Browsing by Subject "PEP"

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  • Luoto, Sanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The literature review dealt with celiac-toxic Triticeae prolamins and their enzymatic degradation. Also the immunochemical methods for prolamin analysis were introduced. The gluten-derived immunogenic peptides are proline-rich and thereby remarkably resistant to proteolytic degradation. Most of the triggering prolamins can, however, be degraded by combining endogenous cereal enzyme activity with acidic incubation. Despite of this residual prolamins still exist and their concentration exceeds the threshold considered to be safe for gluten intolerants. The objective of the experimental work was to further hydrolyse the residual prolamins present in malt autolysates of wheat, barley and rye, with a food grade proline endopeptidase from Aspergillus niger (AN-PEP). Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), free amino nitrogen (FAN) and SDS-PAGE analysis determined the extent of protein hydrolysis. Actual prolamin degradation was observed with immunological methods. Hydrolysis of residual prolamins was extensive in all malt systems – more than 96% of the prolamins were hydrolysed. The SEC and FAN data revealed that continuation of the hydrolysis overnight converted the polypeptides into smaller hydrolysis products. According to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses, 22 h incubation decreased the prolamin contents of wheat and rye malt hydrolysates below the level of 100 mg/kg. This level was achieved with AN-PEP concentration of 35 ?L/g in relation to freeze-dried autolysate. According to the Codex Alimentarius, food products containing gluten up to 100 mg/kg can be labelled 'very low gluten' and thus included in coeliac diet. AN-PEP treated rye malt ingredient could especially be a promising low-gluten ingredient to enhance the flavour of often poor-quality gluten-free bread. Before commercial applications can be devised the potential as a flavouring agent as well as the clinical safety of the product must be evaluated.
  • Koskensalo, Vilja; Aronen, Pasi; Färkkilä, Martti; Kylänpää, Leena; Lindström, Outi; Rainio, Mia; Udd, Marianne; Jokelainen, Kalle; Tenca, Andrea (2021)
    Introduction: Risk of post-ERC pancreatitis (PEP) in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is 1-7.8%. PSC is often associated with inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune hepatitis, which are usually treated with thiopurines. The role of thiopurines in PEP risk is still unclear. Aims and methods: We evaluated the thiopurine use in PEP. The data of 354 PSC patients who underwent 985 ERCs between 2009 and 2018 were collected. 177 patients treated with thiopurines (study group, SG) and 177 controls (CG) were matched with a propensity score (PSM). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and generalized linear mixed model were performed. The P-value < 0.05 was significant. Results: In matched data, 472 ERCs were performed in SG and 513 in CG. Thiopurines were used in 373/472 (79.0%) ERCs in SG. The PEP rate was 5.3% in SG and 5.7% in CG ( p = 0.889). Unintentional pancreatic duct cannulation (OR 1.28, 95%CI 1.07-1.51, p = 0.004), and periampullary diverticulum (OR 4.87, 95%CI 1.72-11.98, p = 0.001) increased the risk of PEP. Conclusion: Prior or present thiopurine use did not increase the risk of PEP. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( )