Browsing by Subject "PCSK9"

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  • Karpale, M; Karajamaki, AJ; Kummu, O; Gylling, H; Hyotylainen, T; Oresic, M; Tolonen, A; Hautajarvi, H; Savolainen, MJ; Ala-Korpela, M; Hukkanen, J; Hakkola, J (2021)
    Background and Purpose Many drugs and environmental contaminants induce hypercholesterolemia and promote the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that pregnane X receptor (PXR), a xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor, regulates the level of circulating atherogenic lipids in humans and utilized mouse experiments to identify the mechanisms involved. Experimental Approach We performed serum NMR metabolomics in healthy volunteers administered rifampicin, a prototypical human PXR ligand or placebo in a crossover setting. We used high-fat diet fed wild-type and PXR knockout mice to investigate the mechanisms mediating the PXR-induced alterations in cholesterol homeostasis. Key Results Activation of PXR induced cholesterogenesis both in pre-clinical and clinical settings. In human volunteers, rifampicin increased intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol and lathosterol-cholesterol ratio, a marker of cholesterol synthesis, suggesting increased cholesterol synthesis. Experiments in mice indicated that PXR activation causes widespread induction of the cholesterol synthesis genes including the rate-limiting Hmgcr and upregulates the intermediates in the Kandutsch-Russell cholesterol synthesis pathway in the liver. Additionally, PXR activation induced plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a negative regulator of hepatic LDL uptake, in both mice and humans. We propose that these effects were mediated through increased proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) in response to PXR activation. Conclusion and Implications PXR activation induces cholesterol synthesis, elevating LDL and total cholesterol in humans. The PXR-SREBP2 pathway is a novel regulator of the cholesterol and PCSK9 synthesis and a molecular mechanism for drug- and chemical-induced hypercholesterolemia.
  • Nhlbi Trans-Omics Precision Med To; Natarajan, Pradeep; Pampana, Akhil; Graham, Sarah E.; Ruotsalainen, Sanni E.; Perry, James A.; de Vries, Paul S.; Broome, Jai G.; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Daly, Mark; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pulkki, Kari; Ripatti, Samuli; Kettunen, Johannes; Laaksonen, Reijo; Rinne, Juha; Pikkarainen, Sampsa; Eklund, Kari; Kauppi, Paula; Sinisalo, Juha; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Joensuu, Heikki; Meretoja, Tuomo; Aaltonen, Lauri; Turunen, Joni; Seitsonen, Sanna; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Jalanko, Anu; Kajanne, Risto; Lyhs, Ulrike; Kaunisto, Mari; Kurki, Mitja; Karjalainen, Juha; Havulinna, Aki; Palta, Priit; Parolo, Pietro Della Briotta; Harju, Jarmo; Lehisto, Arto; Ganna, Andrea; Llorens, Vincent; Koskinen, Miika; Heikkinen, Sami; Loukola, Anu; Donner, Kati; Nunez-Fontarnau, Javier; Brein, Georg; Laivuori, Hannele; Kiiskinen, Tuomo (2021)
    Autosomal genetic analyses of blood lipids have yielded key insights for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, X chromosome genetic variation is understudied for blood lipids in large sample sizes. We now analyze genetic and blood lipid data in a high-coverage whole X chromosome sequencing study of 65,322 multi-ancestry participants and perform replication among 456,893 European participants. Common alleles on chromosome Xq23 are strongly associated with reduced total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (min P=8.5x10(-72)), with similar effects for males and females. Chromosome Xq23 lipid-lowering alleles are associated with reduced odds for CHD among 42,545 cases and 591,247 controls (P=1.7x10(-4)), and reduced odds for diabetes mellitus type 2 among 54,095 cases and 573,885 controls (P=1.4x10(-5)). Although we observe an association with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI is reduced, bioimpedance analyses indicate increased gluteofemoral fat, and abdominal MRI analyses indicate reduced visceral adiposity. Co-localization analyses strongly correlate increased CHRDL1 gene expression, particularly in adipose tissue, with reduced concentrations of blood lipids. The influence of X chromosome genetic variation on blood lipids and coronary heart disease (CHD) is not well understood. Here, the authors analyse X chromosome sequencing data across 65,322 multi-ancestry individuals, identifying associations of the Xq23 locus with lipid changes and reduced risk of CHD and diabetes mellitus.
  • Sanz, Dafne Jacome; Raivola, Juuli; Karvonen, Hanna; Arjama, Mariliina; Barker, Harlan; Murumägi, Astrid; Ungureanu, Daniela (2021)
    Simple Summary Ovarian cancer (OC) is known for its poor prognosis, due to the absence of reliable biomarkers and its late diagnosis, since the early-stage disease is almost asymptomatic. Lipid metabolism plays an important role in OC progression due to the development of omental metastasis in the abdominal cavity. The aim of our study was to assess the therapeutic role of various enzymes involved in lipid metabolism regulation or synthesis, in different subtypes of OC represented by cell lines as well as patient-derived cancer cell cultures (PDCs). We show that proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a cholesterol-regulating enzyme, plays a pro-survival role in OC and targeting its expression impairs cancer cell growth. We also tested a small library of metabolic and mTOR-targeting drugs to identify drug vulnerabilities specific to various subtypes of OC. Our results show that in OC cell lines and PDCs the second generation of mTOR inhibitors such as AZD8055, vistusertib, dactolisib and sapanisertib, have higher cytotoxic activity compared to the first generation mTOR inhibitors such as rapalogs. These results suggest that, in the era of precision medicine, it is possible to target the metabolic pathway in OC and identify subtype-specific drug vulnerabilities that could be advanced to the clinic. Background: Dysregulated lipid metabolism is emerging as a hallmark in several malignancies, including ovarian cancer (OC). Specifically, metastatic OC is highly dependent on lipid-rich omentum. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic value of targeting lipid metabolism in OC. For this purpose, we studied the role of PCSK9, a cholesterol-regulating enzyme, in OC cell survival and its downstream signaling. We also investigated the cytotoxic efficacy of a small library of metabolic (n = 11) and mTOR (n = 10) inhibitors using OC cell lines (n = 8) and ex vivo patient-derived cell cultures (PDCs, n = 5) to identify clinically suitable drug vulnerabilities. Targeting PCSK9 expression with siRNA or PCSK9 specific inhibitor (PF-06446846) impaired OC cell survival. In addition, overexpression of PCSK9 induced robust AKT phosphorylation along with increased expression of ERK1/2 and MEK1/2, suggesting a pro-survival role of PCSK9 in OC cells. Moreover, our drug testing revealed marked differences in cytotoxic responses to drugs targeting metabolic pathways of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSOC) PDCs. Our results show that targeting PCSK9 expression could impair OC cell survival, which warrants further investigation to address the dependency of this cancer on lipogenesis and omental metastasis. Moreover, the differences in metabolic gene expression and drug responses of OC PDCs indicate the existence of a metabolic heterogeneity within OC subtypes, which should be further explored for therapeutic improvements.
  • Sanna, Serena; Li, Bingshan; Mulas, Antonella; Sidore, Carlo; Kang, Hyun M.; Jackson, Anne U.; Piras, Maria Grazia; Usala, Gianluca; Maninchedda, Giuseppe; Sassu, Alessandro; Serra, Fabrizio; Palmas, Maria Antonietta; Wood, William H.; Njolstad, Inger; Laakso, Markku; Hveem, Kristian; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Boehnke, Michael; Cucca, Francesco; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Abecasis, Goncalo R. (2011)
  • Benedek, P.; Jiao, H.; Duvefelt, K.; Skoog, T.; Linde, M.; Kiviluoma, P.; Kere, J.; Eriksson, M.; Angelin, B. (2021)
    Aim To investigate whether genotyping could be used as a cost-effective screening step, preceding next-generation sequencing (NGS), in molecular diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in Swedish patients. Methods and results Three hundred patients of Swedish origin with clinical suspicion of heterozygous FH were analysed using a specific array genotyping panel embedding 112 FH-causing mutations in the LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes. The mutations had been selected from previous reports on FH patients in Scandinavia and Finland. Mutation-negative cases were further analysed by NGS. In 181 patients with probable or definite FH using the Dutch lipid clinics network (DLCN) criteria (score >= 6), a causative mutation was identified in 116 (64%). Of these, 94 (81%) were detected by genotyping. Ten mutations accounted for more than 50% of the positive cases, with APOB c.10580G>A being the most common. Mutations in LDLR predominated, with (c.2311+1_2312-1)(2514)del (FH Helsinki) and c.259T>G having the highest frequency. Two novel LDLR mutations were identified. In patients with DLCN score < 6, mutation detection rate was significantly higher at younger age. Conclusion A limited number of mutations explain a major fraction of FH cases in Sweden. Combination of selective genotyping and NGS facilitates the clinical challenge of cost-effective genetic screening in suspected FH. The frequency of APOB c.10580G>A was higher than previously reported in Sweden. The lack of demonstrable mutations in the LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes in similar to 1/3 of patients with probable FH strongly suggests that additional genetic mechanisms are to be found in phenotypic FH.
  • Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Björnson, Elias; Andersson, Linda; Kahri, Juhani; Porthan, Kimmo; Matikainen, Niina; Söderlund, Sanni; Pietiläinen, Kirsi; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Nilsson, Ralf; Stahlman, Marcus; Adiels, Martin; Parini, Paolo; Packard, Chris; Boren, Jan (2020)
    BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) significantly lower the levels of low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), but their effect on postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in dyslipidemic subjects is unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of evolocumab on postprandial lipid responses, ectopic fat depots, whole-body cholesterol synthesis, hepatic lipogenesis, and fat oxidation in patients with type II diabetes. METHODS: The trial was a single-phase, nonrandomized study of 12-week treatment with evolocumab 140 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks in 15 patients with type II diabetes on background statin therapy. Cardiometabolic responses to a high-fat mixed meal were assessed before and at the end of the intervention period. RESULTS: Evolocumab treatment reduced significantly postprandial rises in plasma total triglyceride (by 21%; P <.0001) and VLDL i triglyceride (by 15%; P = .018), but the increase in chylomicron triglyceride after the meal was not significantly perturbed (P = .053). There were reduced postprandial responses in plasma total apolipoprotein C-III (by 14%; P <.0001) and apolipoprotein B-48 concentration (by 17%; P = .0046) and in "remnant-like particles" cholesterol (by 29%; P <.0001) on the PCSK9 inhibitor. Treatment reduced the steady-state (ie, fasting and postprandial) concentrations of VLDL2 cholesterol by 50% (P <.0001) and VLDL2 triglyceride by 29% (P <.0001), in addition to the 78% reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P <.001). The changes in apolipoprotein C-III associated significantly with reduction in postprandial responses of remnant-like particles cholesterol and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol. Evolocumab therapy did not influence liver fat accumulation, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, or fasting beta-hydroxybutyrate but did increase total body cholesterol synthesis (P <.01). CONCLUSION: Evolocumab treatment improved postprandial responses of triglyceride-rich lipo-proteins and measures of cholesterol-enriched remnant particles in type II diabetic subjects. These results indicate that postprandial phenomena need to be taken into account in assessing the full range of actions of PCSK9 inhibitors in dyslipidemic individuals. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of National Lipid Association.
  • Ference, Brian A.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Graham, Ian; Ray, Kausik K.; Packard, Chris J.; Bruckert, Eric; Hegele, Robert A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Raal, Frederick J.; Schunkert, Heribert; Watts, Gerald F.; Boren, Jan; Fazio, Sergio; Horton, Jay D.; Masana, Luis; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; van de Sluis, Bart; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Landmesser, Ulf; Laufs, Ulrich; Wiklund, Olov; Stock, Jane K.; Chapman, M. John; Catapano, Alberico L. (2017)
    Aims To appraise the clinical and genetic evidence that low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Methods and results We assessed whether the association between LDL and ASCVD fulfils the criteria for causality by evaluating the totality of evidence from genetic studies, prospective epidemiologic cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies, and randomized trials of LDL-lowering therapies. In clinical studies, plasma LDL burden is usually estimated by determination of plasma LDL cholesterol level (LDL-C). Rare genetic mutations that cause reduced LDL receptor function lead to markedly higher LDL-C and a dose-dependent increase in the risk of ASCVD, whereas rare variants leading to lower LDL-C are associated with a correspondingly lower risk of ASCVD. Separate meta-analyses of over 200 prospective cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies, and randomized trials including more than 2 million participants with over 20 million person-years of follow-up and over 150 000 cardiovascular events demonstrate a remarkably consistent dose-dependent log-linear association between the absolute magnitude of exposure of the vasculature to LDL-C and the risk of ASCVD; and this effect appears to increase with increasing duration of exposure to LDL-C. Both the naturally randomized genetic studies and the randomized intervention trials consistently demonstrate that any mechanism of lowering plasma LDL particle concentration should reduce the risk of ASCVD events proportional to the absolute reduction in LDL-C and the cumulative duration of exposure to lower LDL-C, provided that the achieved reduction in LDL-C is concordant with the reduction in LDL particle number and that there are no competing deleterious off-target effects. Conclusion Consistent evidence from numerous and multiple different types of clinical and genetic studies unequivocally establishes that LDL causes ASCVD.
  • Roth, Eli M.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Merlet, Laurence; Pordy, Robert; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T. (2014)
  • Hilvo, Mika; Simolin, Helena; Metso, Jari; Ruuth, Maija; Öörni, Katariina; Jauhiainen, Matti; Laaksonen, Reijo; Baruch, Amos (2018)
    Background and aims: While inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is known to result in dramatic lowering of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), it is poorly understood how it affects other lipid species and their metabolism. The aim of this study was to characterize the alterations in the lipidome of plasma and lipoprotein particles after administration of PCSK9 inhibiting antibody to patients with established coronary heart disease. Methods: Plasma samples were obtained from patients undergoing a randomized placebo-controlled phase II trial (EQUATOR) for the safe and effective use of RG7652, a fully human monoclonal antibody inhibiting PCSK9 function. Lipoprotein fractions were isolated by sequential density ultracentrifugation, and both plasma and major lipoprotein classes (VLDL-IDL, LDL, HDL) were subjected to mass spectrometric lipidomic profiling. Results: PCSK9 inhibition significantly decreased plasma levels of several lipid classes, including sphingolipids (dihydroceramides, glucosylceramides, sphingomyelins, ceramides), cholesteryl esters and free cholesterol. Previously established ceramide ratios predicting cardiovascular mortality, or inflammation related eicosanoid lipids, were not altered. RG7652 treatment also affected the overall and relative distribution of lipids in lipoprotein classes. An overall decrease of total lipid species was observed in LDL and VLDL thorn IDL particles, while HDL-associated phospholipids increased. Following the treatment, LDL displayed reduced lipid cargo, whereas relative lipid proportions of the VLDL thorn IDL particles were mostly unchanged, and there were relatively more lipids carried in the HDL particles. Conclusions: Administration of PCSK9 antibody significantly alters the lipid composition of plasma and lipoprotein particles. These changes further shed light on the link between anti-PCSK9 therapies and cardiovascular risk. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Robinson, Jennifer G.; Farnier, Michel; Kastelein, John J. P.; Roth, Eli M.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Colhoun, Helen M.; Brunet, Aurelie; DiCioccio, A. Thomas; Lecorps, Guillaume; Pordy, Robert; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T.; Cannon, Christopher P. (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Alirocumab is a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). OBJECTIVE: Changes in PCSK9, alirocumab, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were assessed after treatment with alirocumab at doses of 75 or 150 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W). METHODS: Data were analyzed from 4 phase 3 trials (MONO; COMBO II; FH I; LONG TERM); all but MONO enrolled patients on statins. Three trials evaluated alirocumab 75 mg Q2W, with possible dose increase to 150 mg Q2W at week 12 based on week 8 LDL-C; LONG TERM studied alirocumab 150 mg Q2W. RESULTS: Patients on background statin therapy had higher mean baseline free PCSK9 concentrations vs patients not on statin. After alirocumab administration, increased alirocumab concentrations were associated with dramatic reductions in circulating free PCSK9, resulting in significant LDL-C reductions and a corresponding increase in inactive PCSK9:alirocumab complex. Alirocumab dose increase was associated with a further lowering of PCSK9 and LDL-C. Patients with higher baseline LDL-C levels (>160 mg/dL) were more likely to have their dose increased. LDL-C reductions with alirocumab were consistent between patients with baseline PCSK9 levels above or below the median when the dose increase strategy was used. When started as alirocumab 150 mg Q2W, patients with PCSK9 levels above vs below the median had a greater LDL-C reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Alirocumab-induced changes in PCSK9 and LDL-C levels were consistent with the known physiologic relationship between PCSK9, LDL receptor, and LDL-C levels, as well as statin-induced increases in PCSK9 production. (C) 2019 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc.