Browsing by Subject "PERFUSION"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-8 of 8
  • SICS Study Grp; Wiersema, Renske E.; Koeze, Jacqueline; Eck, Ruben J.; Vaara, Suvi T.; Van der Horst, Iwan C. C. (2020)
    Background Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in critically ill patients is associated with a markedly increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to establish the predictive value of clinical examination for AKI in critically ill patients. Methods This was a sub-study of the SICS-I, a prospective observational cohort study of critically ill patients acutely admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Clinical examination was performed within 24 hours of ICU admission. The occurrence of AKI was determined at day two and three after admission according to the KDIGO definition including serum creatinine and urine output. Multivariable regression modeling was used to assess the value of clinical examination for predicting AKI, adjusted for age, comorbidities and the use of vasopressors. Results A total of 1003 of 1075 SICS-I patients (93%) were included in this sub-study. 414 of 1003 patients (41%) fulfilled the criteria for AKI. Increased heart rate (OR 1.12 per 10 beats per minute increase, 98.5% CI 1.04-1.22), subjectively cold extremities (OR 1.52, 98.5% CI 1.07-2.16) and a prolonged capillary refill time on the sternum (OR 1.89, 98.5% CI 1.01-3.55) were associated with AKI. This multivariable analysis yielded an area under the receiver-operating curve (AUROC) of 0.70 (98.5% CI 0.66-0.74). The model performed better when lactate was included (AUROC of 0.72, 95%CI 0.69-0.75), P = .04. Conclusion Clinical examination findings were able to predict AKI with moderate accuracy in a large cohort of critically ill patients. Findings of clinical examination on ICU admission may trigger further efforts to help predict developing AKI.
  • Pirneskoski, Jussi; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Jeskanen, Petri; Linnamurto, Lari; Saikko, Simo; Nurmi, Jouni Onni Olavi (2013)
  • Hokkinen, Lasse M I; Mäkelä, Teemu Olavi; Savolainen, Sauli; Kangasniemi, Marko Matti (2021)
    Background Computed tomography angiography (CTA) imaging is needed in current guideline-based stroke diagnosis, and infarct core size is one factor in guiding treatment decisions. We studied the efficacy of a convolutional neural network (CNN) in final infarct volume prediction from CTA and compared the results to a CT perfusion (CTP)-based commercially available software (RAPID, iSchemaView). Methods We retrospectively selected 83 consecutive stroke cases treated with thrombolytic therapy or receiving supportive care that presented to Helsinki University Hospital between January 2018 and July 2019. We compared CNN-derived ischaemic lesion volumes to final infarct volumes that were manually segmented from follow-up CT and to CTP-RAPID ischaemic core volumes. Results An overall correlation of r = 0.83 was found between CNN outputs and final infarct volumes. The strongest correlation was found in a subgroup of patients that presented more than 9 h of symptom onset (r = 0.90). A good correlation was found between the CNN outputs and CTP-RAPID ischaemic core volumes (r = 0.89) and the CNN was able to classify patients for thrombolytic therapy or supportive care with a 1.00 sensitivity and 0.94 specificity. Conclusions A CTA-based CNN software can provide good infarct core volume estimates as observed in follow-up imaging studies. CNN-derived infarct volumes had a good correlation to CTP-RAPID ischaemic core volumes.
  • Bajc, M.; Chen, Y.; Wang, J.; Li, X. Y.; Shen, W. M.; Wang, C. Z.; Huang, H.; Lindqvist, A.; He, X. Y. (2017)
    Introduction: Airway obstruction and possible concomitant pulmonary diseases in COPD cannot be identified conventionally with any single diagnostic tool. We aimed to diagnose and grade COPD severity and identify pulmonary comorbidities associated with COPD with ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/P SPECT) using Technegas as the functional ventilation imaging agent. Methods: 94 COPD patients (aged 43-86 years, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages I-IV) were examined with V/P SPECT and spirometry. Ventilation and perfusion defects were analyzed blindly according to the European guidelines. Penetration grade of Technegas in V SPECT measured the degree of obstructive small airways disease. Total preserved lung function and penetration grade of Technegas in V SPECT were assessed by V/P SPECT and compared to GOLD stages and spirometry. Results: Signs of small airway obstruction in the ventilation SPECT images were found in 92 patients. Emphysema was identified in 81 patients. Two patients had no signs of COPD, but both of them had a pulmonary embolism, and in one of them we also suspected a lung tumor. The penetration grade of Technegas in V SPECT and total preserved lung function correlated significantly to GOLD stages (r=0.63 and -0.60, respectively, P <0.0001). V/P SPECT identified pulmonary embolism in 30 patients (32%). A pattern typical for heart failure was present in 26 patients (28%). Parenchymal changes typical for pneumonia or lung tumor were present in several cases. Conclusion: V/P SPECT, using Technegas as the functional ventilation imaging agent, is a new tool to diagnose COPD and to grade its severity. Additionally, it revealed heterogeneity of COPD caused by pulmonary comorbidities. The characteristics of these comorbidities suggest their significant impact in clarifying symptoms, and also their influence on the prognosis.
  • Nammas, Wail; de Belder, Adam; Niemela, Matti; Sia, Jussi; Romppanen, Hannu; Laine , Mika; Karjalainen, Pasi P. (2017)
    Background: The BASE ACS trial demonstrated an outcome of titanium-nitride-oxide-coated bioactive stents (BAS) that was non-inferior to everolimus-eluting stents (EES) in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We performed a post hoc analysis of elderly versus non-elderly patients from the BASE ACS trial. Methods: We randomized 827 patients (1:1) presenting with ACS to receive either BAS or EES. The primary end-point was major adverse cardiac events (MACE): a composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), or ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization (TLR). Follow-up was planned at 12 months and yearly thereafter for up to 7 years. Elderly age was defined as >= 65 years. Results: Of the 827 patients enrolled in the BASE ACS trial, 360 (43.5%) were elderly. Mean follow-up duration was 4.2 +/- 1.9 years. MACE was more frequent in elderly versus younger patients (19.7% versus 12.0%, respectively, p = 0.002), probably driven by more frequent cardiac death and non-fatal MI events (5.3% versus 1.5%, and 9.7% versus 4.5%, p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). The rates of ischemia-driven TLR were comparable (p > 0.05). In propensity score-matched analysis (215 pairs), only cardiac death was more frequent in elderly patients (6% versus 1.4%, respectively, p = 0.01). Diabetes independently predicted both MACE and cardiac death in elderly patients. Conclusions: Elderly patients treated with stent implantation for ACS had worse long-term clinical outcome, compared with younger ones, mainly due to a higher death rate. (C) 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Laurila, Sanna; Rebelos, Eleni; Lahesmaa, Minna; Sun, Lihua; Schnabl, Katharina; Peltomaa, Tia-Mari; Klen, Riku; U-Din, Mueez; Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Eskola, Olli; Kirjavainen, Anna K.; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Klingenspor, Martin; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; Nuutila, Pirjo (2022)
    The cardiac benefits of gastrointestinal hormones have been of interest in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the myocardial and renal effects of the gastrointestinal hormone secretin in the GUTBAT trial (NCT03290846). A placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted on 15 healthy males in fasting conditions, where subjects were blinded to the intervention. Myocardial glucose uptake was measured with [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-o-glucose ([F-18]FDG) positron emission tomography. Kidney function was measured with [F-18]FDG renal clearance and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Secretin increased myocardial glucose uptake compared with placebo (secretin vs. placebo, means +/- SD, 15.5 +/- 7.4 vs. 9.7 +/- 4.9 gmol/100 g/min, 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.2, 9.4], P = 0.004). Secretin also increased [F-18]FDG renal clearance (44.5 +/- 5.4 vs. 39.5 8.5 mL/min, 95%CI [1.9, 8.1], P = 0.004), and eGFR was significantly increased from baseline after secretin, compared with placebo (17.8 +/- 9.8 vs. 6.0 +/- 5.2 Delta mL/min/1.73 m(2),( ) 95%CI [6.0, 17.6], P = 0.001). Our results implicate that secretin increases heart work and renal filtration, making it an interesting drug candidate for future studies in heart and kidney failure. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Secretin increases myocardial glucose uptake compared with placebo, supporting a previously proposed inotropic effect. Secretin also increased renal filtration rate.
  • Vainio, Tuomas J V; Mäkelä, Teemu Olavi; Savolainen, Sauli; Kangasniemi, Marko Matti (2021)
    Background Chronic pulmonary embolism (CPE) is a life-threatening disease easily misdiagnosed on computed tomography. We investigated a three-dimensional convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm for detecting hypoperfusion in CPE from computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Methods Preoperative CTPA of 25 patients with CPE and 25 without pulmonary embolism were selected. We applied a 48%-12%-40% training-validation-testing split (12 positive and 12 negative CTPA volumes for training, 3 positives and 3 negatives for validation, 10 positives and 10 negatives for testing). The median number of axial images per CTPA was 335 (min-max, 111-570). Expert manual segmentations were used as training and testing targets. The CNN output was compared to a method in which a Hounsfield unit (HU) threshold was used to detect hypoperfusion. Receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) and Matthew correlation coefficient (MCC) were calculated with their 95% confidence interval (CI). Results The predicted segmentations of CNN showed AUC 0.87 (95% CI 0.82-0.91), those of HU-threshold method 0.79 (95% CI 0.74-0.84). The optimal global threshold values were CNN output probability >= 0.37 and
  • Päivärinta, Johanna; Oikonen, Vesa; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Tolvanen, Tuula; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Hidehiro, Iida; Nuutila, Pirjo; Metsärinne, Kaj; Koivuviita, Niina (2019)
    Background Despite improvement in short-term outcome of kidney transplants, the long-term survival of kidney transplants has not changed over past decades. Kidney biopsy is the gold standard of transplant pathology but it's invasive. Quantification of transplant blood flow could provide a novel non-invasive method to evaluate transplant pathology. The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional pilot study was to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) as a method to measure kidney transplant perfusion and find out if there is correlation between transplant perfusion and histopathology. Methods Renal cortical perfusion of 19 kidney transplantation patients [average time from transplantation 33 (17-54) months; eGFR 55 (47-69) ml/min] and 10 healthy controls were studied by [(15) O]H2O PET. Perfusion and Doppler resistance index (RI) of transplants were compared with histology of one-year protocol transplant biopsy. Results Renal cortical perfusion of healthy control subjects and transplant patients were 2.7 (2.4-4.0) ml min(- 1) g(- 1) and 2.2 (2.0-3.0) ml min(- 1) g(- 1), respectively (p = 0.1). Renal vascular resistance (RVR) of the patients was 47.0 (36.7-51.4) mmHg mL(- 1)min(- 1)g(- 1) and that of the healthy 32.4 (24.6-39.6) mmHg mL(- 1)min(-1)g(-1) (p = 0.01). There was a statistically significant correlation between Doppler RI and perfusion of transplants (r = - 0.51, p = 0.026). Transplant Doppler RI of the group of mild fibrotic changes [0.73 (0.70-0.76)] and the group of no fibrotic changes [0.66 (0.61-0.72)] differed statistically significantly (p = 0.03). No statistically significant correlation was found between cortical perfusion and fibrosis of transplants (p = 0.56). Conclusions [(15) O]H2O PET showed its capability as a method in measuring perfusion of kidney transplants. RVR of transplant patients with stage 2-3 chronic kidney disease was higher than that of the healthy, although kidney perfusion values didn't differ between the groups. Doppler based RI correlated with perfusion and fibrosis of transplants.