the Netherlands, and Finland who received at least 2 surveillance colonoscopies and were followed for a median time of 7.8 years for development of adenomas or CRC. We performed DNA sequence analyses of 48 colorectal tumors (from 16 patients with mutations in MLH1, 29 patients with mutations in MSH2, and 3 with mutations in MSH6) for somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1. RESULTS: Risk of advanced adenoma in 10 years was 17.8% in patients with pathogenic variants in MSH2 vs 7.7% in MLH1 (P <.001). Higher proportions of patients with pathogenic variants in MLH1 or MSH2 developed CRC in 10 years (11.3% and 11.4%) than patients with pathogenic variants in MSH6 (4.7%) (P = .001 and P = .003 for MLH1 and MSH2 vs MSH6, respectively). Somatic mutations in APC were found in 75% of tumors from patients with pathogenic variants in MSH2 vs 11% in MLH1 (P = .015). Somatic mutations in CTNNB1 were found in 50% of tumors from patients with pathogenic variants in MLH1 vs 7% in MSH2 (P = .002). None of the 3 tumors with pathogenic variants in MSH6 had a mutation in CTNNB1, but all had mutations in APC. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of clinical and DNA sequence data from patients with Lynch syndrome from 3 countries, we associated pathogenic variants in MMR genes with risk of adenoma and CRC, and somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1 in colorectal tumors. If these findings are confirmed, surveillance guidelines might be adjusted based on MMR gene variants.
  • Fallenius, Marika; Skrifvars, Markus B; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Raj, Rahul (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Intensive care scoring systems are widely used in intensive care units (ICU) around the world for case-mix adjustment in research and benchmarking. The aim of our study was to investigate the usefulness of common intensive care scoring systems in predicting mid-term mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) treated in intensive care units (ICU). Methods We performed a retrospective observational study including adult patients with spontaneous ICH treated in Finnish ICUs during 2003–2012. We used six-month mortality as the primary outcome of interest. We used logistic regression to customize Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) for six-month mortality prediction. To assess the usefulness of the scoring systems, we compared their discrimination and calibration with two simpler models consisting of age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and premorbid functional status. Results Totally 3218 patients were included. Overall six-month mortality was 48%. APACHE II and SAPS II outperformed SOFA (area under the receiver operator curve [AUC] 0.83 and 0.84, respectively, vs. 0.73) but did not show any benefit over the simpler models in terms of discrimination (AUC 0.84, p > 0.05 for all models). SAPS II showed satisfactory calibration (p = 0.058 in the Hosmer-Lemeshow test), whereas all other models showed poor calibration (p < 0.05). Discussion In this retrospective multi-center study, we found that SAPS II and APACHE II were of no additional prognostic value to a simple model based on only age and GCS score for patients with ICH treated in the ICU. In fact, the major predictive ability of APACHE II and SAPS II comes from their age and GCS score components. SOFA performed significantly poorer than the other models and is not applicable as a prognostic model for ICH patients. All models displayed poor calibration, highlighting the need for improved prognostic models for ICH patients. Conclusion The common intensive care scoring systems did not outperform a simpler model based on only age and GCS score. Thus, the use of previous intensive care scoring systems is not warranted in ICH patients.
  • Fallenius, Marika; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Raj, Rahul (2017)
    Background: Intensive care scoring systems are widely used in intensive care units (ICU) around the world for case-mix adjustment in research and benchmarking. The aim of our study was to investigate the usefulness of common intensive care scoring systems in predicting mid-term mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) treated in intensive care units (ICU). Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study including adult patients with spontaneous ICH treated in Finnish ICUs during 2003-2012. We used six-month mortality as the primary outcome of interest. We used logistic regression to customize Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) for six-month mortality prediction. To assess the usefulness of the scoring systems, we compared their discrimination and calibration with two simpler models consisting of age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and premorbid functional status. Results: Totally 3218 patients were included. Overall six-month mortality was 48%. APACHE II and SAPS II outperformed SOFA (area under the receiver operator curve [AUC] 0.83 and 0.84, respectively, vs. 0.73) but did not show any benefit over the simpler models in terms of discrimination (AUC 0.84, p > 0.05 for all models). SAPS II showed satisfactory calibration (p = 0.058 in the Hosmer-Lemeshow test), whereas all other models showed poor calibration (p <0.05). Discussion: In this retrospective multi-center study, we found that SAPS II and APACHE II were of no additional prognostic value to a simple model based on only age and GCS score for patients with ICH treated in the ICU. In fact, the major predictive ability of APACHE II and SAPS II comes from their age and GCS score components. SOFA performed significantly poorer than the other models and is not applicable as a prognostic model for ICH patients. All models displayed poor calibration, highlighting the need for improved prognostic models for ICH patients. Conclusion: The common intensive care scoring systems did not outperform a simpler model based on only age and GCS score. Thus, the use of previous intensive care scoring systems is not warranted in ICH patients.
  • Suomalainen, Olli P.; Abou Elseoud, Ahmed; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Tiainen, Marjaana; Forss, Nina; Curtze, Sami (2021)
    Introduction: Patients with small core infarction and salvageable penumbra are likely to benefit from endovascular treatment (EVT). As computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP) is not always available 24/7 for patient selection, many patients are transferred to stroke centers for CTP. We compared automatically measured infarct core volume (NCCTcore) from the non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) with ischemic core volume (CTPcore) from CTP and the outcome of EVT to clarify if NCCTcore measurement alone is sufficient to identify patients that benefit from transfer to stroke centers for EVT. Patients and methods: We included all consecutive stroke-code patients imaged with both NCCT and CTP at Helsinki University Hospital during 9/2016-01/2018. NCCTcore and CTPcore volumes were automatically calculated from the acute NCCT images. Follow-up infarct volume (FIV) was measured from 24 h follow-up NCCT to evaluate efficacy of EVT. To study whether NCCTcore could be used to identify patients eligible to EVT, we subgrouped patients based on NCCTcore volumes (>50 mL and > 70 mL). Results: Out of 1743 patients, baseline NCCTcore, CTPcore and follow-up NCCT was available for 288 patients. Median time from symptom onset to baseline imaging was 74 min (IQR 52-118), and time to follow-up imaging 24.15 h (22.25-26.33). Baseline NCCTcore was 20 mL (10-42), CTPcore 4 mL (0-16), and FIV 5 mL (1-49). Out of 288 patients, 23 had NCCTcore > 70 mL and 26 had CTPcore > 70 mL. NCCTcore and CTPcore performed similarly well in predicting large FIV (>70 ml). Conclusion: NCCTcore is a promising tool to identify patients that are not eligible to EVT due to large ischemic cores at baseline imaging.
  • CTR-TBI High Resolution ICU; Zeiler, Frederick A.; Ercole, Ari (2019)
    BackgroundCompensatory-reserve-weighted intracranial pressure (wICP) has recently been suggested as a supplementary measure of intracranial pressure (ICP) in adult traumatic brain injury (TBI), with a single-center study suggesting an association with mortality at 6months. No multi-center studies exist to validate this relationship. The goal was to compare wICP to ICP for association with outcome in a multi-center TBI cohort.MethodsUsing the Collaborative European Neuro Trauma Effectiveness Research in TBI (CENTER-TBI) high-resolution intensive care unit (ICU) cohort, we derived ICP and wICP (calculated as wICP=(1-RAP)xICP; where RAP is the compensatory reserve index derived from the moving correlation between pulse amplitude of ICP and ICP). Various univariate logistic regression models were created comparing ICP and wICP to dichotomized outcome at 6 to 12months, based on Glasgow Outcome ScoreExtended (GOSE) (alive/deadGOSE 2/GOSE=1; favorable/unfavorableGOSE 5 to 8/GOSE 1 to 4, respectively). Models were compared using area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) and p values.ResultswICP displayed higher AUC compared to ICP on univariate regression for alive/dead outcome compared to mean ICP (AUC 0.712, 95% CI 0.615-0.810, p=0.0002, and AUC 0.642, 95% CI 0.538-746, p
  • Paloneva, Juha; Koskela, Sanna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Vanhala, Mauno; Kiviranta, Ilkka (2013)
  • Raj, R.; Bendel, S.; Reinikainen, M.; Hoppu, S.; Laitio, R.; Ala-Kokko, T.; Curtze, S.; Skrifvars, M. B. (2018)
    Background: Neurocritical illness is a growing healthcare problem with profound socioeconomic effects. We assessed differences in healthcare costs and long-term outcome for different forms of neurocritical illnesses treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: We used the prospective Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database to identify all adult patients treated for traumatic brain injury (TBI), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and acute ischemic stroke (AIS) at university hospital ICUs in Finland during 2003-2013. Outcome variables were one-year mortality and permanent disability. Total healthcare costs included the index university hospital costs, rehabilitation hospital costs and social security costs up to one year. All costs were converted to euros based on the 2013 currency rate. Results: In total 7044 patients were included (44% with TBI, 13% with ICH, 27% with SAH, 16% with AIS). In comparison to TBI, ICH was associated with the highest risk of death and permanent disability (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.1-3.2 and OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1), followed by AIS (OR 1.9, 95% CI 15-23 and OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8) and SAH (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1 and OR 0. 8, 95% CI 0.6-0.9), after adjusting for severity of illness. SAH was associated with the highest mean total costs ((sic)51,906) followed by ICH ((sic)47,661), TBI ((sic)43,916) and AIS ((sic)39222). Cost per independent survivor was lower for TBI ((sic)58,497) and SAH ((sic)96,369) compared to AIS ((sic)104,374) and ICH ((sic)178,071). Conclusion: Neurocritical illnesses are costly and resource-demanding diseases associated with poor outcomes. Intensive care of patients with TBI or SAH more commonly result in independent survivors and is associated with lower total treatments costs compared to ICH and AIS.
  • Thesleff, Tuomo; Lehtimaki, Kai; Niskakangas, Tero; Huovinen, Sanna; Mannerström, Bettina; Miettinen, Susanna; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Ohman, Juha (2017)
    Several alternative techniques exist to reconstruct skull defects. The complication rate of the cranioplasty procedure is high and the search for optimal materials and techniques continues. To report long-term results of patients who have received a cranioplasty using autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) seeded on beta-tricalcium phosphate (betaTCP) granules. Between 10/2008 and 3/2010, five cranioplasties were performed (four females, one male; average age 62.0 years) using ASCs, betaTCP granules and titanium or resorbable meshes. The average defect size was 8.1 x 6.7 cm(2). Patients were followed both clinically and radiologically. The initial results were promising, with no serious complications. Nevertheless, in the long-term follow-up, three of the five patients were re-operated due to graft related problems. Two patients showed marked resorption of the graft, which led to revision surgery. One patient developed a late infection (7.3 years post-operative) that required revision surgery and removal of the graft. One patient had a successfully ossified graft, but was re-operated due to recurrence of the meningioma 2.2 years post-operatively. One patient had an uneventful clinical follow-up, and the cosmetic result is satisfactory, even though skull x-rays show hypodensity in the borders of the graft. Albeit no serious adverse events occurred, the 6-year follow-up results of the five cases are unsatisfactory. The clinical results are not superior to results achieved by conventional cranial repair methods. The use of stem cells in combination with betaTCP granules and supporting meshes in cranial defect reconstruction need to be studied further before continuing with clinical trials.
  • Raj, Rahul; Seppä, Karri; Luostarinen, Tapio; Malila, Nea; Seppälä, Matti; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Korja, Miikka (2020)
    Introduction High hospital case volumes are associated with improved treatment outcomes for numerous diseases. We assessed the association between academic non-profit hospital case volume and survival of adult glioblastoma patients. Methods From the nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry, we identified all adult (>= 18 years) patients with histopathological diagnoses of glioblastoma from 2000 to 2013. Five university hospitals (treating all glioblastoma patients in Finland) were classified as high-volume (one hospital), middle-volume (one hospital), and low-volume (three hospitals) based on their annual numbers of cases. We estimated one-year survival rates, estimated median overall survival times, and compared relative excess risk (RER) of death between high, middle, and low-volume hospitals. Results A total of 2,045 patients were included. The mean numbers of annually treated patients were 54, 40, and 17 in the high, middle, and low-volume hospitals, respectively. One-year survival rates and median survival times were higher and longer in the high-volume (39%, 9.3 months) and medium-volume (38%, 8.9 months) hospitals than in the low-volume (32%, 7.8 months) hospitals. RER of death was higher in the low-volume hospitals than in the high-volume hospital (RER = 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.32, p = 0.002). There was no difference in RER of death between the high-volume and medium-volume hospitals (p = 0.690). Conclusion Higher glioblastoma case volumes were associated with improved survival. Future studies should assess whether this association is due to differences in patient-specific factors or treatment quality.
  • Brinck, Tuomas; Heinänen, Mikko; Söderlund, Tim; Lefering, Rolf; Handolin, Lauri (2019)
    Background and aims: We aimed to determine whether the outcome of severely injured patients differs based on admission time (office hours vs. non-office hours) at a tertiary trauma centre without an in-house trauma surgeon consultant available at all times. We also studied subgroups of patients presenting with a New Injury Severity Score (NISS) >= 25 and patients experiencing major bleeding. Patients and methods: This trauma registry study consisted of severely injured patients (NISS > 15) with blunt trauma treated between 2006 and 2017 at a single institute. Causes of deaths were obtained from autopsy reports and classified as resulting from brain injury; exsanguination; multi-organ failure, adult respiratory distress syndrome, or sepsis; or other. Results: Among 1853 patients, 497 (27%) were admitted during office hours (OH) and 1356 (73%) during non-office hours (NOH). Further subgroup analysis consisted of 211 OH and 611 NOH patients with NISS >= 25, and 51 OH and 154 NOH patients experiencing major bleeding. The 30-day in-hospital mortality was 3.8%-7.4% lower in the NOH groups. We found no significant differences between the study groups in neither the standardised mortality ratio (SMR, defined as the ratio of observed to expected mortality) nor in the causes of death. In both groups, the primary cause of death resulted from brain injury. Conclusions: We found that arrival time did not affect mortality among patients with severe blunt trauma treated at a tertiary trauma centre without an in-house trauma surgeon consultant available at all times. Thus, this type of unit can maintain a standard of care during non-office hours by investing in precise treatment protocols and continuous education. However, our results do not apply to penetrating trauma injury patients. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kortelainen, Jukka; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Tiainen, Marjaana; Strbian, Daniel; Rantanen, Kirsi; Laurila, Jouko; Koskenkari, Juha; Kallio, Mika; Toppila, Jussi; Väyrynen, Eero; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Hästbacka, Johanna (2021)
    Aim of the study: EEG slow wave activity (SWA) has shown prognostic potential in post-resuscitation care. In this prospective study, we investigated the accuracy of continuously measured early SWA for prediction of the outcome in comatose cardiac arrest (CA) survivors. Methods: We recorded EEG with a disposable self-adhesive frontal electrode and wireless device continuously starting from ICU admission until 48 h from return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in comatose CA survivors sedated with propofol. We determined SWA by offline calculation of C-Trend (R) Index describing SWA as a score ranging from 0 to 100. The functional outcome was defined based on Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) at 6 months after the CA to either good (CPC 1-2) or poor (CPC 3-5). Results: Outcome at six months was good in 67 of the 93 patients. During the first 12 h after ROSC, the median C-Trend Index value was 38.8 (interquartile range 28.0-56.1) in patients with good outcome and 6.49 (3.01-18.2) in those with poor outcome showing significant difference (p < 0.001) at every hour between the groups. The index values of the first 12h predicted poor outcome with an area under curve of 0.86 (95% CI0.61-0.99). With a cutoff value of 20, the sensitivity was 83.3% (69.6%-92.3%) and specificity 94.7% (83.4%-99.7%) for categorization of outcome. Conclusion: EEG SWA measured with C-Trend Index during propofol sedation offers a promising practical approach for early bedside evaluation of recovery of brain function and prediction of outcome after CA.
  • Luostarinen, Teemu; Satopää, Jarno; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Curtze, Sami; Sibolt, Gerli; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Raj, Rahul (2020)
    Background The benefits of early surgery in cases of superficial supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are unclear. This study aimed to assess the association between early ICH surgery and outcome, as well as the cost-effectiveness of early ICH surgery. Methods We conducted a retrospective, register-based multicenter study that included all patients who had been treated for supratentorial spontaneous ICH in four tertiary intensive care units in Finland between 2003 and 2013. To be included, patients needed to have experienced supratentorial ICHs that were 10-100 cm(3)and located within 10 mm of the cortex. We used a multivariable analysis, adjusting for the severity of the illness and the probability of surgical treatment, to assess the independent association between early ICH surgery (
  • Ristagno, Giuseppe; Masson, Serge; Tiainen, Marjaana; Bendel, Stepani; Bernasconi, Roberto; Varpula, Tero M; Milani, Valentina; Vaahersalo, Jukka; Magnoli, Michela; Spanuth, Eberhard; Barlera, Simona; Latini, Roberto; Hoppu, Sanna; Pettila, Ville; Skrifvars, Markus; FINNRESUSCI Study Grp (2016)
    Background: An intense systemic inflammatory response is observed following reperfusion after cardiac arrest. Heparin-binding protein (HBP) is a granule protein released by neutrophils that intervenes in endothelial permeability regulation. In the present study, we investigated plasma levels of HBP in a large population of patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that high circulating levels of HBP are associated with severity of post-cardiac arrest syndrome and poor outcome. Methods: Plasma was obtained from 278 patients enrolled in a prospective multicenter observational study in 21 intensive care units (ICU) in Finland. HBP was assayed at ICU admission and 48 h later. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was defined as the 24 h Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score >= 12. ICU death and 12-month Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) were evaluated. Multiple linear and logistic regression tests and receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve (AUC) were performed. Results: Eighty-two percent of patients (229 of 278) survived to ICU discharge and 48 % (133 of 276) to 1 year with a favorable neurological outcome (CPC 1 or 2). At ICU admission, median plasma levels of HBP were markedly elevated, 15.4 [9.6-31.3] ng/mL, and persisted high 48 h later, 14.8 [9.8-31.1] ng/mL. Admission levels of HBP were higher in patients who had higher 24 h SOFA and cardiovascular SOFA score (p <0.0001) and in those who developed MODS compared to those who did not (29.3 [13.7-60.1] ng/mL vs. 13.6 [9.1-26.2] ng/mL, p <0.0001; AUC = 0.70 +/- 0.04, p = 0.0001). Admission levels of HBP were also higher in patients who died in ICU (31.0 [17.7-78.2] ng/mL) compared to those who survived (13.5 [9.1-25.5] ng/mL, p <0.0001) and in those with an unfavorable 12-month neurological outcome compared to those with a favorable one (18.9 [11.3-44.3] ng/mL vs. 12.8 [8.6-30.4] ng/mL, p <0.0001). Admission levels of HBP predicted early ICU death with an AUC of 0.74 +/- 0. 04 (p <0.0001) and were independently associated with ICU death (OR [95 %CI] 1.607 [1.076-2.399], p = 0.020), but not with unfavorable 12-month neurological outcome (OR [95 %CI] 1.154 [0.834-1.596], p = 0.387). Conclusions: Elevated plasma levels of HBP at ICU admission were independently associated with early death in ICU.
  • Holmberg, Ville; Soini, Hanna; Kivelä, Pia; Ollgren, Jukka; Ristola, Matti (2019)
    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of death in HIV patients worldwide. Here we describe the epidemiology and outcome of HIV-TB co-infections in a high-income country with low TB incidence and integrated HIV and TB therapy according to European guidelines. Methods: This study was based on the HIV cohort of the Helsinki University Hospital which includes all HIV patients in the Helsinki region with a population of 1.5 million. Totally, 1939 HIV-positives who have been under follow-up between 1998 and 2015 were included. Results: TB was diagnosed in 53 (2.7%) of the HIV-patients. The TB incidence rate was higher in injecting drug users (IRR 3.15; 95% CI 1.33-7.52) and heterosexuals (IRR 3.46; 95% CI 1.64-7.29) compared to men having sex with men. The incidence rate was also higher in those born in Sub-Saharan Africa (IRR 3.53; 95% CI 1.78-7.03) compared to those born in Finland. There was a significant reduction in the total TB incidence rate of 59% per 6-year period between 1998 and 2015 (p <0.001). In injecting drug users there was a reduction in incidence rate from 1182 to 88 per 100,000 (p <0.001) and in people born in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2017 to 195 per 100,000 (p <0.001). Among the 53 HIV-TB co-infected cases, one female and 15 males died during follow up. HIV was the primary cause of death in five patients but none of the deaths were caused by TB. Conclusion: The incidence rate of tuberculosis among HIV-positives in Finland has been declining between 1998 and 2015. Among injecting drug users, the reduction is probably explained by harm reduction interventions and care in comprehensive care centers in Helsinki. The increased coverage of antiretroviral therapy is probably another main reason for the decline in TB incidence rates. Despite good treatment results for both HIV and TB, the all-cause mortality among Finnish males with HIV-TB was high, and common causes of death were intoxications and suicides.
  • Holmberg, Ville; Soini, Hanna; Kivelä, Pia; Ollgren, Jukka; Ristola, Matti (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of death in HIV patients worldwide. Here we describe the epidemiology and outcome of HIV-TB co-infections in a high-income country with low TB incidence and integrated HIV and TB therapy according to European guidelines. Methods This study was based on the HIV cohort of the Helsinki University Hospital which includes all HIV patients in the Helsinki region with a population of 1.5 million. Totally, 1939 HIV-positives who have been under follow-up between 1998 and 2015 were included. Results TB was diagnosed in 53 (2.7%) of the HIV-patients. The TB incidence rate was higher in injecting drug users (IRR 3.15; 95% CI 1.33–7.52) and heterosexuals (IRR 3.46; 95% CI 1.64–7.29) compared to men having sex with men. The incidence rate was also higher in those born in Sub-Saharan Africa (IRR 3.53; 95% CI 1.78–7.03) compared to those born in Finland. There was a significant reduction in the total TB incidence rate of 59% per 6-year period between 1998 and 2015 (p < 0.001). In injecting drug users there was a reduction in incidence rate from 1182 to 88 per 100,000 (p < 0.001) and in people born in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2017 to 195 per 100,000 (p < 0.001). Among the 53 HIV-TB co-infected cases, one female and 15 males died during follow up. HIV was the primary cause of death in five patients but none of the deaths were caused by TB. Conclusion The incidence rate of tuberculosis among HIV-positives in Finland has been declining between 1998 and 2015. Among injecting drug users, the reduction is probably explained by harm reduction interventions and care in comprehensive care centers in Helsinki. The increased coverage of antiretroviral therapy is probably another main reason for the decline in TB incidence rates. Despite good treatment results for both HIV and TB, the all-cause mortality among Finnish males with HIV-TB was high, and common causes of death were intoxications and suicides.
  • Raj, Rahul; Siironen, Jari; Kivisaari, Riku; Kuisma, Markku; Brinck, Tuomas; Lappalainen, Jaakko; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2013)