Browsing by Subject "PAIN"

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  • Hällfors, Eerik; Saku, Sami A.; Mäkinen, Tatu J.; Madanat, Rami (2018)
    Background: Different measures for reducing costs after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have gained attention lately. At our institution, a free-of-charge consultation phone service was initiated that targeted patients with TJA. This service aimed at reducing unnecessary emergency department (ED) visits and, thus, potentially improving the cost-effectiveness of TJAs. To our knowledge, a similar consultation service had not been described previously. We aimed at examining the rates and reasons for early postdischarge phone calls and evaluating the efficacy of this consultation service. Methods: During a 2-month period, we gathered information on every call received by the consultation phone service from patients with TJAs within 90 days of the index TJA procedure. Patients were followed for 2weeks aftermaking a call to detectmajor complications and self-initiated EDvisits. Datawere collected fromelectronic medical charts regarding age, gender, type of surgery, date of discharge, and length of hospital stay. Results: We analyzed 288 phone calls. Calls were mostly related to medication (41%), wound complications (17%), and mobilization issues (15%). Most calls were resolved in the phone consultation. Few patients (13%) required further evaluation in the ED. The consultation service failed to detect the need for an ED visit in 2 cases (0.7%) that required further care. Conclusion: The consultation phone service clearly benefitted patients with TJAs. The service reduced the number of unnecessary ED visits and functioned well in detecting patients who required further care. Most postoperative concernswere related to prescribed medications, wound complications, and mobilization issues. (c) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Suleymanova, Ilida; Balassa, Tamas; Tripathi, Sushil; Molnar, Csaba; Saarma, Mart; Sidorova, Yulia; Horvath, Peter (2018)
    Astrocytes are involved in various brain pathologies including trauma, stroke, neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, or chronic pain. Determining cell density in a complex tissue environment in microscopy images and elucidating the temporal characteristics of morphological and biochemical changes is essential to understand the role of astrocytes in physiological and pathological conditions. Nowadays, manual stereological cell counting or semi-automatic segmentation techniques are widely used for the quantitative analysis of microscopy images. Detecting astrocytes automatically is a highly challenging computational task, for which we currently lack efficient image analysis tools. We have developed a fast and fully automated software that assesses the number of astrocytes using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN). The method highly outperforms state-of-the-art image analysis and machine learning methods and provides precision comparable to those of human experts. Additionally, the runtime of cell detection is significantly less than that of other three computational methods analysed, and it is faster than human observers by orders of magnitude. We applied our DCNN-based method to examine the number of astrocytes in different brain regions of rats with opioid-induced hyperalgesia/tolerance (OIH/OIT), as morphine tolerance is believed to activate glia. We have demonstrated a strong positive correlation between manual and DCNN-based quantification of astrocytes in rat brain.
  • Sidorova, Yulia A.; Bespalov, Maxim M.; Wong, Agnes W.; Kambur, Oleg; Jokinen, Viljami; Lilius, Tuomas O.; Suleymanova, Ilida; Karelson, Gunnar; Rauhala, Pekka V.; Karelson, Mati; Osborne, Peregrine B.; Keast, Janet R.; Kalso, Eija A.; Saarma, Mart (2017)
    Neuropathic pain caused by nerve damage is a common and severe class of chronic pain. Disease-modifying clinical therapies are needed as current treatments typically provide only symptomatic relief; show varying clinical efficacy; and most have significant adverse effects. One approach is targeting either neurotrophic factors or their receptors that normalize sensory neuron function and stimulate regeneration after nerve damage. Two candidate targets are glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and artemin (ARTN), as these GDNF family ligands (GFLs) show efficacy in animal models of neuropathic pain (Boucher et al., 2000; Gardell et al., 2003: Wang et al., 2008, 2014). As these protein ligands have poor drug-like properties and are expensive to produce for clinical use, we screened 18,400 drug-like compounds to develop small molecules that act similarly to GFLs (GDNF mimetics). This screening identified BT13 as a compound that selectively targeted GFL receptor RET to activate downstream signaling cascades. BT13 was similar to NGF and ARTN in selectively promoting neurite outgrowth from the peptidergic class of adult sensory neurons in culture, but was opposite to ARTN in causing neurite elongation without affecting initiation. When administered after spinal nerve ligation in a rat model of neuropathic pain, 20 and 25 mg/kg of BT13 decreased mechanical hypersensitivity and normalized expression of sensory neuron markers in dorsal root ganglia. In control rats, BT13 had no effect on baseline mechanical or thermal sensitivity, motor coordination, or weight gain. Thus, small molecule BT13 selectively activates RET and offers opportunities for developing novel disease-modifying medications to treat neuropathic pain.
  • Shiri, Rahman; Heliövaara, Markku; Ahola, Kirsi; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Haukka, Eija; Kausto, Johanna; Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Lallukka, Tea (2018)
    Objective This study aimed to develop and validate a risk screening tool using a points system to assess the risk of future disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Methods The development population, the Health 2000 Survey, consisted of a nationally representative sample of Finnish employees aged 30-60 years (N=3676), and the validation population, the Helsinki Health Study, consisted of employees of the City of Helsinki aged 40-60 years (N=6391). Both surveys were linked to data on disability retirement awards due to MSD from national register for an 11-year follow-up. Results The discriminative ability of the model with seven predictors was good (Gonen and Heller's K concordance statistic=0.821). We gave points to seven predictors: sex-dependent age, level of education, pain limiting daily activities, multisite musculoskeletal pain, history of arthritis, and surgery for a spinal disorder or carpal tunnel syndrome. A score of >= 3 out of 7 (top 30% of the index) had good sensitivity (83%) and specificity (70%). Individuals at the top 30% of the risk index were at 29 [95% confidence interval (CI) 15-55) times higher risk of disability retirement due to MSD than those at the bottom 40%. Conclusion This easy-to-use screening tool based on self-reported risk factor profiles can help identify individuals at high risk for disability retirement due to MSD.
  • Kormi, Eeva; Snall, Johanna; Tornwall, Jyrki; Thoren, Hanna (2016)
    Purpose: The aim of the study was to clarify the use of perioperative glucocorticoids (GCs) in association with oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: We conducted a survey of consultant oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs) working in tertiary and secondary referral hospitals in Finland. Results: The administration of GCs is common among OMSs (85.2% of respondents), especially in association with orthognathic surgery (100% of respondents) and facial fractures (43.5%). All OMSs who administered GCs reported that they reduce swelling. The next most common reasons for administering GCs were established practice (43.5%) and pain reduction (39.1%). The regimens differed widely from a 5-mg single dose to a 116-mg total dose of dexamethasone equivalent. Conclusions: GCs are widely administered by OMSs, especially in major surgery. The literature shows some benefits of their use in dental and orthognathic operations, and their use seems rather safe. Proof of efficacy remains to be determined for other major maxillofacial surgical procedures; thus further studies are needed. (C) 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • Nurkhametova, Dilyara; Kudryavtsev, Igor; Guselnikova, Valeriia; Serebryakova, Maria; Giniatullina, Raisa R.; Wojciechowski, Sara; Tore, Fatma; Rizvanov, Albert; Koistinaho, Jari; Malm, Tarja; Giniatullin, Rashid (2019)
    Extracellular ATP activates inflammasome and triggers the release of multiple cytokines in various immune cells, a process primarily mediated by P2X7 receptors. However, the expression and functional properties of P2X7 receptors in native mast cells in tissues such as meninges where migraine pain originates from have not been explored. Here we report a novel model of murine cultured meningeal mast cells and using these, as well as easily accessible peritoneal mast cells, studied the mechanisms of ATP-mediated mast cell activation. We show that ATP induced a time and dose-dependent activation of peritoneal mast cells as analyzed by the uptake of organic dye YO-PRO1 as well as 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Both YO-PRO1 and DAPI uptake in mast cells was mediated by the P2X7 subtype of ATP receptors as demonstrated by the inhibitory effect of P2X7 antagonist A839977. Consistent with this, significant YO-PRO1 uptake was promoted by the P2X7 agonist 2',3'-O-(benzoyl-4-benzoyl)-ATP (BzATP). Extracellular ATP-induced degranulation of native and cultured meningeal mast cells was shown with Toluidine Blue staining. Taken together, these data demonstrate the important contribution of P2X7 receptors to ATP-driven activation of mast cells, suggesting these purinergic mechanisms as potential triggers of neuroinflammation and pain sensitization in migraine.
  • Kormi, Eeva; Snall, Johanna; Koivusalo, Anna-Maria; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Thoren, Hanna; Tornwall, Jyrki (2017)
    Purpose: To clarify the effect of systemic dexamethasone (DXM) on pain and postoperative opioid (oxycodone) consumption after blowout fracture surgery. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized observer-blinded trial of 20 patients who had a blowout fracture requiring surgical intervention was conducted. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a total dose of intravenous DXM 30 mg perioperatively or no DXM (controls). Pain was assessed postoperatively using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) each time analgesics (acetaminophen every 6 hours or oxycodone upon request) were administered. The VAS area under the curve (VAS AUC) for 24 hours postoperatively represented the outcome. Data were analyzed using chi(2) test, Student t test, 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test, and linear regression, with a P value less than .05 indicating significance. Results: Patients with blowout fracture receiving perioperative systemic DXM exhibited a significantly lower average VAS AUC (P = .04). After controlling for other confounding variables, this result remained significant (P = .03). Conclusions: DXM appears to decrease postoperative pain and thus is recommended as a pre-emptive analgesic in blowout fracture surgery. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Inc on behalf of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • Hirvonen, Tuomas; Siironen, Jari; Marjamaa, Johan; Niemelä, Mika; Koski-Palkén, Anniina (2020)
    Background Context Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures is thought to lead to accelerated degeneration of the adjacent cervical discs and in some cases can be symptomatic (adjacent segment disease, or ASD). The occurrence of ASD is of particular interest when treating young individuals, as the cumulative disease burden may become increasingly significant during their expectedly long lifetime. However, the overall impact of a surgical intervention on the lifetime prognosis of ASD remains unclear. Purpose Our goal was to study the long-term outcomes of ACDF surgery among those members of the young adult population who have been operated on between the ages of 18 and 40. Study design Retrospective study. Patient Sample All patients between 18 and 40 years of age at the time of surgery who underwent ACDF due to degenerative cervical disorders at Helsinki University Hospital between the years of 1990 and 2005 (476 patients). Outcome Measures Cervical reoperation rate, satisfaction with the surgery, employment status, Neck Disability Index (NDI) Methods We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of all patients between 18 and 40 years of age at the time of surgery who underwent ACDF due to degenerative cervical disorders at Helsinki University Hospital between the years of 1990 and 2005. We sent questionnaires to all available patients at the end of the follow-up (median 17.5 years) to assess their current neck symptoms, general situations, and levels of satisfaction with the surgery. Furthermore, we compared the results for different types of ACDF surgeries (i.e., discectomy only versus synthetic cage or bone autograft implantation for fusion) in propensity-score-matched groups. Results Of the 476 patients who were included in the study, surgery was performed in 72% of the cases due to intervertebral disc herniation and in 28% due to spondylotic changes. The total reoperation rate during the entire follow-up (median 17.5 years) was 24%, and 19.5% if early reoperations (
  • Chen, Zuyue; Wei, Hong; Pertovaara, Antti; Wang, Jianhong; Carlson, Synnöve (2018)
    Paracetamol has recently been suggested to affect emotion processing in addition to alleviating pain in humans. We investigated in adult male Hannover–Wistar rats whether acute intraperitoneally administrated paracetamol affects behavior in tests measuring anxiety, mood, motor activity, and memory. Unoperated rats received saline or a low (50 mg/kg) or high (300 mg/kg) dose of paracetamol, while rats with a spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathy and sham-operated rats received saline or the low dose of paracetamol. Rats were tested on open-field (OFT), elevated plus-maze (EPM), light-dark box (LDB), novel-object recognition (NOR), sucrose preference, rotarod, and monofilament tests. In unoperated rats, both the low and high dose of paracetamol reduced line crossings, and grooming time in the OFT, and novel preference in NOR. The high dose of paracetamol increased the time spent in the closed arm in EPM, reduced the number of rearings and leanings in OFT, the time spent in the light box in LDB, and sucrose preference. Paracetamol had no significant effect on the rotarod test measuring motor activity. The low dose of paracetamol suppressed mechanical pain hypersensitivity in SNI rats, without influencing pain behavior in sham-operated rats. Saline- but not paracetamol-treated SNI rats spent more time than sham-operated rats in the closed arm in the EPM test. Together the results suggest that a high dose of paracetamol increases anxiety-like and anhedonic behavior, and impairs recognition memory in unoperated controls, while in neuropathy, a low dose of paracetamol reduces nerve injury-associated anxiety probably by reducing neuropathic pain.
  • Jarvinen, Jyri; Karppinen, Jaro; Niinimaki, Jaakko; Haapea, Marianne; Gronblad, Mats; Luoma, Katariina; Rinne, Eeva (2015)
    Background: The association of Modic changes (MC) with low back pain (LBP) is unclear. The purpose of our study was to investigate the associations between the extent of Type 1 (M1) and Type 2 (M2) MC and low back symptoms over a two-year period. Methods: The subjects (n = 64, mean age 43.8 y; 55 [86%] women) were consecutive chronic LBP patients who had M1 or mixed M1/M2 on lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Size and type of MC on sagittal lumbar MRI and clinical data regarding low back symptoms were recorded at baseline and two-year follow-up. The size (%) of each MC in relation to vertebral size was estimated from sagittal slices (midsagittal and left and right quarter), while proportions of M1 and M2 within the MC were evaluated from three separate slices covering the MC. The extent (%) of M1 and M2 was calculated as a product of the size of MC and the proportions of M1 and M2 within the MC, respectively. Changes in the extent of M1 and M2 were analysed for associations with changes in LBP intensity and the Oswestry disability index (ODI), using linear regression analysis. Results: At baseline, the mean LBP intensity was 6.5 and the mean ODI was 33%. During follow-up, LBP intensity increased in 15 patients and decreased in 41, while ODI increased in 19 patients and decreased in 44. In univariate analyses, change in the extent of M1 associated significantly positively with changes in LBP intensity and ODI (beta 0.26, p = 0.036 and beta 0.30, p = 0.017; respectively), whereas the change in the extent of M2 did not associate with changes in LBP intensity and ODI (beta -0.24, p = 0.054 and beta -0.13, p = 0.306; respectively). After adjustment for age, gender, and size of MC at baseline, change in the extent of M1 remained significantly positively associated with change in ODI (beta 0.53, p = 0.003). Conclusion: Change in the extent of M1 associated positively with changes in low back symptoms.
  • Ala-Kurikka, Eve; Heinonen, Mari; Mustonen, Katja; Peltoniemi, Olli; Raekallio, Marja; Vainio, Outi; Valros, Anna (2017)
    Lameness is a common health and welfare problem in sows. Little has been published about behavioral changes in lame sows. Ketoprofen is an effective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to treat non-infectious locomotor disorders in pigs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lameness and lameness-related pain on the behavior of sows. To evaluate this effect, we studied whether pain alleviation with ketoprofen and clinical relief of lameness were associated with changes in behavior. We allocated randomly 13 lame, early pregnancy sows in three treatment groups receiving either ketoprofen 4 mg/kg, ketoprofen 2 mg/kg (these two groups were pooled for statistical analyses) or placebo. The animals were treated orally for 5 days and lameness scored before and on the last day of the treatment. Lameness was assessed with a 5-grade scoring system and behavior by scan sampling method. A clinically healthy, non-lame control sow was paired with each lame sow and they were examined the same way as lame sows but received no treatment. Lame sows were more passive, they lay more and stood and explored pen fixtures less than the control sows before treatment. After 5-days treatment, placebo-treated sows were in contact with the wall and lying more often when compared to control sows. Ketoprofen-treated sows were more seldom in contact with the wall and exploring bedding more often than placebo-treated sows. Placebo sows tended also to move and explore bedding less than control sows. Lameness had been relieved in altogether 7 out of 13 sows on day 5: six out of nine ketoprofen-medicated sows and one out of four placebo-treated sows. The behaviour of sows with relieved lameness did not differ from that of control sows on day 5. Sows with non-relieved lameness were in contact with the wall and lying more and moving and standing less than control sows. When compared to control sows, sows with non-relieved lameness tended to be more passive. When compared to sows with relieved lameness, sows with non-relieved lameness showed a tendency to be in contact with the wall more often. Our study showed that lameness reduces the activity of sows and affects their position in the pen. Passive behavior seemed at least partly be due to pain and lameness relief was associated with normalization of the behavior.
  • Pehkonen, Jaana; Karma, Leena; Raekallio, Marja (2019)
    No studies have focused on dental pain signs associated with periapical infection in cheek teeth (CT) of horses. Moreover, the ability of owners to recognize signs of dental pain in horses has not been reported. We hypothesized that periapical infection will usually induce pain that manifests in the behavior of the horse. Removing the infected tooth will reduce the expression of such behaviors. Owners of 47 horses whose CT had been removed because of periapical infection participated in this study. They filled an internet-based questionnaire including 23 questions about eating behavior, bit behavior, and general behavior observed before and after the operation. The number of signs exhibited by each horse before and after CT removal was compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test. Values of P <.05 were considered significant. Before the operation, avoidance behaviors, such as evading the bit, difficulties in eating, and even asocial or aggressive behaviors were commonly reported by the owners. Removing the infected tooth significantly reduced the number of these behavioral patterns expressed by the horses (P <.001 for each group of behaviors), suggesting that they could be associated with dental pain. Half of the cases had been diagnosed during a routine dental examination, indicating that many owners did not realize that certain undesirable behavioral patterns of their horses might be associated with dental pain. These findings highlight the importance of training owners to recognize behavior potentially related to dental pain in horses and that routine dental examinations are essential for ensuring horses' well-being. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Hiilamo, Aapo; Shiri, Rahman; Kouvonen, Anne; Manty, Minna; Butterworth, Peter; Pietilainen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea (2019)
    Objective: We examined trajectories of work disability, indicated by sickness absence and disability retirement, among midlife public sector employees with and without common mental disorders (CMD) at baseline. We also examined adverse childhood events, occupational class, long-standing illness and health behaviour as determinants of the trajectories. Methods: A sample from the Helsinki Health Study was extracted comprising 2350 employees. Baseline characteristics were obtained from mail surveys conducted in 2000-2 and 2007. CMD were measured by the General Health Questionnaire. Participants were followed between the ages of 50-59. Work disability trajectories were modelled by the annual number of work disability months in group-based trajectory analysis. Multinomial regression was used to predict trajectory group memberships. Results: Three trajectories were identified: no work disability (consisting 59% of the all employees), stable/low (31%) and high/increasing disability (10%). Employees with CMD were more likely to belong to the stable/low (odds ratio 1.73 [95% confidence interval 1.37-2.18]), and the high/increasing (2.55 [1.81-3.59]) trajectories. Stratified models showed that the determinants of the trajectories were largely similar for those with CMD compared to those without CMD except that obesity was a somewhat stronger predictor of the high/increasing trajectory among employees with CMD. Limitations: The focus on midlife public sector employees limits the generalisability to other employment sectors and younger employees. Conclusions: CMD were strongly associated with a trajectory leading to early exit from employment and a stable/ low work disability trajectory. These findings have implications for interventions promoting work ability of employees with mental ill-health.
  • Ortiz, Rebekka M.; Scheperjans, Filip; Mertsalmi, Tuomas; Pekkonen, Eero (2019)
    Background Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common form of dystonia. The onset of CD is usually before 60 years of age and it may cause severe functional and psychosocial impairment in everyday life. Recently non-motor symptoms have been reported to occur in CD substantially affecting the quality of life. Methods/patients We studied comorbidities of patients with primary focal CD in Finland based on ICD-10 codes obtained from the care registry and patient records of 937 confirmed adult isolated focal CD patients between the years 2007-2016. The retirement months and diagnosis of retirement were calculated from pension registry information. The results were compared with 3746 age and gender-matched controls. Results Most prominent comorbidities with primary focal CD were depression (14%), anxiety (7%), and back pain (11%). The retirement age was significantly younger in CD patients compared to control group controls (59.0 years, 95% CI 58.5-59.5 vs. 61.7 years, 95% CI 61.6-61.9) years, p <0.001). For dystonia patients the most common diagnoses for retirement due to sickness were dystonia (51%), depression (14%), and anxiety (8%). Patients with anxiety and depression retired earlier than other dystonia patients. Discussion Cervical dystonia considerably reduces working ability and leads to earlier retirement. Anxiety and depression are most notable comorbidities and their co-occurrence further reduces working ability. Our results suggest that more health care resources should be administered in treatment of CD to longer maintain working ability of CD patients. Further, psychiatric comorbidities should be taken into consideration in CD treatment.
  • Multanen, Juhani; Honkanen, Mikko; Häkkinen, Arja; Kiviranta, Ilkka (2018)
    Background: The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is a commonly used knee assessment and outcome tool in both clinical work and research. However, it has not been formally translated and validated in Finnish. The purpose of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the KOOS questionnaire into Finnish and to determine its validity and reliability among Finnish middle-aged patients with knee injuries. Methods: KOOS was translated and culturally adapted from English into Finnish. Subsequently, 59 patients with knee injuries completed the Finnish version of KOOS, Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and Numeric Pain Rating Scale (Pain-NRS). The same KOOS questionnaire was re-administered 2 weeks later. Psychometric assessment of the Finnish KOOS was performed by testing its construct validity and reliability by using internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error. The floor and ceiling effects were also examined. Results: The cross-cultural adaptation revealed only minor cultural differences and was well received by the patients. For construct validity, high to moderate Spearman's Correlation Coefficients were found between the KOOS subscales and the WOMAC, SF-36, and Pain-NRS subscales. The Cronbach's alpha was from 0.79 to 0.96 for all subscales indicating acceptable internal consistency. The test-retest reliability was good to excellent, with Intraclass Correlation Coefficients ranging from 0.73 to 0.86 for all KOOS subscales. The minimal detectable change ranged from 17 to 34 on an individual level and from 2 to 4 on a group level. No floor or ceiling effects were observed. Conclusion: This study yielded an appropriately translated and culturally adapted Finnish version of KOOS which demonstrated good validity and reliability. Our data indicate that the Finnish version of KOOS is suitable for assessment of the knee status of Finnish patients with different knee complaints. Further studies are needed to evaluate the predictive ability of KOOS in the Finnish population.
  • Paloneva, Juha; Koskela, Sanna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Vanhala, Mauno; Kiviranta, Ilkka (2013)
  • Rantonen, J.; Karppinen, J.; Vehtari, A.; Luoto, S.; Viikari-Juntura, E.; Hupli, M.; Malmivaara, A.; Taimela, S. (2016)
    Background: Evidence shows that low back specific patient information is effective in sub-acute low back pain (LBP), but effectiveness and cost-effectiveness (CE) of information in early phase symptoms is not clear. We assessed effectiveness and CE of patient information in mild LBP in the occupational health (OH) setting in a quasi-experimental study. Methods: A cohort of employees (N = 312, aged Results: Compared to NC, the Booklet reduced HC costs by 196(sic) and SA by 3.5 days per year. In 81 % of the bootstrapped cases the Booklet was both cost saving and effective on SA. Compared to NC, in the Combined arm, the figures were 107(sic), 0.4 days, and 54 %, respectively. PHI decreased in both interventions. Conclusions: Booklet information alone was cost-effective in comparison to natural course of mild LBP. Combined information reduced HC costs. Both interventions reduced physical impairment. Mere booklet information is beneficial for employees who report mild LBP in the OH setting, and is also cost saving for the health care system.
  • Sivén, M.; Savolainen, S.; Räntilä, Sanna; Männikkö, Sofia; Vainionpää, M.; Airaksinen, S.; Raekallio, M.; Vainio, O.; Juppo, A. M. (2017)
    The purpose here was to determine the problems cat owners encounter in medicating their cats with orally administered drugs at home. The study was carried out as an open e-questionnaire survey addressed to cat owners in which the authors focused on the oral administration route. A total of 46 completed questionnaires were included in the survey. In the study, 46 cats received 67 orally administered drugs. Approximately half of the drugs were registered for use in cats by the European Medicines Agency (54 per cent), and there were also off-label drugs registered for human (36 per cent) and canine medication (7.4 per cent) and an ex tempore drug (3.0 per cent). The owners were unable to give the doses as prescribed for their cats for one-fourth of the medications (16/67). Drugs that were registered for feline medication were significantly more palatable than drugs registered for other species (odds ratio (OR) 4.9), and liquid formulations were significantly more palatable than solid formulations (OR 4.8). However, most of the owners (22/38) preferred a solid dosage form, while few (4/38) chose a liquid formulation. The results indicate that there is still a need for more palatable and easily administered oral drugs for cats.