Browsing by Subject "PARECHOVIRUS"

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  • Shakeel, Shabih; Dykeman, Eric C; White, Simon J; Ora, Ari; Cockburn, Joe; Butcher, Sarah Jane; Stockley, Peter G; Twarock, Reidun (2017)
    Assembly of the major viral pathogens of the Picornaviridae family is poorly understood. Human parechovirus 1 is an example of such viruses that contains 60 short regions of ordered RNA density making identical contacts with the protein shell. We show here via a combination of RNA-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment, bioinformatics analysis and reverse genetics that these RNA segments are bound to the coat proteins in a sequence-specific manner. Disruption of either the RNA coat protein recognition motif or its contact amino acid residues is deleterious for viral assembly. The data are consistent with RNA packaging signals playing essential roles in virion assembly. Their binding sites on the coat proteins are evolutionarily conserved across the Parechovirus genus, suggesting that they represent potential broad-spectrum anti-viral targets.
  • Shakeel, Shabih; Westerhuis, Brenda M.; Domanska, Ausra; Koning, Roman I.; Matadeen, Rishi; Koster, Abraham J.; Bakker, Arjen Q.; Beaumont, Tim; Wolthers, Katja C.; Butcher, Sarah Jane (2016)
    The poorly studied picornavirus, human parechovirus 3 (HPeV3) causes neonatal sepsis with no therapies available. Our 4.3-Å resolution structure of HPeV3 on its own and at 15 Å resolution in complex with human monoclonal antibody Fabs demonstrates the expected picornavirus capsid structure with three distinct features. First, 25% of the HPeV3 RNA genome in 60 sites is highly ordered as confirmed by asymmetric reconstruction, and interacts with conserved regions of the capsid proteins VP1 and VP3. Second, the VP0 N terminus stabilizes the capsid inner surface, in contrast to other picornaviruses where on expulsion as VP4, it forms an RNA translocation channel. Last, VP1's hydrophobic pocket, the binding site for the antipicornaviral drug, pleconaril, is blocked and thus inappropriate for antiviral development. Together, these results suggest a direction for development of neutralizing antibodies, antiviral drugs based on targeting the RNA-protein interactions and dissection of virus assembly on the basis of RNA nucleation.
  • Jääskeläinen, Anne J.; Nurminen, Noora; Kolehmainen, Pekka; Smura, Teemu; Tauriainen, Sisko; Toppari, Jorma; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Hyöty, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari (2019)
    Background: Ljungan virus (LV) has not confirmed to associate with any human disease, but a possible connection with type 1 diabetes has been suggested. LV is a rodent-borne picornavirus that induces a diabetes-like condition in rodents. Approximately 30% of adults and 60% of children are seropositive in Finland. The Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study enabled the use of very well characterized sample panels from children seroconverted to positivity for multiple islet autoantibodies during their prospective observation from birth; in addition, samples from age, sex, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), and residence area matched control children. Methods: We analyzed LV IgG seroprevalence in 102 case children (65 had also developed type 1 diabetes), in addition to nondiabetic control children. LV and human parechovirus (HPeV) immunofluorescence assays were used to analyze LV and HPeV-specific IgG from 102 plasma samples taken at the time of islet autoantibody appearance and from 204 samples from the matched control children. Results: Altogether 46.1% of the case and 50.7% of the control children were positive for LV IgG (odds ratio 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-1.36; P = 0.416) and 67.6% versus 79.8% were positive for HPeV IgG, respectively (odds ratio 0.49, 0.27-0.9, P = 0.023). Conclusions: Thus, no risk associations between LV or HPeV-specific IgG and islet autoimmunity were observed. However, a trend for significantly higher prevalence of HPeV antibodies in control children (P = 0.023) suggests a possible protective association of this virus with islet autoimmunity.