Browsing by Subject "PERCEIVED RISK"

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  • Vornanen, Marleena; Konttinen, Hanna; Peltonen, Markku; Haukkala, Ari (2021)
    Background Perceived disease risk may reflect actual risk indicators and/or motivation to change lifestyle. Yet, few longitudinal studies have assessed how perceived risk relates to risk indicators among different disease risk groups. We examined in a 5-year follow-up, whether perceived risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease predicted physical activity, body mass index (BMI kg/m(2)), and blood glucose level, or the reverse. We examined further whether perceived risk, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs together predicted changes in these risk indicators. Method Participants were high diabetes risk participants (N = 432) and low/moderate-risk participants (N = 477) from the national FINRISK 2002 study who were followed up in 2007. Both study phases included questionnaires and health examinations with individual feedback letters. Data were analyzed using gender- and age-adjusted structural equation models. Results In cross-lagged autoregressive models, perceived risks were not found to predict 5-year changes in physical activity, BMI, or 2-h glucose. In contrast, higher BMI and 2-h glucose predicted 5-year increases in perceived risks (beta-values 0.07-0.15,P-values <0.001-0.138). These associations were similar among high- and low/moderate-risk samples. In further structural equation models, higher self-efficacy predicted increased physical activity among both samples (beta-values 0.10-0.16,P-values 0.005-0.034). Higher outcome beliefs predicted lower BMI among the low/moderate-risk sample (beta-values - 0.04 to - 0.05,P-values 0.008-0.011). Conclusion Perceived risk of chronic disease rather follows risk indicators than predicts long-term lifestyle changes. To promote sustained lifestyle changes, future intervention studies need to examine the best ways to combine risk feedback with efficient behavior change techniques.
  • Kaskela, Jenni; Vainio, Annukka; Ollila, Sari; Lundén, Janne (2019)
    Disclosure systems for official food safety inspection results have been introduced in many countries including Finland in order to increase compliance of food business operators (FBOs). Although the disclosure systems are intended to affect FBOs, few studies have been published on FBOs' experiences of these systems. To investigate FBOs' opinions of disclosed food safety inspections in Finland, a questionnaire was distributed in 2016. The questionnaire study also aimed to recognize factors affecting compliance and disagreements about gradings with a special focus on FBOs' risk perception. In total 1277 responses from FBOs in retail (n = 523), service (n = 507) and industry (n = 247) sectors revealed that the majority of FBOs perceived the disclosure to promote correction of non-compliance. However, many FBOs disagreed with the grading of inspection findings. Most common topics of disagreements were maintenance of premises, record-keeping of own-check plan and adequacy and suitability of premises for operations. Logistic regression analysis showed that the likelihood of occurrence of disagreements with grading was higher among those retail and service FBOs with a lower risk perception. Similarly, the occurrence of non-compliance was associated with FBOs' risk perception in all sectors. Thus, FBOs need proper guidance on food safety risks. These results can be used to improve the efficacy of disclosed food safety inspections.