Browsing by Subject "PERIOD"

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  • Niemi, Riitta; Vilar, Maria J; Dohoo, I.R.; Hovinen, Mari; Simojoki, Heli; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi Johanna (2020)
    Antibiotic dry cow therapy (DCT) is an important part of most mastitis control programs. Updating DCT recommendations is an ongoing topic due to the global problem of antimicrobial resistance. Finland, along with other Nordic countries, has implemented selective DCT for decades. Our study analyzed Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) information from 241 Finnish farmers who participated in a survey about their drying-off practices. The aim was to evaluate herd-level associations between milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk production, and various antimicrobial DCT approaches both cross-sectionally in 2016 and longitudinally in 2012 - 2016. The three DCT approaches in the study were selective, blanket, and no DCT use. An additional aim was to evaluate whether dynamic changes occurred in herd-average SCC and annual milk production over five years, and whether these potential changes differed between different DCT approaches. The method for the longitudinal analyses was growth modeling with random coefficient models. Differences in SCC and milk production between farms with different DCT approaches were minor. Regardless of the farm's DCT approach, annual milk production increased over the years, while average SCC was reasonably constant. The variability in SCC and milk production across all DCT groups was low between years, and most of the variability was between farms. Compared to other milking systems, farms with automatic milking system (AMS) had higher SCC, and in 2016 higher milk production. The results of this study suggest that it is possible to maintain low herd-average SCC and good milk production when using selective DCT and following the guidelines for prudent antimicrobial use. Average SCC and milk production varied across the herds, suggesting that advice on DCT practices should be herd-specific. The methodology of growth modeling using random coefficient models was applicable in analyzing longitudinal data, in which the time frame was relatively short and the number of herds was limited.
  • Virtanen, Suvi; Sidorchuck, Anna; Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Brander, Gustaf; Lichtenstein, Paul; Latvala, Antti; Mataix-Cols, David (2021)
    BACKGROUND: It remains unclear if individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD) have an elevated risk of subsequent substance misuse. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we investigated the association between ICD diagnoses of TS/CTD and substance misuse outcomes, accounting for psychiatric comorbidity and familial factors. The cohort included all individuals living in Sweden at any time between January 1, 1973, and December 31, 2013. Substance misuse outcomes were defined as an ICD code of substance use-related disorder or cause of death, or as a substance use-related criminal conviction in the nationwide registers. RESULTS: The cohort included 14,277,199 individuals, of whom 7832 had a TS/CTD diagnosis (76.3% men). TS/CTD was associated with an increased risk of any subsequent substance misuse outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 3.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.94-3.29), including alcohol-related disorder (aHR, 3.45; 95% CI, 3.19-3.72), drug-related disorder (aHR, 6.84; 95% CI, 6.32-7.40), substance-related criminal convictions (aHR, 2.56; 95% CI, 2.36-2.77), and substance-related death (aHR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.83-3.52). Excluding psychiatric comorbidities had little effect on the magnitude of the associations, with the exception of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, which attenuated the risk of any substance misuse outcomes (aHR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.82-2.19). The risk of any substance misuse outcomes in individuals with TS/CTD was substantially attenuated but remained significant when compared with their unaffected siblings (aHR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.53-1.97). CONCLUSIONS: TS/CTD were associated with various types of subsequent substance misuse outcomes, independently of psychiatric comorbidity and familial factors shared between siblings. Screening for drug and alcohol use should become part of the standard clinical routines, particularly in patients with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
  • Toledo, Miriam; Batista-Gonzalez, Ana; Merheb, Emilio; Aoun, Marie Louise; Tarabra, Elena; Feng, Daorong; Sarparanta, Jaakko; Merlo, Paola; Botre, Francesco; Schwartz, Gary J.; Pessin, Jeffrey E.; Singh, Rajat (2018)
    The circadian clock coordinates behavioral and circadian cues with availability and utilization of nutrients. Proteasomal degradation of clock repressors, such as cryptochrome (CRY) 1, maintains periodicity. Whether macroautophagy, a quality control pathway, degrades circadian proteins remains unknown. Here we show that circadian proteins BMAL1, CLOCK, REV-ERB alpha, and CRY1 are lysosomal targets, and that macroautophagy affects the circadian clock by selectively degrading CRY1. Autophagic degradation of CRY1, an inhibitor of gluconeogenesis, occurs in a diurnal window when rodents rely on gluconeogenesis, suggesting that CRY1 degradation is timeimprinted to maintenance of blood glucose. High-fat feeding accelerates autophagic CRY1 degradation and contributes to obesity-associated hyperglycemia. CRY1 contains several light chain 3 (LC3)-interacting region (LIR) motifs, which facilitate the interaction of cargo proteins with the autophagosome marker LC3. Using mutational analyses, we identified two distinct LIRs on CRY1 that exert circadian glycemic control by regulating CRY1 degradation, revealing LIRs as potential targets for controlling hyperglycemia.
  • Virtanen, Suvi; Kaprio, Jaakko; Viken, Richard; Rose, Richard J.; Latvala, Antti (2019)
    Aims To estimate birth cohort effects on alcohol consumption and abstinence in Finland and to test differences between birth cohorts in genetic and environmental sources of variation in Finnish adult alcohol use. Design The Older Finnish Twin Cohort longitudinal survey study 1975-2011. Setting Finland. Participants A total of 26 121 same-sex twins aged 18-95 years (full twin pairs at baseline n = 11 608). Measurements Outcome variables were the quantity of alcohol consumption (g/month) and abstinence (drinking zero g/month). Predictor variables were 10-year birth cohort categories and socio-demographic covariates. In quantitative genetic models, two larger cohorts (born 1901-20 and 1945-57) were compared. Findings Multi-level models in both sexes indicated higher levels of alcohol consumption in more recent birth cohorts and lower levels in earlier cohorts, compared with twins born 1921-30 (all P < 0.003). Similarly, compared with twins born 1921-30, abstaining was more common in earlier and less common in more recent cohorts (all P < 0.05), with the exception of men born 1911-20. Birth cohort differences in the genetic and environmental variance components in alcohol consumption were found: heritability was 21% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0-56%] in the earlier-born cohort of women [mean age 62.8, standard deviation (SD) = 5.3] and 51% (95% CI = 36-56%) in a more recent cohort (mean age 60.2, SD = 3.7) at the age of 54-74. For men, heritability was 39% (95% CI = 27-45%) in both cohorts. In alcohol abstinence, environmental influences shared between co-twins explained a large proportion of variation in the earlier-born cohort (43%, 95% CI = 23-63%), whereas non-shared environmental (54%, 95% CI = 39-72%) and additive genetic influences (40%, 95% CI = 13-61%) were more important among more recent cohorts of men and women. Conclusion The contribution of genetic and environmental variability to variability in alcohol consumption in the Finnish population appears to vary by birth cohort.
  • Jacob, Louis; Weber, Katherina; Sechet, Ingeborg; Macharey, Georg; Kostev, Karel; Ziller, Volker (2016)
    To analyze the impact of caesarean section (CS) on fertility and time to pregnancy in German gynecological practices. Women initially diagnosed for the first time with a vaginal delivery (VD) or CS between 2000 and 2013 were identified by 227 gynecologists in the IMS Disease Analyzer database. They were included if they were aged between 16 and 40 years, and were not previously diagnosed with female sterility. The two main outcomes were the first-time diagnosis of female sterility and the time between the first delivery and the next pregnancy within 10 years. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to predict these outcomes on the basis of patient characteristics. 6483 patients were included in the CS group and 6483 in the VD group. Mean age was 30.6 years and the proportion of individuals with private health insurance amounted to 9.0 %. Within 10 years of the index date, 19.5 % of women who delivered by CS and 18.3 % of women who delivered vaginally were diagnosed with sterility (p value = 0.0148). CS and polycystic ovary syndrome significantly increased the risk of sterility. Within 10 years of the index date, 57.9 % of women who underwent a CS and 64.0 % of women who delivered vaginally were pregnant for the second time (p value <0.001). CS, polycystic ovary syndrome, and the deterioration of menstrual cycle significantly decreased the chance of becoming pregnant a second time. CS is associated with an increased risk of sterility and a decreased number of subsequent pregnancies in Germany.
  • Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Jari; Kuula, Liisa; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Andersson, Sture; Strandberg, Timo; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2018)
    Objective: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed new genetic variants behind self-reported individual circadian preference, a distinct biological trait that is fairly stable during adulthood. In this study we analyze whether these genetic variants associate with objectively measured sleep timing from childhood to adolescence, over a nine-year period, with self-reported circadian preference during late adolescence. Methods: The participants (N = 100, 61% girls) came from a community cohort from Finland born in 1998. Sleep midpoint was measured with actigraphy at 8, 12 and 17 years. Circadian preference was self-reported at the age of 17 years. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were extracted at 12 years of age from the Illumina OmniExpress Exome 1.2 bead array data. Weighted polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were calculated based on top SNPs from a recent GWAS for morningness-eveningness in an adult population. Results: The PRS for circadian preference towards morningness was associated with earlier sleep midpoint from childhood to adolescence. When the time points were analyzed separately, the association between genetic tendency towards morning preference and earlier sleep midpoint was strongest among the 17-year-olds. Furthermore, the shift towards later sleep rhythm from early to late adolescence was milder for those with a higher PRS for morning preference. PRS for morning preference was also associated with self-reported circadian preference towards morningness in late adolescence. Conclusion: Our results suggest that genetic variants found for circadian preference in adults are already associated with objective sleep timing during childhood and adolescence, and predict individual developmental sleep trajectories from childhood onwards. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Vilar, M. J.; Rajala-Schultz, P. J. (2020)
    The cessation of milking at the end of lactation is a routine management practice in dairy herds, and the importance of the dry period for milk production and udder health, has long been recognized. Among countries and herds, drying-off practices differ and include various milk cessation methods, such as changes in milking frequency and in feeding, the use of antibiotic dry cow therapy and teat sealants, and changes in housing. Published studies reporting methods of stopping milk production are scarce, and there are no uniform recommendations on optimal procedures to dry cows off for good udder health, cow welfare, and milk production. This review describes methods to stop mik production to prepare cows for the dry period and their effects on mammary involution, udder health, and dairy cow welfare. Milk yield at dry-off (the final milking at the end of lactation) is important for rapid involution, which stimulates the immune system and promotes good udder health and cow welfare. Based on the findings of this review, gradual cessation of milking over several days before the final milking can effectively reduce milk yield at dry-off and accelerate mammary gland involution while maximizing cow comfort and welfare. Data from this review indicate a target production level of 15 kg/day of milk or less at dry-off. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Rajala-Schultz, P. J.; Gott, P. N.; Proudfoot, K. L.; Schuenemann, M. (2018)
    Drying cows off at the end of lactation is a routine management practice in dairy operations. Most dairies in the United States and many other countries dry cows off abruptly (e.g., stop milking cows on a set day), which has been shown to affect cow comfort. Gradually reducing milk production is another approach to dry cows off, routinely used in some countries and herds. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of abrupt and gradual milk cessation and milk yield at the time on cow activity after dry-off. Daily lying time, number of lying bouts per day, average lying bout length, and steps taken per day by abruptly and gradually dried-off cows were monitored by data loggers for 2 wk before and after the final milking at the end of lactation. Gradual cows were milked once daily for the last week of lactation, and abrupt cows were milked as usual (3 x /d) until the end of lactation. Gradual cessation of milking significantly reduced milk yield by the day of dry-off. After dry-off, gradual cows tended to have longer lying bouts than abrupt cows, but no other differences in cow activity between the 2 treatments were observed. Regardless of the dry-off method, the average length of a lying bout decreased by 4 min and total daily lying time decreased by 19 min after dry-off for each 5-kg increase in milk yield before dry-off. Lying behavior of primiparous cows was more affected by the level of milk yield at dry-off than that of older cows. A reduction in lying times with increasing milk yield may indicate discomfort due to the accumulating milk in the udder. Using a method that lowers milk production before dry-off and managing primiparous and multiparous cows separately around dry-off are beneficial for cow comfort after dry-off.
  • Jokela, Markus; García-Velázquez, Regina; Gluschkoff, Kia; Airaksinen, Jaakko; Rosenström, Tom (2020)
    Objectives Smoking rates have declined with a slower pace among those with psychological distress compared to those without. We examined whether other health behaviors (heavy alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, short sleep duration) showed similar trends associated with sychological distress. We also examined differences by age and birth cohort. Methods Data were from the annually repeated cross-sectional U.S. National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) of 1997-2016 (total n = 603,518). Psychological distress was assessed with the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). Results Psychological distress became more strongly associated with smoking (OR 1.09 per 10 years; 95% CI 1.07, 1.12), physical inactivity (OR 1.08; 1.05, 1.11), and short sleep (OR 1.12; 1.06, 1.18), but less strongly associated with heavy alcohol consumption (OR 0.93; 0.89, 0.98). The associations of smoking and alcohol consumption attenuated with age, whereas the association with physical inactivity strengthened with age. Compared to older birth cohorts, smoking became more strongly associated with psychological distress among younger birth cohorts up to those born in the 1980s. Conclusions The strength of associations between psychological distress and health behaviors may vary by time period, age, and birth cohort.
  • Laukkavirta, Minna; Nikulainen, Veikko; Blomgren, Karin; Helmiö, Päivi (2020)
    Background Patient injury claim data and insurance records constitute detailed sources of information on patient injuries and their contributing or causal factors. This study aimed to identify the unintended incidents that lead to patient injuries in vascular surgery in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in Finland. Methods The records of all accepted patient injury claims involving PAD between 2004 and 2017 inclusive were obtained from the nationwide Finnish Patient Insurance Centre registry and were reviewed. Factors contributing to injury were classified by patient careflow. Results Sixty-nine patient injury incidents were identified in 60 treated patients with PAD. Sixteen injuries (23.2%) were related to outpatient or preoperative care. Twenty-seven injuries (39.1%) were caused by incidents in performing open or endovascular procedures, and 26 injuries (37.7%) were related to postoperative care. Delay in treatment affected 11 (18.3%) patients. Incidents involving surgical technique were identified in the treatment of 13 (21.7%) patients. Retained foreign material caused injuries to four (6.7%) patients. Five (8.3%) patients suffered from postoperative hemorrhage and eleven (18.3%) from infection damage. Delay in treatment resulted in two major amputations. Technical problems in bypass operations led to the loss of the bypass graft and to reoperation. Three nerve injuries led to permanent disability. One (1.7%) patient died because of fatal postoperative bleeding after being discharged from the hospital. Conclusions Compensated patient injuries in the treatment of PAD are rare. Injuries occur during all stages of care and are caused by both surgical system procedural failures and common complications.
  • Ylinen, Vappu; Pylkkö, Päivi; Peura, Jussi; Tuomola, Essi; Valaja, Jarmo (2018)
    The effects of low-protein diets supplemented with DL-methionine (MET) and L-histidine (HIS) on growth, pelt size and pelt quality were studied in two performance trials conducted at the Kannus Research Farm Luova Ltd, Finland. Both trials were conducted with 200 blue foxes, caged male-female pairs, initial age on average 20 weeks (trial 1) and 25 weeks (trial 2). In trial 1, diets contained digestible crude protein (DCP) 24%, 20% and 16% of metabolisable energy (ME). In trial 2, diets contained DCP 20%, 16.5% and 13% of ME. In both trials, the middle protein level was fed with or without MET and the lowest protein level was fed with MET and with or without HIS. In trial 1, blue foxes showed the greatest average daily gain (ADG) in the highest protein diet. Pelt size and pelt quality were not affected. In trial 2, blue foxes showed the greatest ADG in the low-protein groups. Pelt size and pelt quality were not affected.
  • Nelskylä, Annika; Nurmi, Jouni; Jousi, Milla; Schramko, Alexey; Mervaala, Eero; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Skrifvars, Markus (2017)
    Background and aim: We hypothesised that the use of 50% compared to 100% oxygen maintains cerebral oxygenation and ameliorates the disturbance of cardiac mitochondrial respiration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Methods: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced electrically in anaesthetised healthy adult pigs and left untreated for seven minutes followed by randomisation to manual ventilation with 50% or 100% oxygen and mechanical chest compressions (LUCAS (R)). Defibrillation was performed at thirteen minutes and repeated if necessary every two minutes with 1 mg intravenous adrenaline. Cerebral oxygenation was measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (rSO(2), INVOS (TM) 5100C Cerebral Oximeter) and with a probe (NEUROVENT-PTO, RAUMEDIC) in the frontal brain cortex (PbO2). Heart biopsies were obtained 20 min after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) with an analysis of mitochondrial respiration (OROBOROS Instruments Corp., Innsbruck, Austria), and compared to four control animals without VF and CPR. Brain rSO(2) and PbO2 were log transformed and analysed with a mixed linear model and mitochondrial respiration with an analysis of variance. Results: Of the twenty pigs, one had a breach of protocol and was excluded, leaving nine pigs in the 50% group and ten in the 100% group. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved in six pigs in the 50% group and eight in the 100% group. The rSO(2) (p = 0.007) was lower with FiO(2) 50%, but the PbO2 was not (p = 0.93). After ROSC there were significant interactions between time and FiO(2) regarding both rSO(2) (p = 0.001) and PbO2 (p = 0.004). Compared to the controls, mitochondrial respiration was decreased, with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) levels of 57 (17) pmol s(-1) mg(-1) compared to 92 (23) pmol s(-1) mg(-1) (p = 0.008), but there was no difference between different oxygen fractions (p = 0.79). Conclusions: The use of 50% oxygen during CPR results in lower cerebral oximetry values compared to 100% oxygen but there is no difference in brain tissue oxygen. Cardiac arrest disturbs cardiac mitochondrial respiration, but it is not alleviated with the use of 50% compared to 100% oxygen (Ethical and hospital approvals ESAVI/1077/04.10.07/2016 and HUS/215/2016, 7 30.3.2016, Funding Helsinki University and others). (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.