Browsing by Subject "PARKIN"

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  • Long, Maeve; McWilliams, Thomas G. (2020)
    Autophagy refers to an essential mechanism that evolved to sustain eukaryotic homeostasis and metabolism during instances of nutrient deprivation. During autophagy, intracellular cargo is encapsulated and delivered to the lysosome for elimination. Loss of basal autophagy in vivo negatively impacts cellular proteostasis, metabolism and tissue integrity. Accordingly, many drug development strategies are focused on modulating autophagic capacity in various pathophysiological states, from cancer to neurodegenerative disease. The role of autophagy in cancer is particularly complicated, as either augmenting or attenuating this process can have variable outcomes on cellular survival, proliferation and transformation. This complexity is compounded by the emergence of several selective autophagy pathways, which act to eliminate damaged or superfluous cellular components in a targeted fashion. The advent of sensitive tools to monitor autophagy pathways in vivo holds promise to clarify their importance in cancer pathophysiology. In this review, we provide an overview of autophagy in cancer biology and outline how the development of tools to study autophagy in vivo could enhance our understanding of its function for translational benefit.
  • Mito, Takayuki; Vincent, Amy E.; Faitg, Julie; Taylor, Robert W.; Khan, Nahid A.; McWilliams, Thomas G.; Suomalainen, Anu (2022)
    Mitophagy is a quality control mechanism that eliminates damaged mitochondria, yet its significance in mammalian pathophysiology and aging has remained unclear. Here, we report that mitophagy contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle of aged mice and human patients. The early disease stage is characterized by muscle fibers with central nuclei, with enhanced mitophagy around these nuclei. However, progressive mitochondrial dysfunction halts mitophagy and disrupts lysosomal homeostasis. Interestingly, activated or halted mitophagy occur in a mosaic manner even in adjacent muscle fibers, indicating cell-autonomous regulation. Rapamycin restores mitochondrial turnover, indicating mTOR-dependence of mitochondrial recycling in advanced disease stage. Our evidence suggests that (1) mitophagy is a hallmark of age-related mitochondrial pathology in mammalian muscle, (2) mosaic halting of mitophagy is a mechanism explaining mosaic respiratory chain deficiency and accumulation of pathogenic mtDNA variants in adult-onset mitochondrial diseases and normal aging, and (3) augmenting mitophagy is a promising therapeutic approach for muscle mitochondrial dysfunction.
  • Lampinen, Riikka; Belaya, Irina; Saveleva, Liudmila; Liddell, Jeffrey R.; Rait, Dzhessi; Huuskonen, Mikko T.; Giniatullina, Raisa; Sorvari, Annika; Soppela, Liisi; Mikhailov, Nikita; Boccuni, Isabella; Giniatullin, Rashid; Cruz-Haces, Marcela; Konovalova, Julia; Koskuvi, Marja; Domanskyi, Andrii; Hämäläinen, Riikka H.; Goldsteins, Gundars; Koistinaho, Jari; Malm, Tarja; Chew, Sweelin; Rilla, Kirsi; White, Anthony R.; Marsh-Armstrong, Nicholas; Kanninen, Katja M. (2022)
    Under physiological conditions in vivo astrocytes internalize and degrade neuronal mitochondria in a process called transmitophagy. Mitophagy is widely reported to be impaired in neurodegeneration but it is unknown whether and how transmitophagy is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we report that the internalization of neuronal mitochondria is significantly increased in astrocytes isolated from AD mouse brains. We also demonstrate that the degradation of neuronal mitochondria by astrocytes is increased in AD mice at the age of 6 months onwards. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time a similar phenomenon between human neurons and AD astrocytes, and in murine hippocampi in vivo. The results suggest the involvement of S100a4 in impaired mitochondrial transfer between neurons and AD astrocytes together with significant increases in the mitophagy regulator and reactive oxygen species in aged AD astrocytes. These findings demonstrate altered neuronsupporting functions of AD astrocytes and provide a starting point for studying the molecular mechanisms of transmitophagy in AD.
  • Chiarini, Valerio; Tossavainen, Helena; Sharma, Vivek; Colotti, Gianni (2019)
    Background: Ubiquitin-like domains (UbLs), in addition to being post-translationally conjugated to the target through the E1-E2-E3 enzymatic cascade, can be translated as a part of the protein they ought to regulate. As integral UbLs coexist with the rest of the protein, their structural properties can differ from canonical ubiquitin, depending on the protein context and how they interact with it. In this work, we investigate T.th-ubl5, a UbL present in a polyubiquitin locus of Tetrahymena thermophila, which is integral to an ADP-ribosyl transferase protein. Only one other co-occurrence of these two domains within the same protein has been reported. Methods: NMR, multiple sequence alignment, MD simulations and SPR have been used to characterize the structure of T.th-ubl5, identify putative binders and experimentally test the interaction, respectively. Results: Molecular dynamics simulations showed that T.th-ubl5 is unable to bind the proteasome like ubiquitin due to the lack of the conserved hydrophobic patch. Of other integral UbLs identified by structural and sequence alignment, T.th-ubl5 showed high structural and sequence resemblance with the Ras-binding epitope of FERM UbLs. SPR experiments confirmed that a strong and specific interaction occurs between T.th-ubl5 and T.th-Ras. Conclusion: Data indicate that T. th-ubl5 does not interact with the proteasome like ubiquitin but acts as a decoy for the recruitment of Ras protein by the ADP-ribosyl transferase domain. General significance: Mono-ADP-ribosylation of Ras proteins is known as a prerogative of bacterial toxins. T.th-ubl5 mediated recruitment of Ras highlights the possibility of an unprecedented post-translational modification with interesting implication for signalling pathways.
  • McWilliams, Thomas; Barini, Erica; Pohjolan-Pirhonen, Risto; Brooks, Simon P.; Singh, François; Burel, Sophie; Balk, Kristin; Kumar, Atul; Montava-Garriga, Lambert; Prescott, Alan R.; Hassoun, Sidi Mohamed; Mouton-Liger, François; Ball, Graeme; Hills, Rachel; Knebel, Axel; Ulusoy, Ayse; Di Monte, Donato A.; Tamjar, Jevgenia; Antico, Odetta; Fears, Kyle; Smith, Laura; Brambilla, Riccardo; Palin, Eino; Valori, Miko; Eerola-Rautio, Johanna; Tienari, Pentti; Corti, Olga; Dunnett, Stephen B.; Ganley, Ian G.; Suomalainen, Anu; Muqit, Miratul M.K. (2018)
    Mutations in PINK1 and Parkin result in autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Cell culture and in vitro studies have elaborated the PINK1-dependent regulation of Parkin and defined how this dyad orchestrates the elimination of damaged mitochondria via mitophagy. PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin at serine 65 (Ser65) and Parkin at an equivalent Ser65 residue located within its N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain, resulting in activation; however, the physiological significance of Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation in vivo in mammals remains unknown. To address this, we generated a Parkin Ser65Ala (S65A) knock-in mouse model. We observe endogenous Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation and activation in mature primary neurons following mitochondrial depolarization and reveal this is disrupted in ParkinS65A/S65A neurons. Phenotypically, ParkinS65A/S65A mice exhibit selective motor dysfunction in the absence of any overt neurodegeneration or alterations in nigrostriatal mitophagy. The clinical relevance of our findings is substantiated by the discovery of homozygous PARKIN (PARK2) p.S65N mutations in two unrelated patients with PD. Moreover, biochemical and structural analysis demonstrates that the ParkinS65N/S65N mutant is pathogenic and cannot be activated by PINK1. Our findings highlight the central role of Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation in health and disease.