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  • Brunham, Robert C.; Paavonen, Jorma (2020)
    Gynecological and obstetrical infectious diseases are an important component of women's health. A system approach to gynecological and obstetrical infection helps unify and classify microbial etiology and pathogenesis within a clinical anatomical framework of lower and upper genital tract syndromes. The reproductive system of women includes the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. During pregnancy, additional tissues include the chorioamnion and placenta together with the fetus and amniotic fluid. We review in two parts reproductive system infection syndromes in women using selected research results to illustrate the clinical utility of the system approach in terms of diagnosis, treatment and prevention. We conclude that a reproductive system perspective will lead to improvements in understanding, management and prevention of these diseases.
  • Brunham, Robert C.; Paavonen, Jorma (2020)
    Lower genital tract infection and bloodborne spread of infection are the two principal modes for infection of the upper genital tract or for infection of the fetus, neonate or infant. Treponema pallidum and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the two most common bloodborne pathogens that infect the fetus, neonate or infant. Most infections of the upper genital tract, however, spread along epithelial surfaces from the vagina or cervix to the upper genital tract or chorioamnion, fetus, neonate or infant. These infections are caused by either pathogens associated with a dysbiotic vaginal microbiome or those that are sexually transmitted. The clinical syndromes that these pathogens produce in the lower genital tract were discussed in part one of this review. We now discuss the syndromes and pathogens that affect the upper genital tract of both non-pregnant and pregnant women as well as fetus, neonate and infant.
  • Sartelli, Massimo; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Labricciosa, Francesco M.; Hardcastle, Timothy; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.; Adesunkanmi, Abdulrashid K.; Ansaloni, Luca; Bala, Miklosh; Balogh, Zsolt J.; Beltran, Marcelo A.; Ben-Ishay, Offir; Biffl, Walter L.; Birindelli, Arianna; Cainzos, Miguel A.; Catalini, Gianbattista; Ceresoli, Marco; Jusoh, Asri Che; Chiara, Osvaldo; Coccolini, Federico; Coimbra, Raul; Cortese, Francesco; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Di Saverio, Salomone; Diaz, Jose J.; Egiev, Valery N.; Ferrada, Paula; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Ghnnam, Wagih M.; Lee, Jae Gil; Gomes, Carlos A.; Hecker, Andreas; Herzog, Torsten; Kim, Jae Il; Inaba, Kenji; Isik, Arda; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kashuk, Jeffry; Khokha, Vladimir; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Kluger, Yoram; Koike, Kaoru; Kong, Victor Y.; Leppäniemi, Ari; Machain, Gustavo M.; Maier, Ronald V.; Marwah, Sanjay; McFarlane, Michael E.; Montori, Giulia; Moore, Ernest E.; Negoi, Ionut; Olaoye, Iyiade; Omari, Abdelkarim H.; Ordonez, Carlos A.; Pereira, Bruno M.; Pereira Junior, Gerson A.; Pupelis, Guntars; Reis, Tarcisio; Sakakhushev, Boris; Sato, Norio; Lohse, Helmut A. Segovia; Shelat, Vishal G.; Soreide, Kjetil; Uhl, Waldemar; Ulrych, Jan; Van Goor, Harry; Velmahos, George C.; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Wani, Imtiaz; Weber, Dieter G.; Zachariah, Sanoop K.; Catena, Fausto (2017)
    Intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) are common surgical emergencies and have been reported as major contributors to non-trauma deaths in the emergency departments worldwide. The cornerstones of effective treatment of IAIs are early recognition, adequate source control, and appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Prompt resuscitation of patients with ongoing sepsis is of utmost important. In hospitals worldwide, non-acceptance of, or lack of access to, accessible evidence-based practices and guidelines result in overall poorer outcome of patients suffering IAIs. The aim of this paper is to promote global standards of care in IAIs and update the 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections.