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  • Palmu, Raimo; Koskinen, Seppo; Partonen, Timo (2022)
    Limited evidence suggests that the seasonal changes in mood and behavior may associate with suicidality and the feelings of worthlessness, but these associations have not been analyzed in large population-based data. A random sample of adults (n = 4069), representative of the general population living in Finland, attended a nationwide health examination survey. Seasonal variations (seasonality) in mood and behavior were analyzed with the six items of global seasonality score (GSS) and the experienced problem due to these variations. Their impact on suicidality as well as on the feelings of worthlessness were analyzed using logistic regression models. After adjusting for age and gender, the GSS, each of its six items and the experienced problem due to the seasonal variations in mood and behavior all showed separately a significant association with suicidality as well as with worthlessness. After further adjustment for the education level and region of residence, the GSS, its mood item and the experienced problem remained significantly associated with both suicidality and worthlessness. Seasonal variations in mood and behavior have a significant association with both suicidality and worthlessness.
  • Basnet, Syaron; Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Mannisto, Satu; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo (2016)
    The purpose of this study was to assess how seasonality is associated with some of the most common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the general Finnish population. The global seasonality score (GSS) was used to measure the magnitude of seasonality in 4689 participants, in addition to which they reported the extent to which the seasonal variations in mood and behavior were experienced as a problem. Regression models and the odds ratios were adopted to analyze the associations adjusted for a range of covariates. Seventy percent of the participants had seasonal variations in sleep duration, social activity, mood, or energy level, and forty percent those in weight and appetite. Angina pectoris and depression were significantly associated with seasonality throughout the analysis. Hypertension, high cholesterol levels, diabetes, other (than rheumatoid) joint diseases and other (than depressive) psychological illnesses were significantly associated with experiencing a problem due to the seasonal variations, with an increase in the GSS, and with seasonal affective disorder and its subsyndromal form. The co-occurrence of the seasonal variations in mood and behavior with certain common NCDs warrants future research to have insights into the etiology and potentially shared pathways and mechanisms of action. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Sandman, Nils; Merikanto, Ilona; Maattanen, Hanna; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Partonen, Timo; Paunio, Tiina (2016)
    Sleep problems, especially nightmares and insomnia, often accompany depression. This study investigated how nightmares, symptoms of insomnia, chronotype and sleep duration associate with seasonal affective disorder, a special form of depression. Additionally, it was noted how latitude, a proxy for photoperiod, and characteristics of the place of residence affect the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder and sleep problems. To study these questions, data from FINRISK 2012 study were used. FINRISK 2012 consists of a random population sample of Finnish adults aged 25-74 years (n = 4905) collected during winter from Finnish urban and rural areas spanning the latitudes of 60 degrees N to 66 degrees N. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire was used to assess symptoms of seasonal affective disorder. Participants with symptoms of seasonal affective disorder had significantly increased odds of experiencing frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, and they were more often evening chronotypes. Associations between latitude, population size and urbanicity with seasonal affective disorder symptoms and sleep disturbances were generally not significant, although participants living in areas bordering urban centres had less sleep problems than participants from other regions. These data show that the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder was not affected by latitude.