Browsing by Subject "Oxidative stress"

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  • Chandola, C.; Casteleijn, M.G.; Chandola, U.M.; Gopalan, L.N.; Urtti, A.; Neerathilingam, M. (2019)
    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that leads to the severe loss of central vision in elderlies. The health of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is critical for the onset of AMD. Chronic oxidative stress along with loss of lysosomal activity is a major cause for RPE cell death during AMD. Hence, development of a molecule for targeted lysosomal delivery of therapeutic protein/drugs in RPE cells is important to prevent RPE cell death during AMD. Using human RPE cell line (ARPE-19 cells) as a study model, we confirmed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative stress results in CD44 cell surface receptor overexpression in RPE cells; hence, an important target for specific delivery to RPE cells during oxidative stress. We also demonstrate that the known nucleic acid CD44 aptamer - conjugated with a fluorescent probe (FITC) - is delivered into the lysosomes of CD44 expressing ARPE-19 cells. Hence, as a proof of concept, we demonstrate that CD44 aptamer may be used for lysosomal delivery of cargo to RPE cells under oxidative stress, similar to AMD condition. Since oxidative stress may induce wet and dry AMD, both, along with proliferative vitreoretinopathy, CD44 aptamer may be applicable as a carrier for targeted lysosomal delivery of therapeutic cargoes in ocular diseases showing oxidative stress in RPE cells. © 2019
  • Owen, Michael C.; Kulig, Waldemar; Rog, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Strodel, Birgit (2018)
    In an effort to delineate how cholesterol protects membrane structure under oxidative stress conditions, we monitored the changes to the structure of lipid bilayers comprising 30 mol% cholesterol and an increasing concentration of Class B oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) glycerophospholipids, namely, 1-palmitoyl-2-(9'-oxo-nonanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PoxnoPC), and 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PazePC), using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Increasing the content of oxidized phospholipids (oxPLs) from 0 to 60 mol% oxPL resulted in a characteristic reduction in bilayer thickness and increase in area per lipid, thereby increasing the exposure of the membrane hydrophobic region to water. However, cholesterol was observed to help reduce water injury by moving into the bilayer core and forming more hydrogen bonds with the oxPLs. Cholesterol also resists altering its tilt angle, helping to maintain membrane integrity. Water that enters the 1-nm-thick core region remains part of the bulk water on either side of the bilayer, with relatively few water molecules able to traverse through the bilayer. In cholesterol-rich membranes, the bilayer does not form pores at concentrations of 60 mol% oxPL as was shown in previous simulations in the absence of cholesterol.
  • Gospodaryov, Dmytro V.; Lushchak, Oleh V.; Rovenko, Bohdana M.; Perkhulyn, Natalia V.; Gerards, Mike; Tuomela, Tea; Jacobs, Howard T. (2014)
  • Sidorova, Y.; Domanskyi, A. (2020)
    Oxidative stress is prominent in many neurodegenerative diseases. Along with mitochondrial dysfunction and pathological protein aggregation, increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, together with impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms, are frequently observed in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The presence of oxidative stress markers in patients’ plasma and cerebrospinal fluid may aid early disease diagnoses, as well as provide clues regarding the efficacy of experimental disease-modifying therapies in clinical trials. In preclinical animal models, the detection and localization of oxidatively damaged lipids, proteins and nucleic acids helps to identify most vulnerable neuronal populations and brain areas, and elucidate the molecular pathways and the timeline of pathology progression. Here, we describe the protocol for the detection of oxidative stress markers using immunohistochemistry on formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, applicable to the analysis of postmortem samples and tissues from animal models. In addition, we provide a simple method for the detection of malondialdehyde in tissue lysates and body fluids, which is useful for screening and the identification of tissues and structures in the nervous system which are most affected by oxidative stress. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
  • Milosavljevic, Silvija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Post-transcriptional modifications (PTMs) in RNA are present in all known RNA species and conserved in all kingdoms of life. Transfer RNA (tRNA) has been shown to have numerous conserved modifications, which exemplifies the importance of modifications having impact on the structure of the tRNA and its function as carrier of the amino acids. Ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) are universally modified as well, and modifications are situated at functionally important spots of the ribosome. Given the fact that types and sites of modifications are conserved, it is likely that these modifications have been selected for and that they optimize the ribosomal structure and functions. Stress, such as temperature or infection by a pathogen, is known to change the presence or abundance of modifications in RNA molecules and thereby affect translation efficacy. In line with that, this master’s thesis project sought to gain insight into the dynamics of PTMs in tRNA and rRNA upon oxidative stress, with the goal of utilizing recently optimized UPLC/MS method for identifying modified ribonucleosides. As the specific aim of the thesis was to estimate the change in PTMs in tRNA and rRNA in response to oxidative stress with 0.5 mM and 2 mM hydrogen peroxide H2O2, 3 immediate goals were: (i) to isolate total tRNA from yeast grown in stress conditions, (ii) to isolate rRNA from yeast 80S ribosomes, and (iii) to identify present modifications using mass spectrometry. Yeast was cultured in presence of H2O2 as a stressor in mentioned concentrations, and both treatments considered showed a difference in survival when compared to the control. Rough cell concentration estimates (OD600) did not show the effect of the stressor on cell survival clearly, but when number of viable cells per mL was estimated, it was clear that growth of the stressed yeast cultures was hindered 2 hours after exposure to H2O2 but recovered during the 24 hours. Firstly, using UPLC/MS analysis, 29 modifications were identified in tRNA from control and H2O2 treated yeast. Most identified modifications showed no change in abundance in treatments, which is to be verified with additional replicates. However, distinct dynamics of stress-related change was found for several modifications, revealing additional modifications that may play a role in stress related modificome reprogramming to the previously known signature modifications of oxidative stress. It was expected that recovery of culture growth after 24 hours may be accompanied with modification level recovery. However, that was not demonstrated here as downregulation at 2 hours followed by upregulation at 24 hours was seen for 2-methylthio-N6-methyladenosine, N4-acetylcytidine and 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine, and the reverse was shown for N4-methylcytidine. Upregulation in both time points was also shown here for some modifications. Taken together, these results confirm a complex and dynamic control of tRNA modifications in cellular survival responses. Modifications found to be affected by oxidative stress are most frequently located on the wobble position 34 and anticodon loop position 37, so it is expected that changes in their modification levels could directly affect the tRNA function in translation, making them a specific target for future research. Secondly, modifications in rRNA from control yeast cultures were identified, such as expected methylations of all 4 canonical nucleosides. However, further analysis will be needed to confirm the other identified modifications, due to the potential mRNA and tRNA contamination. Optimizing the method for rRNA modifications identifications by acquiring more modified nucleosides specific for the rRNA to use as standards in the analysis, analyzing rRNA types separately and using tandem mass spectrometry would enable getting a deeper understanding of which modifications are present and where they are positioned. Finally, it would enable reliable identification of the signals of novel modifications present in rRNA, such as the tRNA modification 5-carbamoylmethyluridine signal found here. In conclusion, this thesis work lays the foundation to study the evolutionary conserved function of PTM changes during stress as modulators of translation, using the methodological approaches discussed in-depth within the thesis, primarily to confirm the intriguing results found here.
  • El-Khoury, Riyad; Kaulio, Eveliina; Lassila, Katariina A.; Crowther, Damian C.; Jacobs, Howard T.; Rustin, Pierre (2016)
    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely associated with the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, but there is no consensus on whether it is a cause or consequence of disease, nor on the precise mechanism(s). We addressed these issues by testing the effects of expressing the alternative oxidase AOX from Ciona intestinalis, in different models of AD pathology. AOX can restore respiratory electron flow when the cytochrome segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is inhibited, supporting ATP synthesis, maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and mitigating excess superoxide production at respiratory complexes I and III. In human HEK293-derived cells, AOX expression decreased the production of beta-amyloid peptide resulting from antimycin inhibition of respiratory complex III. Because hydrogen peroxide was neither a direct product nor substrate of AOX, the ability of AOX to mimic antioxidants in this assay must be indirect. In addition, AOX expression was able to partially alleviate the short lifespan of Drosophila models neuronally expressing human beta-amyloid peptides, whilst abrogating the induction of markers of oxidative stress. Our findings support the idea of respiratory chain dysfunction and excess ROS production as both an early step and as a pathologically meaningful target in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, supporting the concept of a mitochondrial vicious cycle underlying the disease. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Teramo, Kari; Piñeiro-Ramos, José David (2019)
    Oxidative stress is responsible for microvascular complications (hypertension, nephropathy, retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy) of diabetes, which during pregnancy increase both maternal and fetal complications. Chronic hypoxia and hyperglycemia result in increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity. However, oxidative stress induces also anti-oxidative reactions both in pregnant diabetes patients and in their fetuses. Not all type 1 diabetes patients with long-lasting disease develop microvascular complications, which suggests that some of these patients have protective mechanisms against these complications. Fetal erythropoietin (EPO) is the main regulator of red cell production in the mother and in the fetus, but it has also protective effects in various maternal and fetal tissues. This dual effect of EPO is based on EPO receptor (EPO-R) isoforms, which differ structurally and functionally from the hematopoietic EPO-R isoform. The tissue protective effects of EPO are based on its anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, cell proliferative and angiogenic properties. Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown that EPO has also positive metabolic effects on hyperglycemia and diabetes, although these have not yet been fully delineated. Whether the tissue protective and metabolic effects of EPO could have clinical benefits, are important topics for future research in diabetic pregnancies.
  • Felszeghy, Szabolcs; Viiri, Johanna; Paterno, Jussi J.; Hyttinen, Juha M. T.; Koskela, Ali; Chen, Mei; Leinonen, Henri; Tanila, Heikki; Kivinen, Niko; Koistinen, Arto; Toropainen, Elisa; Amadio, Marialaura; Smedowski, Adrian; Reinisalo, Mika; Winiarczyk, Mateusz; Mackiewicz, Jerzy; Mutikainen, Maija; Ruotsalainen, Anna-Kaisa; Kettunen, Mikko; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Sinha, Debasish; Kinnunen, Kati; Petrovski, Goran; Blasiak, Janusz; Bjorkoy, Geir; Koskelainen, Ari; Skottman, Heli; Urtti, Arto; Salminen, Antero; Kannan, Ram; Ferrington, Deborah A.; Xu, Heping; Levonen, Anna-Liisa; Tavi, Pasi; Kauppinen, Anu; Kaarniranta, Kai (2019)
    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multi-factorial disease that is the leading cause of irreversible and severe vision loss in the developed countries. It has been suggested that the pathogenesis of dry AMD involves impaired protein degradation in retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). RPE cells are constantly exposed to oxidative stress that may lead to the accumulation of damaged cellular proteins, DNA and lipids and evoke tissue deterioration during the aging process. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the lysosomal/autophagosomal pathway are the two major proteolytic systems in eukaryotic cells. NRF-2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2) and PGC-1 alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha) are master transcription factors in the regulation of cellular detoxification. We investigated the role of NRF-2 and PGC-1 alpha in the regulation of RPE cell structure and function by using global double knockout (dKO) mice. The NRF-2/PGC-1 alpha dKO mice exhibited significant age-dependent RPE degeneration, accumulation of the oxidative stress marker, 4-HNE (4-hydroxynonenal), the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein 78) and ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4), and damaged mitochondria. Moreover, levels of protein ubiquitination and autophagy markers p62/SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1), Beclin-1 and LC3B (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta) were significantly increased together with the Iba-1 (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1) mononuclear phagocyte marker and an enlargement of RPE size. These histopathological changes of RPE were accompanied by photoreceptor dysmorphology and vision loss as revealed by electroretinography. Consequently, these novel findings suggest that the NRF-2/PGC-1 alpha dKO mouse is a valuable model for investigating the role of proteasomal and autophagy clearance in the RPE and in the development of dry AMD.
  • Tian, Li; Hui, Chin Wai; Bisht, Kanchan; Tan, Yunlong; Sharma, Kaushik; Chen, Song; Zhang, Xiangyang; Tremblay, Marie-Eve (2017)
    Mounting evidence indicates the importance of microglia for proper brain development and function, as well as in complex stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive decline along the aging trajectory. Considering that microglia are resident immune cells of the brain, a homeostatic maintenance of their effector functions that impact neuronal circuitry, such as phagocytosis and secretion of inflammatory factors, is critical to prevent the onset and progression of these pathological conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms by which microglial functions can be properly regulated under healthy and pathological conditions are still largely unknown. We aim to summarize recent progress regarding the effects of psychosocial stress and oxidative stress on microglial phenotypes, leading to neuroinflammation and impaired microglia-synapse interactions, notably through our own studies of inbred mouse strains, and most importantly, to discuss about promising therapeutic strategies that take advantage of microglial functions to tackle such brain disorders in the context of adult psychosocial stress or aging-induced oxidative stress. (c) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Ollikainen, Eliisa; Tulamo, Riikka; Lehti, Satu; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemelä, Mika; Kovanen, Petri T.; Frösen, Juhana (2018)
    Rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (sIA) is often fatal. Thus, early detection of rupture-prone sIAs is vital. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), derived mainly from neutrophils, associates with sIA rupture, and therefore its role in sIA pathogenesis warrants further studies. We analyzed MPO and its association with other histological markers in 36 (16 unruptured and 20 ruptured) sIA samples by immunohistochemistry. MPO was present in all studied sIAs, and its expression associated with wall inflammatory cell infiltrations (r = 0.50, 0.63, and 0.75, all p <0.002), degenerative remodeling (p = 0.002) and rupture (p = 0.003). MPO associated strongly with the presence of organized luminal thrombi (p <0.001), which also stained positive for MPO. Polymorphonuclear MPO+ cells were detected in the sIA walls, indicating neutrophils as MPO-source. MPO correlated strongly with accumulation of oxidized lipids (r = 0.67, p <0.001) and loss of smooth muscle cells (r = -0.68, p <0.001), suggesting that MPO is a relevant source of oxidative stress leading to cell death in the sIA wall. Furthermore, MPO associated with erythrocyte fragmentation (r = 0.74, p <0.001) and iron deposition (p = 0.041), 2 outcomes known to amplify MPO-dependent oxidative stress. Taken together, these results suggest that MPO associates with degenerative remodeling predisposing to sIA wall rupture and may serve as a biomarker of a rupture-prone sIA wall.
  • Ruotsalainen, Anna-Kaisa; Lappalainen, Jari P.; Heiskanen, Emmi; Merentie, Mari; Sihvola, Virve; Näpänkangas, Juha; Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Line; Kansanen, Emilia; Adinolfi, Simone; Kaarniranta, Kai; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Jauhiainen, Matti; Pirinen, Eija; Levonen, Anna-Liisa (2019)
    Aims Oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the vessel wall, but paradoxically, global loss of Nrf2 in apoE deficient mice alleviates atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of global Nrf2 deficiency on early and advanced atherogenesis in alternative models of atherosclerosis, LDL receptor deficient mice (LDLR-/-), and LDLR-/- mice expressing apoB-100 only (LDLR-/- ApoB(100/100)) having a humanized lipoprotein profile. Methods and results LDLR-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 or 12weeks and LDLR(-/-)ApoB(100/100) mice a regular chow diet for 6 or 12months. Nrf2 deficiency significantly reduced early and more advanced atherosclerosis assessed by lesion size and coverage in the aorta in both models. Nrf2 deficiency in LDLR-/- mice reduced total plasma cholesterol after 6weeks of HFD and triglycerides in LDLR(-/-)ApoB(100/100) mice on a chow diet. Nrf2 deficiency aggravated aortic plaque maturation in aged LDLR(-/-)ApoB(100/100) mice as it increased plaque calcification. Moreover, approximate to 36% of Nrf2(-/-)LDLR(-/-)ApoB(100/100) females developed spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) or sudden death at 5 to 12months of age. Interestingly, Nrf2 deficiency increased plaque instability index, enhanced plaque inflammation and calcification, and reduced fibrous cap thickness in brachiocephalic arteries of LDLR(-/-)ApoB(100/100) female mice at age of 12months. Conclusions Absence of Nrf2 reduced atherosclerotic lesion size in both atherosclerosis models, likely via systemic effects on lipid metabolism. However, Nrf2 deficiency in aged LDLR(-/-)ApoB(100/100) mice led to an enhanced atherosclerotic plaque instability likely via increased plaque inflammation and oxidative stress, which possibly predisposed to MI and sudden death.
  • Stefanovic, Vedran; Andersson, Sture; Vento, Maximo (2019)
    Spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) is one of the major complications of pregnancy and the main cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Despite the efforts devoted to the understanding of this obstetrical syndrome and improved medical care, there has been a tendency for the PTB rate to increase in the last decades globally. The costs of the screening for spontaneous PTB, its management, and treatment of the sequelae represent a major burden to the health service economy of high-income countries. In this scenario, it has been widely acknowledged that oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in the pathogenicity of human disease in wide range of areas of medicine. There is an emerging evidence that an imbalance between pro-and-antioxidants may be associated with spontaneous PTB. However, there are still many controversies on the mechanisms by which OS are involved in the pathogenesis of prematurity. Moreover, the crucial question whether the OS is the cause or consequence of the disease is yet to be answered. The purpose of this article is to briefly summarize the current knowledge and controversies on oxidative stress-related spontaneous PTB and to give a critical approach on future perspectives on this topic as a classical example of translational medicine. Placenta-mediated pregnancy adverse outcome associated with OS leading to iatrogenic PTB (e.g. pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes) will not be discussed.
  • Eteläinen, T.; Kulmala, Soile; Svarcbahs, R.; Jäntti, M.; Myohänen, T. T. (2021)
    Oxidative stress (OS) is a common toxic feature in various neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, reducing OS could provide a potential approach to achieve neuroprotection. Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) is a serine protease that is linked to neurodegeneration, as endogenous PREP inhibits autophagy and induces the accumulation of detrimental protein aggregates. As such, inhibition of PREP by a small-molecular inhibitor has provided neuroprotection in preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, PREP inhibition has been shown to reduce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the absence of PREP blocks stress-induced ROS production. However, the mechanism behind PREP-related ROS regulation is not known. As we recently discovered PREP's physiological role as a protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulator, we wanted to characterize PREP inhibition as an approach to reduce OS. We studied the impact of a PREP inhibitor, KYP-2047, on hydrogen peroxide and ferrous chloride induced ROS production and on cellular antioxidant response in HEK-293 and SHSY5Y cells. In addition, we used HEK-293 and SH-SY5Y PREP knock-out cells to validate the role of PREP on stress-induced ROS production. We were able to show that absence of PREP almost entirely blocks the stressinduced ROS production in both cell lines. Reduced ROS production and smaller antioxidant response was also seen in both cell lines after PREP inhibition by 10 mu M KYP-2047. Our results also revealed that the OS reducing mechanism of PREP inhibition is related to reduced activation of ROS producing NADPH oxidase through enhanced PP2A activation. In conclusion, our results suggest that PREP inhibition could also provide neuroprotection by reducing OS, thus broadening the scope of its beneficial effects on neurodegeneration.
  • Konovalova, Svetlana; Liu, Xiaonan; Manjunath, Pooja; Baral, Sundar; Neupane, Nirajan; Hilander, Taru; Yang, Yang; Balboa, Diego; Terzioglu, Mügen; Euro, Liliya; Varjosalo, Markku; Tyynismaa, Henna (2018)
    Mitochondria are central organelles to cellular metabolism. Their function relies largely on nuclear-encoded proteins that must be imported from the cytosol, and thus the protein import pathways are important for the maintenance of mitochondrial proteostasis. Mitochondrial HSP70 (mtHsp70) is a key component in facilitating the translocation of proteins through the inner membrane into the mitochondrial matrix. Its protein folding cycle is regulated by the nucleotide-exchange factor GrpE, which triggers the release of folded proteins by ATP rebinding. Vertebrates have two mitochondrial GrpE paralogs, GRPEL1 and 2, but without clearly defined roles. Using BioID proximity labeling to identify potential binding partners of the GRPELs in the mitochondrial matrix, we obtained results supporting a model where both GRPELs regulate mtHsp70 as homodimers. We show that GRPEL2 is not essential in human cultured cells, and its absence does not prevent mitochondrial protein import. Instead we find that GRPEL2 is redox regulated in oxidative stress. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, GRPEL2 forms dimers through intermolecular disulfide bonds in which Cys87 is the thiol switch. We propose that the dimerization of GRPEL2 may activate the folding machinery responsible for protein import into mitochondrial matrix or enhance the chaperone activity of mtHSP70, thus protecting mitochondrial proteostasis in oxidative stress.
  • Hemilä, Harri (2020)
    A previous analysis of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Study on male smokers found that beta-carotene supplementation increased the risk of pneumonia 4-fold in those who started smoking at the age of >= 21 years and smoked >= 21 cigarettes/d (a subgroup of 7 % of the study population). The present study hypothesised that beta-carotene increases mortality in the same subgroup. The ATBC Study (1985-1993) recruited 29 133 Finnish male smokers (>= 5 cigarettes/d) aged 50-69 years. Cox regression models were constructed to estimate the effect of beta-carotene supplementation in subgroups. beta-Carotene increased mortality (risk ratio 1 center dot 56; 95 % CI 1 center dot 06, 2 center dot 3) in those who started to smoke at >= 21 years and smoked >= 21 cigarettes/d. Within this subgroup, there was strong evidence of further heterogeneity. The effect of beta-carotene supplementation was further modified by dietary vitamin C intake, fruit and vegetable intake (P = 0 center dot 0004), and by vitamin E supplementation (P = 0 center dot 011). Thus, harm from beta-carotene was not uniform within the study population. Interactions between beta-carotene and vitamins C and E were seen only within a subgroup of 7 % of the ATBC participants, and therefore should not be extrapolated to the general population. Heterogeneity of the beta-carotene effect on mortality challenges the validity of previous meta-analyses that have pooled many diverse antioxidants for one single estimate of effect using the assumption that a single estimate equally applies to all antioxidants and all people. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.
  • Kortesoja, Maarit; Taavitsainen, Eveliina; Hanski, Leena (2021)
    Triggered by changes in macrophage redox status and lipid metabolism, foam cells represent a hallmark of atherosclerosis. Induction of macrophage foam cell formation by Chlamydia pneumoniae, a gram-negative human pathogen, has been established in various earlier studies in vitro and in vivo. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by C. pneumoniae and alterations in macrophage lipid metabolism do not require chlamydial replication, making conventional antibiotics useless in the intervention of the process. In this work, we report on the ability of schisandrin B and schisandrin C, two dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans, to suppress the C. pneumoniae -induced foam cell formation in RAW264.7 macrophages. This effect was accompanied with the upregulation of PPARγ, a nuclear receptor acting as a major transcriptional regulator of lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses. Schisandrin B and schisandrin C also increased the total intracellular glutathione content of the macrophages. In the case of schisandrin B, this was accompanied with the upregulation of GSH biosynthetic genes glutamate cysteine ligase (both the catalytic and the modifier subunits GCLc and GCLm) as well as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase GGT1. In addition, schisandrin B and schisandrin C upregulated the expression of a lipid transport protein ABCA1 gene mediating cholesterol efflux from macrophages translating into a reduction in total cholesterol concentration in the schisandrin B -treated cells. Collectively, these data indicate that both schisandrin B and schisandrin C are able to alleviate the pathogenic consequences of C. pneumoniae infection in macrophages by altering the cellular redox balance and lipid trafficking.
  • Prajapati, Biplu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Transfer RNA (tRNA) is one of the most extensively modified RNA molecules. The role of tRNA modifications become apparent during physiological condition such as oxidative stress, where it serves as an adaptive response to the changing environment. These modifications are upregulated mainly at the wobble position of the tRNA to enhance the translational efficiency of the stress response genes through enhanced decoding rate and tRNA–mRNA interaction. Hence, tRNA modification has a crucial role in regulating translational fidelity, and such modifications can be utilized to fine-tune the translation for improved production of heterologous protein. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the tRNA modification changes in two laboratory-significant E. coli strains (BL21 (DE3) and K12) during oxidative stress and utilize these modifications to enhance the production of heterologous protein using a defined cell-free protein synthesis system. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect and quantify the tRNA modification changes in the hydrogen peroxide-treated E. coli cells. The results showed unique tRNA modification patterns and intensities between the two bacterial strains in response to oxidative stress. Modifications such as ac4c and m2,2G were upregulated in E. coli BL21 (DE3) following hydrogen peroxide treatment, whereas k2C and chm5U were increased in E. coli K12. Further analysis of the dataset revealed that most of the upregulated ribonucleoside modifications were predominant at the anticodon loop of the tRNAs, indicating the potentiality of these tRNA pools to impact on translation. Likewise, I optimized an E. coli-based cell-free protein synthesis system to investigate the effect of modified tRNA pools on translation. Hence, this study serves as a stepping stone to understand the tRNA modification landscape of E. coli and provides a platform to depict the function of post-transcriptional tRNA modifications in translation with the CFPS system.
  • Hemilä, Harri; Chalker, Elizabeth (2020)
    Background Our recent meta-analysis indicated that vitamin C may shorten the length of ICU stay and the duration of mechanical ventilation. Here we analyze modification of the vitamin C effect on ventilation time, by the control group ventilation time (which we used as a proxy for severity of disease in the patients of each trial). Methods We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and reference lists of relevant publications. We included controlled trials in which the administration of vitamin C was the only difference between the study groups. We did not limit our search to randomized trials and did not require placebo control. We included all doses and all durations of vitamin C administration. One author extracted study characteristics and outcomes from the trial reports and entered the data in a spreadsheet. Both authors checked the data entered against the original reports. We used meta-regression to examine whether the vitamin C effect on ventilation time depends on the duration of ventilation in the control group. Results We identified nine potentially eligible trials, eight of which were included in the meta-analysis. We pooled the results of the eight trials, including 685 patients in total, and found that vitamin C shortened the length of mechanical ventilation on average by 14% (P = 0.00001). However, there was significant heterogeneity in the effect of vitamin C between the trials. Heterogeneity was fully explained by the ventilation time in the untreated control group. Vitamin C was most beneficial for patients with the longest ventilation, corresponding to the most severely ill patients. In five trials including 471 patients requiring ventilation for over 10 h, a dosage of 1-6 g/day of vitamin C shortened ventilation time on average by 25% (P <0.0001). Conclusions We found strong evidence that vitamin C shortens the duration of mechanical ventilation, but the magnitude of the effect seems to depend on the duration of ventilation in the untreated control group. The level of baseline illness severity should be considered in further research. Different doses should be compared directly in future trials.
  • Hemilä, Harri; Chalker, Elizabeth (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Our recent meta-analysis indicated that vitamin C may shorten the length of ICU stay and the duration of mechanical ventilation. Here we analyze modification of the vitamin C effect on ventilation time, by the control group ventilation time (which we used as a proxy for severity of disease in the patients of each trial). Methods We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and reference lists of relevant publications. We included controlled trials in which the administration of vitamin C was the only difference between the study groups. We did not limit our search to randomized trials and did not require placebo control. We included all doses and all durations of vitamin C administration. One author extracted study characteristics and outcomes from the trial reports and entered the data in a spreadsheet. Both authors checked the data entered against the original reports. We used meta-regression to examine whether the vitamin C effect on ventilation time depends on the duration of ventilation in the control group. Results We identified nine potentially eligible trials, eight of which were included in the meta-analysis. We pooled the results of the eight trials, including 685 patients in total, and found that vitamin C shortened the length of mechanical ventilation on average by 14% (P = 0.00001). However, there was significant heterogeneity in the effect of vitamin C between the trials. Heterogeneity was fully explained by the ventilation time in the untreated control group. Vitamin C was most beneficial for patients with the longest ventilation, corresponding to the most severely ill patients. In five trials including 471 patients requiring ventilation for over 10 h, a dosage of 1–6 g/day of vitamin C shortened ventilation time on average by 25% (P < 0.0001). Conclusions We found strong evidence that vitamin C shortens the duration of mechanical ventilation, but the magnitude of the effect seems to depend on the duration of ventilation in the untreated control group. The level of baseline illness severity should be considered in further research. Different doses should be compared directly in future trials.