Browsing by Subject "PANCREATIC-CANCER"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-10 of 10
  • Carstensen, Bendix; Read, Stephanie H.; Friis, Soren; Sund, Reijo; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Ljung, Rickard; Wild, Sarah H.; Kerssens, Joannes J.; Harding, Jessica L.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Gudbjornsdottir, Soffia; Diabet Canc Res Consortium (2016)
    An excess cancer incidence of 20-25% has been identified among persons with diabetes, most of whom have type 2 diabetes. We aimed to describe the association between type 1 diabetes and cancer incidence. Persons with type 1 diabetes were identified from five nationwide diabetes registers: Australia (2000-2008), Denmark (1995-2014), Finland (1972-2012), Scotland (1995-2012) and Sweden (1987-2012). Linkage to national cancer registries provided the numbers of incident cancers in people with type 1 diabetes and in the general population. We used Poisson models with adjustment for age and date of follow up to estimate hazard ratios for total and site-specific cancers. A total of 9,149 cancers occurred among persons with type 1 diabetes in 3.9 million person-years. The median age at cancer diagnosis was 51.1 years (interquartile range 43.5-59.5). The hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CIs) associated with type 1 diabetes for all cancers combined were 1.01 (0.98, 1.04) among men and 1.07 (1.04, 1.10) among women. HRs were increased for cancer of the stomach (men, HR 1.23 [1.04, 1.46]; women, HR 1.78 [1.49, 2.13]), liver (men, HR 2.00 [1.67, 2.40]; women, HR 1.55 [1.14, 2.10]), pancreas (men, HR 1.53 [1.30, 1.79]; women, HR 1.25 [1.02,1.53]), endometrium (HR 1.42 [1.27, 1.58]) and kidney (men, HR 1.30 [1.12, 1.49]; women, HR 1.47 [1.23, 1.77]). Reduced HRs were found for cancer of the prostate (HR 0.56 [0.51, 0.61]) and breast (HR 0.90 [0.85, 0.94]). HRs declined with increasing diabetes duration. Type 1 diabetes was associated with differences in the risk of several common cancers; the strength of these associations varied with the duration of diabetes.
  • Yang, Xin; Leslie, Goska; Doroszuk, Alicja; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Nevanlinna, Heli; Tischkowitz, Marc (2020)
    PURPOSE To estimate age-specific relative and absolute cancer risks of breast cancer and to estimate risks of ovarian, pancreatic, male breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers associated with germline PALB2 pathogenic variants (PVs) because these risks have not been extensively characterized. METHODS We analyzed data from 524 families with PALB2 PVs from 21 countries. Complex segregation analysis was used to estimate relative risks (RRs; relative to country-specific population incidences) and absolute risks of cancers. The models allowed for residual familial aggregation of breast and ovarian cancer and were adjusted for the family-specific ascertainment schemes. RESULTS We found associations between PALB2 PVs and risk of female breast cancer (RR, 7.18; 95% CI, 5.82 to 8.85; P = 6.5 x 10(-76)), ovarian cancer (RR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.40 to 6.04; P = 4.1 x 10(-3)), pancreatic cancer (RR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.50; P = 8.7 x 10(-3)), and male breast cancer (RR, 7.34; 95% CI, 1.28 to 42.18; P = 2.6 x 10(-2)). There was no evidence for increased risks of prostate or colorectal cancer. The breast cancer RRs declined with age (P for trend = 2.0 x 10(-3)). After adjusting for family ascertainment, breast cancer risk estimates on the basis of multiple case families were similar to the estimates from families ascertained through population-based studies (P for difference = .41). On the basis of the combined data, the estimated risks to age 80 years were 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) for female breast cancer, 5% (95% CI, 2% to 10%) for ovarian cancer, 2%-3% (95% CI females, 1% to 4%; 95% CI males, 2% to 5%) for pancreatic cancer, and 1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 5%) for male breast cancer. CONCLUSION These results confirm PALB2 as a major breast cancer susceptibility gene and establish substantial associations between germline PALB2 PVs and ovarian, pancreatic, and male breast cancers. These findings will facilitate incorporation of PALB2 into risk prediction models and optimize the clinical cancer risk management of PALB2 PV carriers. (C) 2019 by American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • Holm, Matilda; Saraswat, Mayank; Joenväärä, Sakari; Ristimäki, Ari; Haglund, Caj; Renkonen, Risto (2018)
    Over 1.4 million people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) each year, making it the third most common cancer in the world. Increased screening and therapeutic modalities including improved combination treatments have reduced CRC mortality, although incidence and mortality rates are still increasing in some areas. Serum-based biomarkers are mainly used for follow-up of cancer, and are ideal due to the ease and minimally invasive nature of sample collection. Unfortunately, CEA and other serum markers have too low sensitivity for screening and preoperative diagnostic purposes. Increasing interest is focused on the possible use of biomarkers for predicting treatment response and prognosis in cancer. In this study, we have performed mass spectrometry analysis (UPLC-UDMSE) of serum samples from 19 CRC patients. Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), which occur during local inflammation and the presence of a systemic inflammatory response, have been linked to poor prognosis in CRC patients. We chose to analyze samples according to CRP values by dividing them into the categories CRP 30, and, separately, according to short and long 5-year survival. The aim was to discover differentially expressed proteins associated with poor prognosis and shorter survival. We quantified 256 proteins and performed detailed statistical analyses and pathway analysis. We discovered multiple proteins that are up- or downregulated in patients with CRP >30 as compared to CRP
  • Nummela, Pirjo; Leinonen, Hannele; Järvinen, Petrus; Thiel, Alexandra; Järvinen, Heikki; Lepisto, Anna; Ristimaki, Ari (2016)
    Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a fatal clinical syndrome with mucinous tumor cells disseminated into peritoneal cavity and secreting abundant mucinous ascites. The serum tumor markers CEA, CA19-9, and CA125 are used to monitor pseudomyxoma peritonei remission, but their expression at tissue level has not been well characterized. Herein, we analyzed expression of these proteins and the adenocarcinoma marker EpCAM in 92 appendix-derived pseudomyxoma peritonei tumors by immunohistochemistry. All tumors were found to ubiquitously express CEA and EpCAM. In the majority of the tumors (94.6%), CEA showed polarized immunostaining, but in 5 aggressive high-grade tumors containing numerous signet ring cells, a nonpolarized staining was detected. We found preoperative CEA serum values to correlate with peritoneal cancer index. However, the serum values of the advanced cases with nonpolarized staining pattern were normal, and the patients died within 5 years after diagnosis. Thus, serum CEA measurements did not reflect aggressiveness of these tumors. CA19-9 showed strong immunopositivity in most of the tumors (91.3%), and mutated enzyme FUT3 was demonstrated from the cases showing negative or weak staining. CA125 Was infrequently expressed by tumor cells (focal staining in 6.5% of the cases), but in most of the cages (79.3%), adjacent nonneoplastic mesothelial cells showed immunopositivity. As a conclusion, CEA and EpCAM are invariably expressed by pseudomyxoma peritonei tumor cells and could be exploited to targeted therapies against this malignancy. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Arasu, Uma Thanigai; Deen, Ashik Jawahar; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Heikkinen, Sami; Lalowski, Maciej; Kärnä, Riikka; Härkönen, Kai; Mäkinen, Petri; Lazaro-Ibañez, Elisa; Siljander, Pia R-M; Oikari, Sanna; Levonen, Anna-Liisa; Rilla, Kirsi (2020)
    Intercellular communication is fundamental to the survival and maintenance of all multicellular systems, whereas dysregulation of communication pathways can drive cancer progression. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mediators of cell-to-cell communication that regulate a variety of cellular processes involved in tumor progression. Overexpression of a specific plasma membrane enzyme, hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3), is one of the factors that can induce EV shedding. HAS3, and particularly its product hyaluronan (HA), are carried by EVs and are known to be associated with the tumorigenic properties of cancer cells. To elucidate the specific effects of cancerous, HAS3-induced EVs on target cells, normal human keratinocytes and melanoma cells were treated with EVs derived from GFP-HAS3 expressing metastatic melanoma cells. We found that the HA receptor CD44 participated in the regulation of EV binding to target cells. Furthermore, GFP-HAS3-positive EVs induced HA secretion, proliferation and invasion of target cells. Our results suggest that HAS3-EVs contains increased quantities of IHH, which activates the target cell hedgehog signaling cascade and leads to the activation of c-Myc and regulation of claspin expression. This signaling of IHH in HAS3-EVs resulted in increased cell proliferation. Claspin immunostaining correlated with HA content in human cutaneous melanocytic lesions, supporting our in vitro findings and suggesting a reciprocal regulation between claspin expression and HA synthesis. This study shows for the first time that EVs originating from HAS3 overexpressing cells carry mitogenic signals that induce proliferation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in target cells. The study also identifies a novel feedback regulation between the hedgehog signaling pathway and HA metabolism in melanoma, mediated by EVs carrying HA and IHH.
  • Couch, Fergus J.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mendoza-Fandino, Gustavo A.; Nord, Silje; Lilyquist, Janna; Olswold, Curtis; Hallberg, Emily; Agata, Simona; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Ambrosone, Christine; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Arun, Banu K.; Arver, Brita; Barile, Monica; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Barrowdale, Daniel; Beckmann, Lars; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Benitez, Javier; Blank, Stephanie V.; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Burwinkel, Barbara; Buys, Saundra S.; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A.; Canzian, Federico; Carpenter, Jane; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chung, Wendy K.; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B.; Damiola, Francesca; Darabi, Hatef; de la Hoya, Miguel; Devilee, Peter; Diez, Orland; Ding, Yuan C.; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Domchek, Susan M.; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dumont, Martine; Dunning, Alison M.; Eccles, Diana M.; Ehrencrona, Hans; Ekici, Arif B.; Eliassen, Heather; Ellis, Steve; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Foersti, Asta; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D.; Friebel, Tara; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gabrielson, Marike; Gammon, Marilie D.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Garber, Judy; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gayther, Simon A.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ghoussaini, Maya; Giles, Graham G.; Glendon, Gord; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Goldgar, David E.; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Greene, Mark H.; Gronwald, Jacek; Guenel, Pascal; Gunter, Marc; Haeberle, Lothar; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Hart, Steven; Healey, Sue; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Henderson, Brian E.; Herzog, Josef; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hopper, John L.; Humphreys, Keith; Hunter, David J.; Huzarski, Tomasz; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M.; Jones, Michael; Kabisch, Maria; Kar, Siddhartha; Karlan, Beth Y.; Khan, Sofia; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Knight, Julia A.; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lambrechts, Diether; Lazaro, Conxi; Lee, Eunjung; Le Marchand, Loic; Lester, Jenny; Lindblom, Annika; Lindor, Noralane; Lindstrom, Sara; Liu, Jianjun; Long, Jirong; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L.; Makalic, Enes; Malone, Kathleen E.; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Martens, John W. M.; McGuffog, Lesley; Meindl, Alfons; Miller, Austin; Milne, Roger L.; Miron, Penelope; Montagna, Marco; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Mulligan, Anna M.; Muranen, Taru A.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Offit, Kenneth; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Olson, Janet E.; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue K.; Peeters, Petra H.; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Phelan, Catherine M.; Pilarski, Robert; Poppe, Bruce; Pylkaes, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Rantala, Johanna; Rappaport, Christine; Rennert, Gad; Richardson, Andrea; Robson, Mark; Romieu, Isabelle; Rudolph, Anja; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Santella, Regina M.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Scott, Rodney; Senter, Leigha; Sharma, Priyanka; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Swerdlow, Anthony; Szabo, Csilla I.; Tamimi, Rulla; Tapper, William; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary B.; Thomassen, Mads; Thompson, Deborah; Tihomirova, Laima; Toland, Amanda E.; Tollenaar, Robert A. E. M.; Tomlinson, Ian; Truong, Therese; Tsimiklis, Helen; Teule, Alex; Tumino, Rosario; Tung, Nadine; Turnbull, Clare; Ursin, Giski; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wang, Zhaoming; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Whittemore, Alice; Wildiers, Hans; Winqvist, Robert; Yang, Xiaohong R.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Yao, Song; Zamora, M. Pilar; Zheng, Wei; Hall, Per; Kraft, Peter; Vachon, Celine; Slager, Susan; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Monteiro, Alvaro A. N.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C. (2016)
    Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P
  • Ozkan-Dagliyan, Irem; Diehl, J. Nathaniel; George, Samuel D.; Schaefer, Antje; Papke, Bjoern; Klotz-Noack, Kathleen; Waters, Andrew M.; Goodwin, Craig M.; Gautam, Prson; Pierobon, Mariaelena; Peng, Sen; Gilbert, Thomas S. K.; Lin, Kevin H.; Dagliyan, Onur; Wennerberg, Krister; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Tran, Nhan L.; Bhagwat, Shripad; Tiu, Ramon; Peng, Sheng-Bin; Herring, Laura E.; Graves, Lee M.; Sers, Christine; Wood, Kris C.; Cox, Adrienne D.; Der, Channing J. (2020)
    We address whether combinations with a pan-RAF inhibitor (RAFi) would be effective in KRAS mutant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Chemical library and CRISPR genetic screens identify combinations causing apoptotic anti-tumor activity. The most potent combination, concurrent inhibition of RAF (RAFi) and ERK (ERKi), is highly synergistic at low doses in cell line, organoid, and rat models of PDAC, whereas each inhibitor alone is only cytostatic. Comprehensive mechanistic signaling studies using reverse phase protein array (RPPA) pathway mapping and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) show that RAFi/ERKi induced insensitivity to loss of negative feedback and system failures including loss of ERK signaling, FOSL1, and MYC; shutdown of the MYC transcriptome; and induction of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. We conclude that low-dose vertical inhibition of the RAF-MEK-ERK cascade is an effective therapeutic strategy for KRAS mutant PDAC.
  • Long, Maeve; McWilliams, Thomas G. (2020)
    Autophagy refers to an essential mechanism that evolved to sustain eukaryotic homeostasis and metabolism during instances of nutrient deprivation. During autophagy, intracellular cargo is encapsulated and delivered to the lysosome for elimination. Loss of basal autophagy in vivo negatively impacts cellular proteostasis, metabolism and tissue integrity. Accordingly, many drug development strategies are focused on modulating autophagic capacity in various pathophysiological states, from cancer to neurodegenerative disease. The role of autophagy in cancer is particularly complicated, as either augmenting or attenuating this process can have variable outcomes on cellular survival, proliferation and transformation. This complexity is compounded by the emergence of several selective autophagy pathways, which act to eliminate damaged or superfluous cellular components in a targeted fashion. The advent of sensitive tools to monitor autophagy pathways in vivo holds promise to clarify their importance in cancer pathophysiology. In this review, we provide an overview of autophagy in cancer biology and outline how the development of tools to study autophagy in vivo could enhance our understanding of its function for translational benefit.
  • Heikkila, Pia; But, Anna; Sorsa, Timo; Haukka, Jari (2018)
    Periodontitis, a multifactorial infection-induced low-grade chronic inflammation, can influence the process of carcinogenesis. We studied with 10 years follow-up of 68,273 adults-based cohort the involvement of periodontitis as a risk factor for cancer mortality. Periodontal status was defined based on procedure codes of periodontal treatment. Rate ratios and absolute differences of overall and cancer mortality rates were assessed with respect to periodontal status using multiplicative and additive Poisson regression models, respectively. We adjusted for effect of age, sex, calendar time, socio-economic status, oral health, dental treatments and diabetes. Data about smoking or alcohol consumption were not available. Altogether 797 cancer deaths occurred during 664,020 person-years accumulated over a mean 10.1-year follow-up. Crude cancer mortality rate per 10,000 person-years for participants without and with periodontitis was 11.36 (95% CI 10.47-12.31) and 14.45 (95% CI 12.51-16.61), respectively. Crude rate ratios for periodontitis indicated an increased risk of overall (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.08-1.39) and pancreatic cancer (RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.04-2.76) mortality. After adjustment, the results showed even stronger associations of periodontitis with increased overall (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.10-1.58) and pancreatic cancer (RR 2.32, 95% CI 1.31-3.98) mortality. A higher pancreatic cancer mortality among individuals with periodontitis contributed considerably to the difference in overall cancer mortality, but this difference was not due to pancreatic cancer deaths alone. What's new? Periodontitis is characterized by infection-driven inflammation, a type of inflammation that is a factor in about 15% of human tumors. It remains unclear, however, whether periodontitis increases cancer risk or influences cancer mortality. In this study, long-term follow-up on a large cohort of dental patients in Finland suggests that periodontitis is associated with increased overall cancer mortality, especially increased mortality from pancreatic cancer. The findings suggest that the prevention and treatment of periodontitis can help reduce the risk of systemic adverse events, such as death, from cancer.
  • Nieminen, Mikko T.; Listyarifah, Dyah; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj; Grenier, Daniel; Nordstrom, Dan; Uitto, Veli-Jukka; Hernandez, Marcela; Yucel-Lindberg, Tulay; Tervahartiala, Taina; Ainola, Mari; Sorsa, Timo (2018)
    Background: Periodontal pathogens have been linked to oral and gastrointestinal (orodigestive) carcinogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Treponema denticola (Td) is associated with severe periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease leading to tooth loss. The anaerobic spirochete Td is an invasive bacteria due to its major virulence factor chymotrypsin-like proteinase. Here we aimed to investigate the presence of Td chymotrypsin-like proteinase (Td-CTLP) in major orodigestive tumours and to elucidate potential mechanisms for Td to contribute to carcinogenesis. Methods: The presence of Td-CTLP within orodigestive tumour tissues was examined using immunohistochemistry. Oral, tonsillar, and oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, alongside gastric, pancreatic, and colon adenocarcinomas were stained with a Td-CTLP-specific antibody. Gingival tissue from periodontitis patients served as positive controls. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot were used to analyse the immumodulatory activity of Td-CTLP in vitro. Results: Td-CTLP was present in majority of orodigestive tumour samples. Td-CTLP was found to convert pro MMP-8 and -9 into their active forms. In addition, Td-CTLP was able to degrade the proteinase inhibitors TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, as well as complement C1q. Conclusions: Because of its presence within tumours and regulatory activity on proteins critical for the regulation of tumour microenvironment and inflammation, the Td-CTLP may contribute to orodigestive carcinogenesis.