Browsing by Subject "PARITY"

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  • Huitu, K.; Kärkkäinen, T. J.; Maalampi, J.; Vihonen, S. (2018)
    The triplet scalars (Delta = Delta(++), Delta(+), Delta(0)) utilized in the so-called type-II seesaw model to explain the lightness of neutrinos, would generate nonstandard interactions (NSI) for a neutrino propagating in matter. We investigate the prospects to probe these interactions in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We analyze the upper bounds that the proposed DUNE experiment might set on the nonstandard parameters and numerically derive upper bounds, as a function of the lightest neutrino mass, on the ratio the mass M-Delta of the triplet scalars, and the strength vertical bar lambda(phi)vertical bar of the coupling phi phi Delta of the triplet Delta and conventional Higgs doublet phi. We also discuss the possible misinterpretation of these effects as effects arising from a nonunitarity of the neutrino mixing matrix and compare the results with the bounds that arise from the charged lepton flavor violating processes.
  • Tähtinen, Riikka M.; Cartwright, Rufus; Vernooij, Robin W. M.; Rortveit, Guri; Hunskaar, Steinar; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Tikkinen, Kari A. O. (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Although operative delivery increases the risk of immediate pelvic floor trauma, no previous studies have adequately compared directly the effects of different kinds of instrumental vaginal deliveries on stress urinary incontinence and/or urgency urinary incontinence. OBJECTIVE(S): The objectives of the study were to estimate and compare the impact of different kinds of vaginal deliveries, including spontaneous, vacuum, and forceps, on stress and urgency urinary incontinence. STUDY DESIGN: All women aged 20 years or older, living in 1 county in Norway were invited to participate in 2 surveys addressing stress and urgency urinary incontinence using validated questions, "Do you leak urine when you cough, sneeze, laugh, or lift something heavy?" and "Do you have involuntary loss of urine in connection with sudden and strong urge to void?" with response options yes or no. Incontinence data were linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. For this study, we included only women who had a history of vaginal birth(s). Case definitions for stress and urgency urinary incontinence were moderate to severe based on Sandvik Severity Index (slight, moderate, severe). We adjusted analyses for age, parity, body mass index, and time since last delivery and addressed effect modification, including an age threshold of 50 years. RESULTS: The final analysis included 13,694 women of whom 12.7% reported stress urinary incontinence and 8.4% urgency urinary incontinence. Among women aged younger than 50 years, there was a statistically significant difference in the risk of stress urinary incontinence for forceps delivery (odds ratio, 1.42, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.86, absolute difference 5.0%) but not for vacuum (odds ratio, 0.80, 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.09) when compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery. Among women aged younger than 50 years, forceps also had increased risk for stress urinary incontinence (odds ratio, 1.76, 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.60) when compared with vacuum. There was no association of stress or urgency urinary incontinence with mode of delivery in women aged 50 years or older. CONCLUSION: For women aged younger than 50 years, forceps delivery is associated with significant increased long-term risk of stress urinary incontinence compared with other vaginal deliveries.
  • Bryk, Saara; Pukkala, Eero; Färkkilä, Anniina; Heikinheimo, Markku; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Riska, Annika (2018)
    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of new primary malignancies after adult-type granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) and the incidence of AGCT after breast and uterine cancer using nationwide population-based registry data. Methods: We used the Finnish Cancer Registry to identify all patients diagnosed with AGCT in 1968 to 2013 (n = 986). The number of subsequent primary malignancies among women with AGCT and the number of AGCTs in women with previous breast or uterine cancer were compared with the expected number of cases and expressed as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Results: There were 122 cases of subsequent cancers diagnosed at least 6 months after the primary diagnosis of AGCT (SIR, 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-1.3). In particular, the observed number of cancers of the soft tissue (SIR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.33-12.8), thyroid (SIR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.54-7.62), and leukemia (SIR, 2.67; 95% CI, 0.98-5.82) exceeded the number of expected cases. The SIR for breast cancers after AGCT was 1.26 (95% CI, 0.92-1.73), and the SIR for AGCT after breast cancer was 1.59 (95% CI, 1.04-2.29). The risk for subsequent AGCT was more than 2-fold in breast cancer patients younger than 50 years, and over 15 years after primary diagnosis. Conclusions: There is an increased risk for thyroid and soft tissue cancer as well as leukemia after AGCT, which may be associated with late effects of carcinogenic treatments and possibly shared risk factors. After breast cancer, the risk for AGCT was higher, which may indicate a shared hormonal etiology.
  • Brouckaert, Olivier; Rudolph, Anja; Laenen, Annouschka; Keeman, Renske; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Soubry, Adelheid; Wildiers, Hans; Andrulis, Irene L.; Arndt, Volker; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Cornelissen, Sten; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flyger, Henrik; Giles, Graham G.; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Guenel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hopper, John L.; Ito, Hidemi; Jones, Michael; Kang, Daehee; Knight, Julia A.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Lilyquist, Jenna; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Margolin, Sara; Matsuo, Keitaro; Muir, Kenneth; Nevanlinna, Heli; Peterlongo, Paolo; KConFab (2017)
    Background: Previous studies have shown that reproductive factors are differentially associated with breast cancer (BC) risk by subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between reproductive factors and BC subtypes, and whether these vary by age at diagnosis. Methods: We used pooled data on tumor markers (estrogen and progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)) and reproductive risk factors (parity, age at first full-time pregnancy (FFTP) and age at menarche) from 28,095 patients with invasive BC from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). In a case-only analysis, we used logistic regression to assess associations between reproductive factors and BC subtype compared to luminal A tumors as a reference. The interaction between age and parity in BC subtype risk was also tested, across all ages and, because age was modeled non-linearly, specifically at ages 35, 55 and 75 years. Results: Parous women were more likely to be diagnosed with triple negative BC (TNBC) than with luminal A BC, irrespective of age (OR for parity = 1.38, 95% CI 1.16-1.65, p = 0.0004; p for interaction with age = 0.076). Parous women were also more likely to be diagnosed with luminal and non-luminal HER2-like BCs and this effect was slightly more pronounced at an early age (p for interaction with age = 0.037 and 0. 030, respectively). For instance, women diagnosed at age 35 were 1.48 (CI 1.01-2.16) more likely to have luminal HER2-like BC than luminal A BC, while this association was not significant at age 75 (OR = 0.72, CI 0.45-1.14). While age at menarche was not significantly associated with BC subtype, increasing age at FFTP was non-linearly associated with TNBC relative to luminal A BC. An age at FFTP of 25 versus 20 years lowered the risk for TNBC (OR = 0.78, CI 0.70-0.88, p <0.0001), but this effect was not apparent at a later FFTP. Conclusions: Our main findings suggest that parity is associated with TNBC across all ages at BC diagnosis, whereas the association with luminal HER2-like BC was present only for early onset BC.
  • Frank, Mariana; Fuks, Benjamin; Huitu, Katri; Rai, Santosh Kumar; Waltari, Harri (2017)
    Right-handed sneutrinos are natural components of left-right symmetric supersymmetric models where the gauge sector is extended to include right-handed weak interactions. Unlike in other models where right-handed sneutrinos are gauge singlets, here the right sneutrino is part of a doublet and could be a dark matter candidate whose annihilation proceeds via gauge interactions. We investigate this possibility, and find that relic density, low-energy observable and direct supersymmetry search constraints can be satisfied when the lightest supersymmetric particle is a right-handed sneutrino. We introduce benchmarks for left-right supersymmetric realizations where either a sneutrino or a neutralino is the lightest superpartner. We then study the LHC signals arising through resonant right-handed slepton production via a W-R gauge-boson exchange that lead to final states enriched in leptons, additionally containing a large amount of missing transverse momentum, and featuring a low jet multiplicity. We find that such a resonant production would boost the chances of discovering these weakly interacting supersymmetric particles for a mass range extending beyond 1TeV already with a luminosity of 100 fb(-1). Finally, we compare sneutrino versus neutralino scenarios, and comment on differences with other sneutrino dark matter models.
  • Macharey, Georg; Gissler, Mika; Ulander, Veli-Matti; Rahkonen, Leena; Vaisanen-Tommiska, Mervi; Nuutila, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo (2017)
    Background: Vaginal breech delivery is associated with adverse perinatal outcome. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with adverse perinatal outcome in term breech pregnancies, and to provide clinicians an aid in selecting women for a trial of vaginal labor with the fetus in breech position. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, nationwide, Finnish population-based case-control study. All planned singleton vaginal deliveries at term with the fetus in breech position between the years 2005 and 2014 were analyzed. The study's end point was a composite set of adverse perinatal outcomes. All infants with an adverse outcome were compared to the infants with normal outcomes. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the data. Results: An adverse perinatal outcome was recorded for 73 (1.5%) infants. According to the study results fetal growth restriction (adjusted odds ratio, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.30-6.67), oligohydramnios (adjusted odds ratio, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.15-7.18), a history of cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.28-6.77, gestational diabetes (adjusted odds ratio, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.54-5.40), epidural anesthesia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.29-3.75) and nulliparity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.10-3.08) were associated with adverse perinatal outcome. Conclusions: Adverse perinatal outcome in planned vaginal breech labor at term is associated with fetal growth restriction, oligohydramnios, previous cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, nulliparity and epidural anesthesia.
  • Toijonen, Anna; Heinonen, Seppo; Gissler, Mika; Macharey, Georg (2021)
    Purpose To assess the risk factors for adverse outcomes in attempted vaginal preterm breech deliveries. Methods A retrospective case-control study, including 2312 preterm breech deliveries (24 + 0 to 36 + 6 gestational weeks) from 2004 to 2018 in Finland. The preterm breech fetuses with adverse outcomes born vaginally or by emergency cesarean section were compared with the fetuses without adverse outcomes with the same gestational age. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the risk factors for adverse outcomes (umbilical arterial pH below 7, 5-min Apgar score below 4, intrapartum stillbirth and neonatal death <28 days of age). Results Adverse outcome in vaginal preterm breech delivery was associated with maternal obesity (aOR 32.19, CI 2.97-348.65), smoking (aOR 2.29, CI 1.12-4.72), congenital anomalies (aOR 4.50, 1.56-12.96), preterm premature rupture of membranes (aOR 1.87, CI 1.00-3.49), oligohydramnios (28-32 weeks of gestation: aOR 6.50, CI 2.00-21.11, 33-36 weeks of gestation: aOR 19.06, CI 7.15-50.85), epidural anesthesia in vaginal birth (aOR 2.44, CI 1.19-5.01), and fetal growth below the second standard deviation (28-32 weeks of gestation: aOR 5.89, CI 1.00-34.74, 33-36 weeks of gestation: aOR 12.27, CI 2.81-53.66). Conclusion The study shows that for each subcategory of preterm birth, there are different risk factors for adverse neonatal outcomes in planned vaginal breech delivery. Due to the extraordinary increased risk of adverse outcomes, we would recommend a planned cesarean section in very preterm breech presentation (28 + 0 to 32 + 6 weeks) with severe maternal obesity, oligohydramnios, or fetal growth restriction and in moderate to late preterm breech presentation (33 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks) with oligohydramnios or fetal growth restriction.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search for a heavy right-handed W boson (W-R) decaying to a heavy right-handed neutrino and a charged lepton in events with two same-flavor leptons (e or mu) and two jets, is presented. The analysis is based on proton-proton collision data, collected by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC in 2016 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). No significant excess above the standard model expectation is seen in the invariant mass distribution of the dilepton plus dijet system. Assuming that couplings are identical to those of the standard model, and that only one heavy neutrino flavor N-R contributes significantly to the W-R decay width, the region in the two-dimensional (m(WR), m(NR)) mass plane excluded at 95% confidence level extends to approximately m(WR) = 4 : 4TeV and covers a large range of right-handed neutrino masses below the W-R boson mass. This analysis provides the most stringent limits on the W-R mass to date.
  • Norton, Michael; Baldi, Andras; Buda, Vicas; Carli, Bruno; Cudlin, Pavel; Jones, Mike B.; Korhola, Atte; Michalski, Rajmund; Novo, Francisco; Oszlányi, Július; Santos, Filpe Duarte; Schink, Bernhard; Shepherd, John; Vet, Louise; Walloe, Lars; Wijkman, Anders (2019)
    Abstract In recent years, the production of pellets derived from forestry biomass to replace coal for electricity generation has been increasing, with over 10 million tonnes traded internationally?primarily between United States and Europe but with an increasing trend to Asia. Critical to this trade is the classification of woody biomass as ?renewable energy? and thus eligible for public subsidies. However, much scientific study on the net effect of this trend suggests that it is having the opposite effect to that expected of renewable energy, by increasing atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide for substantial periods of time. This review, based on recent work by Europe's Academies of Science, finds that current policies are failing to recognize that removing forest carbon stocks for bioenergy leads to an initial increase in emissions. Moreover, the periods during which atmospheric CO2 levels are raised before forest regrowth can reabsorb the excess emissions are incompatible with the urgency of reducing emissions to comply with the objectives enshrined in the Paris Agreement. We consider how current policy might be reformed to reduce negative impacts on climate and argue for a more realistic science-based assessment of the potential of forest bioenergy in substituting for fossil fuels. The length of time atmospheric concentrations of CO2 increase is highly dependent on the feedstocks and we argue for regulations to explicitly require these to be sources with short payback periods. Furthermore, we describe the current United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change accounting rules which allow imported biomass to be treated as zero emissions at the point of combustion and urge their revision to remove the risk of these providing incentives to import biomass with negative climate impacts. Reforms such as these would allow the industry to evolve to methods and scales which are more compatible with the basic purpose for which it was designed.
  • Bergman, Paula; Gröhn, Yrjö Tapio; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Oliviero, Claudio; Peltoniemi, Olli; Heinonen, Mari (2018)
    This observational retrospective cohort study provides benchmarking information on recent sow productivity development in Finnish herds. It focuses on parity cycle specific trends in sow removal patterns, and especially on the role of litter performance (size and piglet survival) in sow removal. In addition, the generated models offer a tool for calculating sow removal risks in any period, which could be used in economic and other simulation models. The data used in the study pool information of sows starting the same parity cycle (1 through 8) over the enrollment period of July 1st, 2013 through June 30th, 2014 and followed until the end of the study period (December 31st, 2014), and their performance histories across their entire previous productive life. Out of 71,512 individual sow parity cycle observations from the first to the eighth, 15,128 ended up in removal. Average litter sizes exceeded 13 piglets born in total in all of the most recent farrowings. Yet, even larger litter sizes were favored by the implemented culling policies, as sows having medium and large early life litters had lower risks of removal compared to those with the smallest litters, particularly in younger animals. With regard to piglets born just prior to removal, the smallest litter sizes were associated with the greatest culling risk for sows of that particular parity. In addition, having more than one stillborn piglet in the first and second litter put the sow at higher risk of being removed in all but the last (sixth through eighth) of the studied parity cycles. Investigation of removal patterns revealed a negative linear relationship between parity count and the mean days from farrowing to removal. More specifically, the median (mean) times to removal varied across the parity cycles from 62 (72) in the first to 34 days in both the seventh and eighth (47 and 42, respectively). Moreover, one in every six sows was removed within the first and second parity cycle. The findings especially in the earliest cycles may be a reflection of removal decisions not made according to any clear and pre-determined policy, or of biological issues that prevent farmers from firmly adhering to their policy. Quantitative performance should be linked to overall system functionality and profitability while taking animal welfare into consideration in identifying opportunities to improve herd parity structure and future farm success.
  • Katuwal, Sushmita; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Pukkala, Eero; Kauppila, Antti (2019)
    BackgroundThe length of interval between successive childbirths (birth interval) might influence the incidence of breast cancer, either by stimulating or by inhibiting the factors that are responsible for the initiation of breast cancer or its early development.MethodsThis is a case-control study nested in a cohort of 47,479 Finnish grand-multiparous (GM) women born after 1934, and registered as having had at least five births before 2013. The 1354 women with breast cancer diagnosis were compared with controls (1:5) matched by parity and date of birth of the mother. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of the risk of ductal and lobular breast cancer subtypes associated with each of the intervals between the 1st and 5th birth, stratified by age at diagnosis. Age at first and last birth before index date were used as covariates.ResultsIncreased intervals between the 1st and 5th births were associated with an increased risk of lobular breast cancer. In contrast, regarding ductal cancer, premenopausal women with shorter length of interval (
  • Rönö, Kristiina; Masalin, Senja; Kautiainen, Hannu; Gissler, Mika; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar; Laine, Merja Kristiina (2020)
    Aims To assess the impact of educational attainment on the occurrence and recurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in two successive pregnancies in primiparous women. Methods This is a population-based observational cohort study including all 2347 Finnish women without previously diagnosed diabetes, aged >= 20 years from the city of Vantaa, Finland, who gave birth to their first and second child between 2009 and 2015. National registries provided data on study participants. We divided the population into four groups according to the presence of GDM in the two pregnancies (GDM-/-, n = 1820; GDM-/+, n = 223; GDM+/-, n = 113; GDM+/+, n = 191). Results The occurrence of GDM in the first pregnancy was 13.0% (n = 304) and 17.6% (n = 414) in the second. The recurrence rate of GDM was 62.8%. The four groups did not differ in relation to educational attainment (p = 0.11). In multinomial regression analysis, educational attainment protected from GDM in the second pregnancy [relative risk ratio 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-0.99) per year of schooling for being GDM-/+ compared with GDM-/-]. In multivariate logistics models, prepregnancy body mass index at the first pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) 1.53 per 1-standard deviation (SD) (95% CI 1.22-1.91)], first-born birth weight z-score [OR 1.30 per 1-SD (95% CI 1.00-1.67)], and inter-pregnancy weight change [OR 1.66 per 1-SD (95% CI 1.27-2.16)], but not educational attainment, predicted recurrence of GDM. Conclusions The recurrence rate of GDM was high. Education protected from novel GDM in the second pregnancy, but was not associated with GDM recurrence.
  • Vainio, L.; Mustonen, T.; Vainio, M. (2019)
    The study investigated whether number magnitude can influence vocal responses. Participants produced either short or long version of the vowel [&] (Experiment 1), or high or low-pitched version of that vowel (Experiment 2), according to the parity of a visually presented number. In addition to measuring reaction times (RT) of vocal responses, we measured the intensity, the fundamental frequency (f(0)) and the first and second formants of the vocalization. The RTs showed that the long and high-pitched vocal responses were associated with large numbers, while short and low-pitched vocal responses were associated with small numbers. It was also found that high-pitched vocalizations were mapped with the odd numbers, while the low-pitched vocalizations were mapped with the even numbers. Finally, large numbers increased the f(0) values. The study shows systematic interactions between the processes that represent number magnitude and produce vocal responses.