Browsing by Subject "PARTICLE"

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  • A Large Ion Collider Experiment Collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2019)
    We report the differential charged jet cross section and jet fragmentation distributions measured with the ALICE detector in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy root S = 7 TeV. Jets with pseudorapidity vertical bar eta vertical bar <0.5 are reconstructed from charged particles using the anti-k(T) jet-finding algorithm with a resolution parameter R = 0.4. The jet cross section is measured in the transverse momentum interval 5 40 GeV/c, the PYTHIA calculations also agree with the measured charged jet cross section. PYTHIA6 simulations describe the fragmentation distributions to 15%. Larger discrepancies are observed for PYTHIA8.
  • Janvier, Miho; Winslow, Reka; Good, Simon; Bonhomme, Elise; Démoulin, Pascal; Dasso, Sergio; Möstl, Christian; Lugaz, Noé; Amerstorfer, Tanja; Soubrié, Elie; Boakes, Peter D. (2019)
    We study interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) measured by probes at different heliocentric distances (0.3-1 AU) to investigate the propagation of ICMEs in the inner heliosphere and determine how the generic features of ICMEs change with heliospheric distance. Using data from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER), Venus Express and ACE spacecraft, we analyze with the superposed epoch technique the profiles of ICME substructures, namely, the sheath and the magnetic ejecta. We determine that the median magnetic field magnitude in the sheath correlates well with ICME speeds at 1 AU, and we use this proxy to order the ICMEs at all spacecraft. We then investigate the typical ICME profiles for three categories equivalent to slow, intermediate, and fast ICMEs. Contrary to fast ICMEs, slow ICMEs have a weaker solar wind field at the front and a more symmetric magnetic field profile. We find the asymmetry to be less pronounced at Earth than at Mercury, indicating a relaxation taking place as ICMEs propagate. We also find that the magnetic field intensities in the wake region of the ICMEs do not go back to the pre-ICME solar wind intensities, suggesting that the effects of ICMEs on the ambient solar wind last longer than the duration of the transient event. Such results provide an indication of physical processes that need to be reproduced by numerical simulations of ICME propagation. The samples studied here will be greatly improved by future missions dedicated to the exploration of the inner heliosphere, such as Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter.
  • Huiskonen, Juha T. (2018)
    Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) is a high-resolution biological imaging method, whereby biological samples, such as purified proteins, macromolecular complexes, viral particles, organelles and cells, are embedded in vitreous ice preserving their native structures. Due to sensitivity of biological materials to the electron beam of the microscope, only relatively low electron doses can be applied during imaging. As a result, the signal arising from the structure of interest is overpowered by noise in the images. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio, different image processing-based strategies that aim at coherent averaging of signal have been devised. In such strategies, images are generally assumed to arise from multiple identical copies of the structure. Prior to averaging, the images must be grouped according to the view of the structure they represent and images representing the same view must be simultaneously aligned relatively to each other. For computational reconstruction of the 3D structure, images must contain different views of the original structure. Structures with multiple symmetry-related substructures are advantageous in averaging approaches because each image provides multiple views of the substructures. However, the symmetry assumption may be valid for only parts of the structure, leading to incoherent averaging of the other parts. Several image processing approaches have been adapted to tackle symmetry-mismatched substructures with increasing success. Such structures are ubiquitous in nature and further computational method development is needed to understanding their biological functions.
  • Chakraborty, Indrani; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Mondal, Subhadeep (2017)
    We estimate the smallest branching ratio for the Higgs decay channel h -> mu tau, which can be probed at an e(+)e(-) collider, and compare it with the projected reach at the high-luminosity run of the LHC. Using a model-independent approach, Higgs production is considered in two separate cases. In the first case, hWW and hZZ couplings are allowed to be scaled by a factor allowed by the latest experimental limits on hWW and hZZ couplings. In the second case, we have introduced higher-dimensional effective operators for these interaction vertices. Keeping BR(h -> mu tau) as a purely phenomenological quantity, we find that this branching ratio can be probed down to approximate to 2.69 x 10(-3) and approximate to 5.83 x 10(-4), respectively, at the 250 GeV and 1000 GeV runs of an e(+)e(-) collider.
  • Heikkinen, Liine; Äijälä, Mikko; Riva, Matthieu; Luoma, Krista Hannele; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Aalto, Juho; Aalto, Pasi; Aliaga Badani, Diego Alonso; Aurela, Minna; Keskinen, Helmi-Marja; Makkonen, Ulla; Rantala, Pekka; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka; Worsnop, Douglas; Ehn, Mikael (2020)
    The Station for Measuring Ecosystem Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR) II is well known among atmospheric scientists due to the immense amount of observational data it provides of the Earth atmosphere interface. Moreover, SMEAR II plays an important role for the large European research infrastructure, enabling the large scientific community to tackle climate- and air-pollution-related questions, utilizing the high-quality long-term data sets recorded at the site. So far, this well-documented site was missing the description of the seasonal variation in aerosol chemical composition, which helps understanding the complex biogeochemical and physical processes governing the forest ecosystem. Here, we report the sub-micrometer aerosol chemical composition and its variability, employing data measured between 2012 and 2018 using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM). We observed a bimodal seasonal trend in the sub-micrometer aerosol concentration culminating in February (2.7, 1.6, and 5.1 mu g m(-3) for the median, 25th, and 75th percentiles, respectively) and July (4.2, 2.2, and 5.7 mu g m(-3) for the median, 25th, and 75th percentiles, respectively). The wintertime maximum was linked to an enhanced presence of inorganic aerosol species (ca. 50 %), whereas the summertime maximum (ca. 80 % organics) was linked to biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. During the exceptionally hot months of July of 2014 and 2018, the organic aerosol concentrations were up to 70 % higher than the 7-year July mean. The projected increase in heat wave frequency over Finland will most likely influence the loading and chemical composition of aerosol particles in the future. Our findings suggest strong influence of meteorological conditions such as radiation, ambient temperature, and wind speed and direction on aerosol chemical composition. To our understanding, this is the longest time series reported describing the aerosol chemical composition measured online in the boreal region, but the continuous monitoring will also be maintained in the future.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brücken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2019)
    Comprehensive results on the production of unidentified charged particles, pi(+/-), K-+/-, K-s(0), K*(892)(0), p, (p) over bar, phi(1020), Lambda, (Lambda) over bar, Xi(-) , (Xi) over bar (+), Omega(-), and (Omega) over bar (+) hadrons in proton-proton (pp) collisions at root s = 7 TeV at midrapidity (vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.5) as a function of charged-particle multiplicity density are presented. In order to avoid autocorrelation biases, the actual transverse momentum (p(T)) spectra of the particles under study and the event activity are measured in different rapidity windows. In the highest multiplicity class, the charged-particle density reaches about 3.5 times the value measured in inelastic collisions. While the yield of protons normalized to pions remains approximately constant as a function of multiplicity, the corresponding ratios of strange hadrons to pions show a significant enhancement that increases with increasing strangeness content. Furthermore, all identified particleto-pion ratios are shown to depend solely on charged-particle multiplicity density, regardless of system type and collision energy. The evolution of the spectral shapes with multiplicity and hadron mass shows patterns that are similar to those observed in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at Large Hadron Collider energies. The obtained p(T), distributions and yields are compared to expectations from QCD-based pp event generators as well as to predictions from thermal and hydrodynamic models. These comparisons indicate that traces of a collective, equilibrated system are already present in high-multiplicity pp collisions.
  • Bandyopadhyay, Priyotosh; Di Chiara, Stefano; Huitu, Katri; Keceli, Asli Sabanci (2014)
  • Virkkula, A.; Chi, X.; Ding, A.; Shen, Y.; Nie, W.; Qi, X.; Zheng, L.; Huang, X.; Xie, Y.; Wang, J.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, Markku (2015)
    Aerosol optical properties were measured with a seven-wavelength aethalometer and a three-wavelength nephelometer at the suburban site SORPES in Nanjing, China, in September 2013-January 2015. The aethalometer compensation parameter k, calculated with the Virkkula et al. (2007) method depended on the backscatter fraction, measured with an independent method, the integrating nephelometer. At lambda = 660 nm the daily averaged compensation parameter k approximate to 0.0017 +/- 0.0002 and 0.0042 +/- 0.0013 when backscatter fraction at lambda = 635 nm was in the ranges of 0.100 +/- 0.005 and 0.160 +/- 0.005, respectively. Also, the wavelength dependency of the compensation parameter depended on the backscatter fraction: when b(lambda = 525 nm) was less than approximately 0.13 the compensation parameter decreased with wavelength and at larger b it increased with wavelength. This dependency has not been considered in any of the algorithms that are currently used for processing aethalometer data. The compensation parameter also depended on the single-scattering albedo omega(0) so that k decreased with increasing omega(0). For the green light (lambda = 520 nm) in the omega(0) range 0.870 +/- 0.005, the average (+/- standard deviation) k approximate to 0.0047 +/- 0.006 and in the omega(0) range 0.960 +/- 0.005, k approximate to 0.0028 +/- 0.0007. This difference was larger for the near-infrared light (lambda = 880 nm): in the omega(0) range 0.860 +/- 0.005, k approximate to 0.0055 +/- 0.0023 and in the omega(0) range 0.960 +/- 0.005, k approximate to 0.0019 +/- 0.0011. The negative dependence of k on omega(0) was also shown with a simple theoretical analysis.
  • Meyer, H.; Eich, T.; Beurskens, M.; Coda, S.; Hakola, A.; Martin, P.; Adamek, J.; Agostini, M.; Aguiam, D.; Ahn, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Akers, R.; Albanese, R.; Aledda, R.; Alessi, E.; Allan, S.; Alves, D.; Ambrosino, R.; Amicucci, L.; Anand, H.; Anastassiou, G.; Andrebe, Y.; Angioni, C.; Apruzzese, G.; Ariola, M.; Arnichand, H.; Arter, W.; Baciero, A.; Barnes, M.; Barrera, L.; Behn, R.; Bencze, A.; Bernardo, J.; Bernert, M.; Bettini, P.; Bilkova, P.; Bin, W.; Birkenmeier, G.; Bizarro, J. P. S.; Blanchard, P.; Blanken, T.; Bluteau, M.; Bobkov, V.; Bogar, O.; Boehm, P.; Bolzonella, T.; Boncagni, L.; Botrugno, A.; Lahtinen, A.; Marchand, B.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; MAST Team; TCV Team (2017)
    Integrating the plasma core performance with an edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) that leads to tolerable heat and particle loads on the wall is a major challenge. The new European medium size tokamak task force (EU-MST) coordinates research on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), MAST and TCV. This multi-machine approach within EU-MST, covering a wide parameter range, is instrumental to progress in the field, as ITER and DEMO core/pedestal and SOL parameters are not achievable simultaneously in present day devices. A two prong approach is adopted. On the one hand, scenarios with tolerable transient heat and particle loads, including active edge localised mode (ELM) control are developed. On the other hand, divertor solutions including advanced magnetic configurations are studied. Considerable progress has been made on both approaches, in particular in the fields of: ELM control with resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP), small ELM regimes, detachment onset and control, as well as filamentary scrape-off-layer transport. For example full ELM suppression has now been achieved on AUG at low collisionality with n = 2 RMP maintaining good confinement H-H(98,H-y2) approximate to 0.95. Advances have been made with respect to detachment onset and control. Studies in advanced divertor configurations (Snowflake, Super-X and X-point target divertor) shed new light on SOL physics. Cross field filamentary transport has been characterised in a wide parameter regime on AUG, MAST and TCV progressing the theoretical and experimental understanding crucial for predicting first wall loads in ITER and DEMO. Conditions in the SOL also play a crucial role for ELM stability and access to small ELM regimes.
  • Jakobsson, Ulrika; Mäkilä, Ermei; Rahikkala, Antti Tuomas Antero; Imlimthan, Surachet; Lampuoti, Jarkko; Ranjan, Sanjeev; Heino, Jouni; Jalkanen, Pasi; Köster, Ulli; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Santos, Hélder A.; Salonen, Jarno; Airaksinen, Anu; Sarparanta, Mirkka; Helariutta, Kerttuli (2020)
    Introduction Porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles are capable of delivering therapeutic payloads providing targeted delivery and sustained release of the payloads. In this work we describe the development and proof-of-concept in vivo evaluation of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles that are implanted with radioactive 155Tb atoms and coated with red blood cell (RBC) membrane (155Tb-THCPSi). The developed nanocomposites can be utilized as an intravenous delivery platform for theranostic radionuclides. Methods THCPSi thin films were implanted with 155Dy ions that decay to 155Tb at the ISOLDE radioactive ion-beam (RIB) facility at CERN. The films were processed to nanoparticles by ball-milling and sonication, and subsequently coated with either a solid lipid and RBC membrane or solely with RBC membrane. The nanocomposites were evaluated in vitro for stability and in vivo for circulation half-life and ex vivo for biodistribution in Balb/c mice. Results Nanoporous THCPSi films were successfully implanted with 155Tb and processed to coated nanoparticles. The in vitro stability of the particles in plasma and buffer solutions was not significantly different between the particle types, and therefore the RBC membrane coated particles with less laborious processing method were chosen for the biological evaluation. The RBC membrane coating enhanced significantly the blood half-life compared to bare THCPSi particles. In the ex vivo biodistribution study a pronounced accumulation to the spleen was found, with lower uptake in the liver and a minor uptake in the lung, gall bladder and bone marrow. Conclusions We have demonstrated, using 155Tb RIB-implanted PSi nanoparticles coated with mouse RBC membranes, the feasibility of using such a theranostic nanosystem for the delivery of RIB based radionuclides with prolonged circulation time. Advances in Knowledge and Implications for Patient Care: For the first time, the RIB implantation technique has been utilized to produce PSi nanoparticle with a surface modified for better persistence in circulation. When optimized, these particles could be used in targeted radionuclide therapy with a combination of chemotherapeutic payload within the PSi structure.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search for the production of Higgs boson pairs in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13TeVis presented, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9fb(-1) collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Events with one Higgs boson decaying into two bottom quarks and the other decaying into two tau leptons are explored to investigate both resonant and nonresonant production mechanisms. The data are found to be consistent, within uncertainties, with the standard model background predictions. For resonant production, upper limits at the 95% confidence level are set on the production cross section for Higgs boson pairs as a function of the hypothesized resonance mass and are interpreted in the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. For nonresonant production, upper limits on the production cross section constrain the parameter space for anomalous Higgs boson couplings. The observed (expected) upper limit at 95% confidence level corresponds to about 30(25) times the prediction of the standard model. (C) 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    Results are reported from a search for new physics in 13 TeV proton-proton collisions in the final state with large missing transverse momentum and two Higgs bosons decaying via H -> b(b)over bar. The search uses a data sample accumulated by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). The search is motivated by models based on gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, which predict the electroweak production of a pair of Higgsinos, each of which can decay via a cascade process to a Higgs boson and an undetected lightest supersymmetric particle. The observed event yields in the signal regions are consistent with the standard model background expectation obtained from control regions in data. Higgsinos in the mass range 230-770 GeV are excluded at 95% confidence level in the context of a simplified model for the production and decay of approximately degenerate Higgsinos.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search for the electroweak production of supersymmetric particles in protonproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13TeV is presented in final states with a tau lepton pair. Both hadronic and leptonic decay modes are considered for the tau leptons. Scenarios involving the direct pair production of tau sleptons, or their indirect production via the decays of charginos and neutralinos, are investigated. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35: 9 fb collected with the CMS detector in 2016. The observed number of events is consistent with the standard model background expectation. The results are interpreted as upper limits on the cross section for tau slepton pair production in di ff erent scenarios. The strongest limits are observed in the scenario of a purely left-handed low mass tau slepton decaying to a nearly massless neutralino. Exclusion limits are also set in the context of simpli fi ed models of chargino-neutralino and chargino pair production with decays to tau leptons, and range up to 710 and 630 GeV, respectively.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search for supersymmetry is presented based on proton-proton collision events containing identified hadronically decaying top quarks, no leptons, and an imbalance p(T)(miss) in transverse momentum. The data were collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). Search regions are defined in terms of the multiplicity of bottom quark jet and top quark candidates, the p(T)(miss) , the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta, and themT2 mass variable. No statistically significant excess of events is observed relative to the expectation from the standard model. Lower limits on the masses of supersymmetric particles are determined at 95% confidence level in the context of simplified models with top quark production. For a model with direct top squark pair production followed by the decay of each top squark to a top quark and a neutralino, top squark masses up to 1020 GeVand neutralino masses up to 430 GeVare excluded. For amodel with pair production of gluinos followed by the decay of each gluino to a top quark-antiquark pair and a neutralino, gluino masses up to 2040 GeVand neutralino masses up to 1150 GeVare excluded. These limits extend previous results.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2019)
    A search is presented for the associated production of a standard model Higgs boson with a top quark-antiquark pair (ttH), in which the Higgs boson decays into a b quark-antiquark pair, in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy =13 TeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1) recorded with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. Candidate ttH events are selected that contain either one or two electrons or muons from the t decays and are categorised according to the number of jets. Multivariate techniques are employed to further classify the events and eventually discriminate between signal and background. The results are characterised by an observed tH signal strength relative to the standard model cross section, = sigma/sigma(SM), under the assumption of a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV. A combined fit of multivariate discriminant distributions in all categories results in an observed (expected) upper limit on of 1.5 (0.9) at 95% confidence level, and a best fit value of 0.72 +/- 0.24(stat) +/- 0.38(syst), corresponding to an observed (expected) signal significance of 1.6 (2.2) standard deviations above the background-only hypothesis.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search for the pair production of the lightest supersymmetric partner of the top quark ((t) over tilde (1)) is presented. The search focuses on a compressed scenario where the mass difference between the top squark and the lightest supersymmetric particle, often considered to be the lightest neutralino (( chi) over tilde (0)(1)), is smaller than the mass of the W boson. The proton-proton collision data were recorded by the CMS experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). In this search, two decay modes of the top squark are considered: a four-body decay into a bottom quark, two additional fermions, and a (chi) over tilde (1)(0); and a decay via an intermediate chargino. Events are selected using the presence of a high-momentum jet, significant missing transverse momentum, and a low transverse momentum electron or muon. Two analysis techniques are used, targeting different decay modes ((t) over tilde (1)): of the a sequential selection and a multivariate technique. No evidence for the production of top squarks is found, and mass limits at 95% confidence level are set that reach up to 560 GeV, depending on the m((t) over tilde (1)) - m((chi) over tilde (0)(1)) mass difference and the decay mode.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search is presented for resonances decaying to a Z boson and a photon. The analysis is based on data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1), and collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2016. Two decay modes of the Z boson are investigated. In the leptonic channels, the Z boson candidates are reconstructed using electron or muon pairs. In the hadronic channels, they are identified using a large-radius jet, containing either light-quark or b quark decay products of the Z boson, via jet substructure and advanced b quark tagging techniques. The results from these channels are combined and interpreted in terms of upper limits on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction to Z gamma for narrow and broad spin-0 resonances with masses between 0.35 and 4.0 TeV, providing thereby the most stringent limits on such resonances.
  • Falconi, Marta Tecla; von Lerber, Annakaisa; Ori, Davide; Marzano, Frank Silvio; Moisseev, Dmitri (2018)
    Radar-based snowfall intensity retrieval is investigated at centimeter and millimeter wavelengths using co-located ground-based multi-frequency radar and video-disdrometer observations. Using data from four snowfall events, recorded during the Biogenic Aerosols Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) campaign in Finland, measurements of liquid-water-equivalent snowfall rate S are correlated to radar equivalent reflectivity factors Z(e), measured by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) cloud radars operating at X, Ka and W frequency bands. From these combined observations, power-law Z(e)-S relationships are derived for all three frequencies considering the influence of riming Using microwave radiometer observations of liquid water path, the measured precipitation is divided into lightly, moderately and heavily rimed snow. Interestingly lightly rimed snow events show a spectrally distinct signature of Z(e)-S with respect to moderately or heavily rimed snow cases. In order to understand the connection between snowflake microphysical and multi-frequency backscattering properties, numerical simulations are performed by using the particle size distribution provided by the in situ video disdrometer and retrieved ice particle masses. The latter are carried out by using both the T-matrix method (TMM) applied to soft-spheroid particle models with different aspect ratios and exploiting a pre-computed discrete dipole approximation (DDA) database for rimed aggregates. Based on the presented results, it is concluded that the soft-spheroid approximation can be adopted to explain the observed multifrequency Z(e)-S relations if a proper spheroid aspect ratio is selected. The latter may depend on the degree of riming in snowfall. A further analysis of the backscattering simulations reveals that TMM cross sections are higher than the DDA ones for small ice particles, but lower for larger particles. The differences of computed cross sections for larger and smaller particles are compensating for each other. This may explain why the soft-spheroid approximation is satisfactory for radar reflectivity simulations under study.
  • Malik, Nayab; Kotecha, Abhay; Gold, Sarah; Asfor, Amin; Ren, Jingshan; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Tuthill, Tobias J.; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Stuart, David I. (2017)
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) belongs to the aphthovirus genus of the Picornaviridae, a family of small, icosahedral, non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses. It is a highly infectious pathogen and is one of the biggest hindrances to the international trade of animals and animal products. FMDV capsids (which are unstable below pH6.5) release their genome into the host cell from an acidic compartment, such as that of an endosome, and in the process dissociate into pentamers. Whilst other members of the family (enteroviruses) have been visualized to form an expanded intermediate capsid with holes from which inner capsid proteins (VP4), N-termini (VP1) and RNA can be released, there has been no visualization of any such state for an aphthovirus, instead the capsid appears to simply dissociate into pentamers. Here we present the 8-angstrom resolution structure of isolated dissociated pentamers of FMDV, lacking VP4. We also found these pentamers to re-associate into a rigid, icosahedrally symmetric assembly, which enabled their structure to be solved at higher resolution (5.2 angstrom). In this assembly, the pentamers unexpectedly associate 'inside out', but still with their exposed hydrophobic edges buried. Stabilizing interactions occur between the HI loop of VP2 and its symmetry related partners at the icosahedral 3-fold axes, and between the BC and EF loops of VP3 with the VP2 beta B-strand and the CD loop at the 2-fold axes. A relatively extensive but subtle structural rearrangement towards the periphery of the dissociated pentamer compared to that in the mature virus provides insight into the mechanism of dissociation of FMDV and the marked difference in antigenicity.
  • Essén, Hanno; Stén, Johan C.-E. (2018)
    The standard expression for the magnetic interaction energy used in the study of the Aharonov-Bohm effect is investigated. We calculate the magnetic interaction energy between a point charge and an infinite solenoid from first principles. Two alternative expressions are used: the scalar products of the currents with the vector potentials and the scalar product of the magnetic fields. The alternatives are seen to agree. The latter approach also involves taking into account surface integrals at infinity, which are shown to be zero. Our model problem indicates no classical Aharonov-Bohm effect, but we also discuss the normally neglected fact of energy non-conservation. The problem is treated from the point of view of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics.