Browsing by Subject "PD-1"

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  • Pollari, Marjukka; Pellinen, Teijo; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Leppä, Sirpa (2020)
    Objectives Testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (T-DLBCL) is a rare and aggressive extranodal lymphoma. We have previously shown that high content of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and PD-1 expressing TILs associate with better survival in T-DLBCL. In this study, we have further characterized distinct TIL subtypes and their proportions in association with patient demographics and survival. Methods We used multiplex immunohistochemistry to characterize TIL phenotypes, including cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs; CD8(+), OX40(+), Granzyme B+, Ki-67(+), LAG-3(+), TIM-3(+), PD-1(+)), CD4(+)T-cells (CD3(+), CD4(+), TIM-3(+), LAG-3(+)), regulatory T-cells (Tregs; CD3(+), CD4(+), FoxP3(+)), and T helper 1 cells (Th1; CD3(+), CD4(+), T-bet(+)) in 79 T-DLBCLs, and correlated the findings with patient demographics and outcome. Results We observed a substantial variation in TIL phenotypes between the patients. The most prominent CD8(+)TILs were Ki-67(+)and TIM-3(+)CTLs, whereas the most prominent CD4(+)TILs were FoxP3(+)Tregs. Despite the overall favorable prognostic impact of high TIL content, we found a subpopulation of T-bet(+)FoxP3(+)Tregs that had a significant adverse impact on survival. Lower content of CTLs with activated or exhausted phenotypes correlated with aggressive clinical features. Conclusions Our results demonstrate significant variation in TIL phenotypes and emphasize the adverse prognostic impact of Tregs in T-DLBCL.
  • Iivanainen, Sanna; Ahvonen, Jarkko; Knuuttila, Aija; Tiainen, Satu; Koivunen, Jussi Pekka (2019)
    Background Anti-PD-(L)1 agents are standard of care treatments in various cancers but predictive factors for therapy selection are limited. We hypothesised that markers of systemic inflammation would predict adverse outcomes in multiple cancers treated with anti-PD-(L)1 agents. Material and methods Discovery cohort consisted of patients who were treated with anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) agents for advanced melanoma (MEL), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or renal and bladder cancers (GU) at Oulu University Hospital and had pretreatment C reactive protein (CRP), or neutrophil/lymphocyte values available. As a validation cohort, we collected patients treated with anti-PD-1 agents from three other hospitals in Finland. Results In the discovery cohort (n=56, MEL n=23, GU n=17, NSCLC n=16), elevated CRP over the upper limit of normal (ULN) (>10mg/mL) indicated poor progression-free (PFS; p=0.005) and overall survival (OS; p=0.000004) in the whole population and in MEL subgroup. Elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (>2.65) also indicated inferior PFS (p=0.02) and OS (p=0.009). In the validation cohort (n=107,MEL n=44, NSCLC n=42, GU n=17, other n=4), CRP over ULN also was a strong indicator for poor PFS (p=0.0000008), and OS (p=0.000006) in the whole population, and in MEL and NSCLC also. Conclusions Systemic inflammation suggested by elevated CRP is a very strong indicator for adverse prognosis on patients treated with anti-PD-(L)1 agents and has a potential negative predictive value for treatment with anti-PD-(L)1 agents. Prospective trials should investigate whether patients with elevated CRP gain any significant benefit from anti-PD-1 therapy.
  • Ahtiainen, Maarit; Elomaa, Hanna; Vayrynen, Juha P.; Wirta, Erkki-Ville; Kuopio, Teijo; Helminen, Olli; Seppala, Toni T.; Kellokumpu, Ilmo; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka (2021)
    Simple Summary Metastasis is the main cause for cancer mortality. The most common metastatic sites of colorectal cancer (CRC) are the liver and lungs. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes are recognized as beneficial prognostic factors both in primary and metastatic CRC, but less is known about their reciprocal differences. The aim of our study was to evaluate immune microenvironment and its prognostic value in a series of mismatch proficient (pMMR) CRC with matched liver and lung metastases. The proportion of tumours with high immune cell infiltration together with PD-L1-positivity almost doubled in metastases compared to primary tumours. Our study confirmed the prognostic value of high ICS in least immune-infiltrated metastases in pMMR CRC patients. Major differences observed in immune contexture between primary tumours and metastases may have significance for treatment strategies for patients with advanced CRC. Purpose: To evaluate immune cell infiltration, the programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) expression and their prognostic value in a series of mismatch proficient (pMMR) CRC with matched liver and lung metastases. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections stained for CD3, CD8, PD-L1 and PD-1 from 113 primary CRC tumours with 105 liver and 59 lung metastases were analyzed. The amount of CD3 and CD8 positive lymphocytes were combined as immune cell score (ICS). Comparative analyses on immune contexture were performed both between the primary tumour and matched metastases and between the metastatic sites. Results: In liver metastases, immune cell infiltration was increased in general compared to primary tumours but did not correlate case by case. On the contrary, ICS between lung metastases and primary tumours correlated well, but the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 was increased in lung metastases. The proportion of tumours with high ICS together with PD-L1-positivity almost doubled in metastases (39%) compared to primary tumours (20%). High ICS (compared to lowest) in patient's least immune-infiltrated metastasis was an independent prognostic marker for disease-specific (HR 9.14, 95%CI 2.81-29.68) and overall survival (HR 6.95, 95%CI 2.30-21.00). Conclusions: Our study confirms the prognostic value of high ICS in least immune-infiltrated metastases in pMMR CRC patients. Major differences observed in immune contexture between primary tumours and metastases may have significance for treatment strategies for patients with advanced CRC.
  • Vesterinen, Tiina; Kuopio, Teijo; Ahtiainen, Maarit; Knuuttila, Aija; Mustonen, Harri; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Arola, Johanna; Haglund, Caj (2019)
    Pulmonary carcinoid (PC) tumors are rare tumors that account for approximately 1% of all lung cancers. The primary treatment option is surgery, while there is no standard treatment for metastatic disease. As the number of PCs diagnosed yearly is increasing, there is a need to establish novel therapeutic options. This study aimed to investigate programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in PC tumors since blocking of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is a promising therapeutic option in various other malignancies. A total of 168 PC patients treated between 1990 and 2013 were collected from the Finnish biobanks. After re-evaluation of the tumors, 131 (78%) were classified as typical carcinoid (TC) and 37 (22%) as atypical carcinoid (AC) tumors. Primary tumor samples were immunohistochemically labeled for PD-1, PD-L1 and CD8. High PD-1 expression was detected in 16% of the tumors. PD-L1 expression was detected in 7% of TC tumors; all AC tumors were PD-L1 negative. PD-L1 expression was associated with mediastinal lymph-node metastasis at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.021) as well as overall metastatic potential of the tumor (P = 0.010). Neither PD-1 expression, PD-L1 expression nor CD8(+) T cell density was associated with survival. In conclusion, PD-1 and PD-L1 were expressed in a small proportion of PC tumors and PD-L1 expression was associated with metastatic disease. Targeting of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway with immune checkpoint inhibitors may thus offer a treatment option for a subset of PC patients.
  • Szeto, Säde (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Ohutsuolisyöpä on harvinainen ruoansulatuskanavan syöpä, jonka ennuste on huono, sillä se yleensä havaitaan vasta pitkälle edenneenä lievien ja epäspesifien oireiden vuoksi. Adenokarsinooma on toiseksi yleisin syövän histologinen alatyyppi, joka esiintyy ohutsuolessa. Useissa eri syövissä elimistön immuunipuolustusreaktion voimakkuutta on käytetty syöpien ennustetta arvioidessa. T-lymfosyyttien (CD3+, CD8+) määrästä ja sijainnista muodostettavaa Immune Cell Score (ICS)-pisteytysjärjestelmää voidaan käyttää syövissä, kuten paksusuolisyövässä, perinteisen TNM-luokituksen ohella, ennusteellisena työkaluna. Sen sijaan immuunivastetta hiljentävästä PD-1/PD-L1- reitin aktivaatiosta syövän ennusteellisena tekijänä on ristiriitaista näyttöä. Ohutsuolen adenokarsinoomassa immunologisten parametrien ennusteellista arvoa ei ole juuri aiemmin arvioitu. Tavoitteenamme oli arvioida syövän ympäristössä esiintyvien tulehdussolujen piirteiden korrelaatiota taudin ennusteeseen. Analysoimme syöpäkasvaimien sytotoksisten T-lymfosyyttien (CD3+, CD8+) tiheydet syöpäsolukossa sekä terveen kudoksen ja syöpäkudoksen rajalla. Näiden perusteella luokittelimme syöpäkasvaimet Immune Cell Score-luokkiin Vertasimme Immune Cell Scoren vaikutusta taudin ennusteeseen. Lisäksi analysoimme PD-1 ja PD-L1 ilmentymistä syöpään tunkeutuvien tulehdussolujen ja syöpäsolujen pinnalla. PD-1/PD-L1 ilmentymisen vaikutusta vertasimme taudin tautispesifiin- ja kokonaiselossaoloon. Muodostimme edelleen näistä kolmesta immunologisesta parametrista (ICS, PD-1 ja PD-L1) syövälle Immunoprofiilin ja arvioimme Immunoprofiili-luokan vaikutusta taudin ennusteeseen. Yksittäisinä muuttujina PD-1:n voimakas ilmentyminen, PD-L1:n runsas ilmentyminen syövän sisään tunkeutuvissa tulehdussoluissa ja korkea Immune Cell Score vaikuttivat myönteisesti tautikohtaiseen- ja kokonaisennusteeseen. Pelkästään voimakas PD-L1:n ilmentyminen syöpäsolukkoon tunkeutuvien tulehdussolujen pinnalla osoitti itsenäistä ennusteellista arvoa monimuuttuja-analyysissä. Lisäksi korkea Immunoprofiili-luokka antoi merkityksellistä informaatiota taudin ennusteesta.
  • Peltonen, Karita; Feola, Sara; Umer, Husen M.; Chiaro, Jacopo; Mermelekas, Georgios; Ylösmaki, Erkko; Pesonen, Sari; Branca, Rui M. M.; Lehtiö, Janne; Cerullo, Vincenzo (2021)
    Simple Summary Immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment, yet many tumors remain resistant to current immuno-oncology therapies. Here we explore a novel, customized oncolytic adenovirus vaccine platform as immunotherapy in a resistant tumor model. We present a workflow for customizing the oncolytic vaccine for improved tumor targeting. This targeting is based on experimentally discovered tumor antigens, which are incorporated as active components of the vaccine formulation. The pipeline may be further applied for designing personalized therapeutic cancer vaccines. Knowledge of clinically targetable tumor antigens is becoming vital for broader design and utility of therapeutic cancer vaccines. This information is obtained reliably by directly interrogating the MHC-I presented peptide ligands, the immunopeptidome, with state-of-the-art mass spectrometry. Our manuscript describes direct identification of novel tumor antigens for an aggressive triple-negative breast cancer model. Immunopeptidome profiling revealed 2481 unique antigens, among them a novel ERV antigen originating from an endogenous retrovirus element. The clinical benefit and tumor control potential of the identified tumor antigens and ERV antigen were studied in a preclinical model using two vaccine platforms and therapeutic settings. Prominent control of established tumors was achieved using an oncolytic adenovirus platform designed for flexible and specific tumor targeting, namely PeptiCRAd. Our study presents a pipeline integrating immunopeptidome analysis-driven antigen discovery with a therapeutic cancer vaccine platform for improved personalized oncolytic immunotherapy.
  • Harjunpää, H.; Guillerey, C. (2020)
    T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is an inhibitory receptor expressed on lymphocytes that was recently propelled under the spotlight as a major emerging target in cancer immunotherapy. TIGIT interacts with CD155 expressed on antigen-presenting cells or tumour cells to down-regulate T cell and natural killer (NK) cell functions. TIGIT has emerged as a key inhibitor of anti-tumour responses that can hinder multiple steps of the cancer immunity cycle. Pre-clinical studies indicated that TIGIT blockade may protect against various solid and haematological cancers. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that block the inhibitory activity of human TIGIT have been developed. Clinical trials are ongoing, investigating TIGIT blockade as a monotherapy or in combination with anti-PD1/PD-L1 mAbs for the treatment of patients with advanced solid malignancies. In this review, we cover our current knowledge on TIGIT, from its discovery in 2009 to its current status as a clinical target.