Browsing by Subject "PARADIGM"

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  • Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Ruusuvirta, Timo; Huotilainen, Minna; Alku, Paavo; Kushnerenko, Elena; Suominen, Kalervo; Rytky, Seppo; Luotonen, Mirja; Kaukola, Tuula; Tolonen, Uolevi; Hallman, Mikko (2010)
  • Alviano, Mario; Dodaro, Carmine; Järvisalo, Matti; Maratea, Marco; Previti, Alessandro (2018)
    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is a logic-based knowledge representation framework, supporting-among other reasoning modes-the central task of query answering. In the propositional case, query answering amounts to computing cautious consequences of the input program among the atoms in a given set of candidates, where a cautious consequence is an atom belonging to all stable models. Currently, the most efficient algorithms either iteratively verify the existence of a stable model of the input program extended with the complement of one candidate, where the candidate is heuristically selected, or introduce a clause enforcing the falsity of at least one candidate, so that the solver is free to choose which candidate to falsify at any time during the computation of a stable model. This paper introduces new algorithms for the computation of cautious consequences, with the aim of driving the solver to search for stable models discarding more candidates. Specifically, one of such algorithms enforces minimality on the set of true candidates, where different notions of minimality can be used, and another takes advantage of unsatisfiable cores computation. The algorithms are implemented in WASP, and experiments on benchmarks from the latest ASP competitions show that the new algorithms perform better than the state of the art.
  • Tammeorg, Olga; Nürnberg, Gertrud; Niemistö, Juha; Haldna, Marina; Horppila, Jukka (2020)
    Shallow lake sediments may be anoxic despite overlying aerated water. In the current study, we aimed to ascertain the contribution of shallow areas to internal phosphorus (P) loading due to sediment anoxia in stratifying lakes. Moreover, we analyzed relationships of the key water quality variables with internal P loading due to sediment anoxia originating solely from stratifying areas (IPobs) and that accounting also for the shallow areas (IPpred) for a set of Finnish lakes, including intentionally aerated and non-aerated lakes. Finally, using a broader set of lakes worldwide, we established a specific combination of lake characteristics that predict sediment P release due to sediment anoxia and linked it to the practices of aeration. Our results showed that shallow lake areas (a difference between IPpred and IPobs) contributed about half of the total P flux due to sediment anoxia. While all of the studied water quality variables related significantly to IPpred, only the concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in the near-bottom water layer related significantly to IPobs. This indicates the key importance of P release of shallow areas for water quality. The concentrations of TP in the surface water layer and chlorophyll a were significantly dependent on IPpred irrespectively of the treatment (aerated lakes or not). P supply from shallow areas may affect aeration effectiveness in stratifying lakes. IPpred was found to be dependent on the specific combination of lake characteristics (including mean and maximum depth, lake and catchment area, external P loading) PC3, driven mainly by external P loading. Hence, external load reduction should be considered as the first priority in lake water quality management. By linking the dependence of IPpred on PC3 to aeration practices, we determined the conditions that promise increased effectiveness of aeration treatments.
  • Sokka, Laura; Leinikka, Marianne; Korpela, Jussi; Henelius, Andreas; Ahonen, Lauri; Alain, Claude; Alho, Kimmo; Huotilainen, Minna (2016)
    Individuals with job burnout symptoms often report having cognitive difficulties, but related electrophysiological studies are scarce. We assessed the impact of burnout on performing a visual task with varying memory loads, and on involuntary attention switch to distractor sounds using scalp recordings of event-related potentials (ERPs). Task performance was comparable between burnout and control groups. The distractor sounds elicited a P3a response, which was reduced in the burnout group. This suggests burnout-related deficits in processing novel and potentially important events during task performance. In the burnout group, we also observed a decrease in working-memory related P3b responses over posterior scalp and increase over frontal areas. These results suggest that burnout is associated with deficits in cognitive control needed to monitor and update information in working memory. Successful task performance in burnout might require additional recruitment of anterior regions to compensate the decrement in posterior activity. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Willamo, R.; Helenius, L.; Holmström, C.; Haapanen, L.; Sandström, V.; Huotari, E.; Kaarre, K.; Värre, U.; Nuotiomäki, A.; Happonen, J.; Kolehmainen, L. (2018)
    Sustainability challenges such as climate change, biodiversity loss, poverty and rapid urbanization are complex and strongly interrelated. In order to successfully deal with these challenges, we need comprehensive approaches that integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines and perspectives and emphasize interconnections. In short, they aid in observing matters in a wider perspective without losing an understanding of the details. In order to teach and learn a comprehensive approach, we need to better understand what comprehensive thinking actually is. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for a comprehensive approach, termed the GHH framework. The framework comprises three dimensions: generalism, holism, and holarchism. It contributes to the academic community's understanding of comprehensive thinking and it can be used for integrating comprehensive thinking into education. Also, practical examples of the application of the framework in university teaching are presented. We argue that an ideal approach to sustainability challenges and complexity in general is a balanced, dialectical combination of comprehensive and differentiative approaches. The current dominance of specialization, or the differentiative approach, in university education calls for a stronger emphasis on comprehensive thinking skills. Comprehensiveness should not be considered as a flawed approach, but should instead be considered as important an aspect in education as specialized and differentiative skills. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Linnavalli, Tanja; Putkinen, Vesa; Huotilainen, Minna; Tervaniemi, Mari (2018)
    The maturation of 5-6-year-old children's auditory discrimination - indicated by the development of the auditory event-related-potentials (ERPs) - has not been previously studied in longitudinal settings. For the first time, we present here the results based on extensive dataset collected from 75 children. We followed the 5- to 6-year-olds for 20 months and measured their ERPs four times with the same multifeature paradigm with phonemic stimuli. The amplitude of the mismatch negativity (MMN) response increased during this time for vowel, vowel duration and frequency changes. Furthermore, the P3a component started to mature toward adult-like positivity for the vowel, intensity and frequency deviants and the late discriminative negativity (LDN) component decreased with age for vowel and intensity deviants. All the changes in the components seemed to happen during the second follow-up year, when Finnish children are taught letter symbols and other preliminary academic skills before going to school at the age of seven. Therefore, further studies are needed to clarify if these changes in the auditory discrimination are purely age-related or due to increasing linguistic knowledge of the children.
  • Matthies, Brent D.; Vainio, Annukka; D'Amato, Dalia (2018)
    It is not yet completely clear how individuals weigh positive and negative consequences of specific environmental actions to the self, others and nature, and how these evaluations are associated with the acceptance of such environmental actions. We explored how the acceptance of ecosystem service-related forest management objectives were associated with perceived positive and negative consequences, perceived knowledge of these objectives, and gender among future professionals in the bioeconomy context. We analysed a survey collected among Finnish university students majoring in agriculture and forestry, and biological and environmental sciences (N = 159). We found that environmental concerns followed a two-factor structure: concerns for humans and concerns for the environment. Perceived harm to nature and humans reduced the acceptance of timber and bioenergy objectives, but only the effect of perceived harm to humans remained when they were considered together with perceived benefits. Perceived knowledge of the objectives had little effect on acceptance of the objectives. Females endorsed the biodiversity and climate objectives more than males, whereas males endorsed timber objectives more than females. These results show that in the context of ecosystem service management, positive consequences are more important than negative when evaluating bioeconomy objectives, and that consequences to humans are more important than consequences to the environment. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Timm, Lydia; Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Agrawal, Deepashri; Debener, Stefan; Buechner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Wittforth, Matthias (2014)
  • Salmiheimo, Aino; Mustonen, Harri; Stenman, Ulf-Hakan; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Kemppainen, Esko; Seppanen, Hanna; Haglund, Caj (2016)
    Background Estimation of the prognosis of resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) currently relies on tumour-related factors such as resection margins and on lymph-node ratio (LNR) both inconveniently available only postoperatively. Our aim was to assess the accuracy of preoperative laboratory data in predicting PDAC prognosis. Methods Collection of laboratory and clinical data was retrospective from 265 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for PDAC at Helsinki University Hospital. Cancer-specific survival assessment utilized Kaplan-Meier analysis, and independent associations between factors were by the Cox regression model. Results During follow-up, 76% of the patients died of PDAC, with a median survival time of 19.6 months. In univariate analysis, CRP, albumin, CEA, and CA19-9 were significantly associated with postoperative cancer-specific survival. In multivariate analysis, taking into account age, gender, LNR, resection margins, tumour status, and adjuvant chemotherapy, the preoperative biomarkers independently associated with adverse prognosis were hypoalbuminemia (<36 g/L, hazard ratio (HR) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.19, p = 0.011), elevated CRP (> 5 mg/L, HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.03-2.02, p = 0.036), CEA (> 5 mu g/L, HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.07-2.53, p = 0.047), and CA19-9 (>= 555 kU/L, HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.18-3.08, p = 0.008). Conclusion For patients with resectable PDAC, preoperative CRP, along with albumin and tumour markers, is useful for predicting prognosis.
  • Salmiheimo, Aino; Mustonen, Harri; Vainionpaa, Sanna; Shen, Zhanlong; Kemppainen, Esko; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Seppanen, Hanna (2017)
    Objectives: Tumour-associated macrophages participate in tumour development and progression. The aim of this study was to assess the interactions of pancreatic cancer cells and pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, specifically their effect on pancreatic cancer cell migration and the changes in STAT-signalling. Methods: Monocytes were isolated from healthy subjects and differentiated into macrophages with M-CSF. The macrophages were polarized towards M1 by IL-12 and towards M2 by IL-10. We studied also the effect of pan-JAK/STAT-inhibitor P6. Macrophage polarization and STAT and NF kappa B-activation in both MiaPaCa-2 and macrophages were assessed by flow cytometry. We recorded the effect of co-culture on migration rate of pancreatic cancer cells MiaPaCa-2. Results: Macrophages increased the migration rate of pancreatic cancer cells. Co-culture activated STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, AKT and NF kappa B in macrophages and STAT3 in MiaPaCa-2 cells. IL-12 polarized macrophages towards M1 and decreased the migration rate of pancreatic cancer cells in co-cultures as well as P6. IL-10 skewed macrophage polarization towards M2 and induced increase of pancreatic cancer cells in co-cultures. Conclusion: Co-culture with macrophages increased pancreatic cancer cell migration and activated STAT3. It is possible to activate and deactivate migration of pancreatic cancer cells trough macrophage polarization. (C) 2017 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.